Waterfowl Agents

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< > LIST OF AGENTS ASSOCIATED WITH DISEASE IN WATERFOWL (LARGE "LIST-PAGE" - wait to load, then scroll down)

This list page enables you to scroll down the agents associated with disease in waterfowl; the agents are grouped together with similar agents e.g. all nematodes are in the group "Roundworms, Acanthocephalans, Tapeworms & Flukes", and arranged by alphabetical order within the groups.

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BIOLOGICAL (SPECIES) AGENTS

CHEMICAL AGENTS

Please note - alternative names for diseases and agents are provided next to the hyperlinks.

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BIOLOGICAL (SPECIES) AGENTS
Virus Types affecting Waterfowl

CAUSAL ORGANISMS (Synonyms)

DISEASE (Synonyms)

  • Reovirus Infection (Infection Myocarditis of Geese, Myocarditis Virus Infection of Geese, Muscovy Duck Reovirus Infection.)
  • Avian Reticuloendotheliosis virus: Retroviridae(Duck infectious anaemia virus, Spleen necrosis virus, Twiehaus-strain reticuloendotheliosis virus, C-type retrovirus Reticuloendotheliosis Virus Hungary-2 (REV-H-2))
  • Avian Pox (Poxvirus infection, Fowl pox, Contagious epithelioma, Avian diphtheria (‘wet’ form of avian pox), Molluscum contagiosum, Geflugelpocken, Virula aviare, Variole aviare)
  • Duck Enteritis Virus: Herpesviridae(Duck enteritis herpesvirus (DEHV), Duck enteritis virus (DEV), Duck plague virus, Anatid Herpesvirus, Avian herpesvirus 2)
  • Duck Plague (Duck virus enteritis, DVE, Anatid herpesvirus infection, Avian herpesvirus type 2 infection, Peste du canard, L’entérite ŕ virus du canard, Eendenpest, Entenpest)
  • Adenovirus Infection (Egg drop syndrome 76 (EDS-76), Haemagglutinating adenovirus infection, Avian adenovirus 127 infection, Muscovy duck adenovirus infection)
  • Adenovirus Infection (Egg drop syndrome 76 (EDS-76), Haemagglutinating adenovirus infection, Avian adenovirus 127 infection, Muscovy duck adenovirus infection)
  • Dead-in-Shell
  • Avian Pox (Poxvirus infection, Fowl pox, Contagious epithelioma, Avian diphtheria (‘wet’ form of avian pox), Molluscum contagiosum, Geflugelpocken, Virula aviare, Variole aviare)
  • Goose Parvovirus Infection (Derzsy's Disease, Parvovirus infection of geese, Parvovirus infection of Muscovy ducks, Muscovy duck parvovirus, Goose viral hepatitis, Goose influenza, ‘so-called goose influenza, Goose plague, Gosling plague, Goose enteritis, Infectious myocarditis, Ascitic-hepato-nephritis)
  • Miscellaneous Arbovirus Infections (St. Louis Encephalitis Infection (SLE) (J1.28.w6), Ockelbo Virus Infection (J1.29.w4), Sindbis Infection and Murray Valley Encephalitis Infection (J24.49.w2).)
  • Newcastle Disease (Newcastle's Disease, ND, Paramyxovirus-1 infection, VVND (viscerotropic velogenic Newcastle disease), NVND (neurotropic velogenic Newcastle disease))
  • Miscellaneous Arbovirus Infections (St. Louis Encephalitis Infection (SLE) (J1.28.w6), Ockelbo Virus Infection (J1.29.w4), Sindbis Infection and Murray Valley Encephalitis Infection (J24.49.w2).)
  • Avian Pox (Poxvirus infection, Fowl pox, Contagious epithelioma, Avian diphtheria (‘wet’ form of avian pox), Molluscum contagiosum, Geflugelpocken, Virula aviare, Variole aviare)

 

  • Miscellaneous Arbovirus Infections (St. Louis Encephalitis Infection (SLE) (J1.28.w6), Ockelbo Virus Infection (J1.29.w4), Sindbis Infection and Murray Valley Encephalitis Infection (J24.49.w2).)
  • Miscellaneous Arbovirus Infections (St. Louis Encephalitis Infection (SLE) (J1.28.w6), Ockelbo Virus Infection (J1.29.w4), Sindbis Infection and Murray Valley Encephalitis Infection (J24.49.w2).)
  • Transmissible Bursal Disease Agent

Agent not identified - presumed viral.

  • West Nile Virus disease (West Nile Fever, WNV Disease, West Nile, West Nile enteritis, West Nile viral enteritis, Near Eastern equine encephalitis, Lourdige)

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BIOLOGICAL (SPECIES) AGENTS
Bacteria Species affecting Waterfowl

CAUSAL ORGANISMS (Synonyms)

DISEASE (Synonyms)

  • Mycoplasma Infection (Mycoplasmal sinusitis, Mycoplasmal tenosynovitis, Mycoplasmal air-sacculitis, Acholeplasma Infection)
  • Anthrax (Milzbrand (German), Charbon (French).)
  • Salpingitis (Oviduct Infection, Oviduct Inflammation)
  • Borrelia anserina (Spirochaeta anserini, Spiroschaudinnia anserina, Treponema spp., Borrelia gallinarum, Spirochaeta gallinarum, Spironema gallinarum.)
  • Borreliosis (Goose septicaemia, Spirochetosis, Fowl Spirochetosis, Avian Spirochaetosis)
  • Citrobacter freundii (Escherichia freundii, Colobactrum freundii, Paracolobactrum intermedium, Salmonella ballerup, Salmonella hormaechei, Bacterium freundii)
  • Avian Botulism (Limberneck, Western duck sickness, Duck disease, Alkali poisoning
  • Clostridium perfringens (Bacillus perfringens, Bacterium welchii, Clostridium welchii, Bacillus aerogenes capsulatus)
  • Necrotising Enteritis (Haemorrhagic enteritis, Necrotic enteritis, Necrohaemorrhagic enteritis, Clostridial enteritis, 'Rot gut')
  • Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (Bacillus rhusiopathiae-suis, Bacterium arysipelatos-suum, Bacterium rhusiopathiae, Erysipelothrix insidiosa, Swine rotlauf bacillus.)
  • Listeriosis (Listeric infection, Circling disease, Listeria monocytogenes Infection)
  • Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAIC, Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), MAI Complex, Mycobacterium avium- Mycobacterium intracellulare Complex, Mycobacterium avium, Avian tubercle bacillus; Mycobacterium intracellulare; Battey bacillus Nocardia intracellularis, Mycobacterium intracellularis)
  • Neisseria-like organism, possibly a mycoplasma

Agent not fully identified - (B15).

  • Avian Cholera (Fowl Cholera, Avian Pasteurellosis, Avian Haemorrhagic Septicemia, Pasteurella multocida Infection.)
  • Salpingitis (Oviduct Infection, Oviduct Inflammation)
  • Riemerella anatipestifer (Pasteurella anatipestifer, Moraxella anatipestifer, Pfeifferella anatipestifer, Cytophaga anatipestifer.)
  • Anatipestifer Infection (New duck disease, Riemerella anatipestifer infection, Pasteurella anatipestifer infection, Moraxella anatipestifer infection, Duck septicaemia, Anatipestifer syndrome, Anatipestifer septicaemia, Infectious serositis, Goose influenza, Septicemia anserum exsudativa)
  • Salpingitis (Oviduct Infection, Oviduct Inflammation)
  • Vibriosis (Vibrio cholerae infection, Vibrio metchnikovi infection)
  • Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (Bacillus tuberculosis, Bacterium pseudotuberculosis rodentium, Corynebacterium rodentium, Pasteurella pseudotuberculosis)
  • Yersiniosis (Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Pasteurella pseudotuberculosis)
  • Salpingitis (Oviduct Infection, Oviduct Inflammation)

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BIOLOGICAL (SPECIES) AGENTS
Fungi Species affecting Waterfowl

CAUSAL ORGANISMS (Synonyms)

DISEASE (Synonyms)

(See information on specific diseases for details of which specific fungal species are associated)

  • Bumblefoot (Pododermatitis, Chronic arthritis-synovitis, Purulent synovitis)
  • Candidiasis (Candida infection, Thrush, Crop mycosis, Moniliasis, Sour crop)
  • Wet Feather (Shaft-lice Infection, Sooty Mould Exposure)

(See information on specific diseases for details of which specific fungal species are associated)

  • Favus (Fowl favus, Avian ringworm, White comb, Trichophyton gallinae infection, Microsporum gallinae infection)
  • Phycomycosis (Zygomycosis, Mucormycosis, Phycomycotic infection)
Agent not yet identified.

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BIOLOGICAL (SPECIES) AGENTS
Roundworms, Acanthocephalans, Tapeworms & Flukes affecting Waterfowl

CAUSAL ORGANISMS (Synonyms)

DISEASE

  • Amidostomum acutum (Strongylus acutus, Strongylus monodon, Amidostomum monodon, Sclerostoma monodon, Amidostomum chevreuxi, Amidostomum skrjabini, Amidostomum anatinum, Amidostomum fuligulae, Amidostomum biziurae, Amidostomum boschadis, Amidostomum orientale)
  • Amidostomum anseris (Ascaris mucronata, Strongylus mucronata, Strongylus anseris, Strongylus nodulosus, Amidostomum nodulosum, Strongylus nodularis, Trichostrongylus nodularis, Spiroptera uncinata, Strongylus monodon, Sclerostomum mucronatum, Sclerostomum anseris, Amidostomum leucopareiae)
  • Amidostomum cygni (Amidostomum similis)
  • Amidostomum spatulatum
  • Apatemon gracilis (Amphistoma gracile, Holostomum gracile, Strigea gracilis, Apatemon gracilis, Tetracotyle gracilis, Holostomum variabile, Holostomum variegatum, Apatemon graciliformis, Cercaria helvetica, Apatemon parvitestis, Apatemon japonicus, Apatemon pellucidus, Cercaria longiremis, Cercaria icnusae, Cercaria pseudoburti, Cercaria okobojensis, Cercaria wansoni)
  • Intestinal Fluke Infestation (Intestinal trematode infection, Echinoparyphium recurvatum infection, Echinostomum revolutum infection, Notocotylus spp infection)
  • Aploparaksis furcigera (Taenia furcigera, Dicranotaenia, furcigera, Diplacanthus furcigera, Dilepis furcigera, Hymenolepis furcigera, Drepanidotaenia furcigera, Taenia lineata, Taenia anatis lineata, Taenia trilineata, Taenia rhomboidea, Dicranotaenia rhomboidea, Aploparaksis rhomboidea, Taenia conica, Taenia caecalis, Aploparaksis pseudofurcigera, Haploparaxis japonensis)
  • Ascaridia galli (Ascaris "teres", Ascaris galli, Ascaris gallopavonis, Fusaria inflexa, Ascaris inflexa, Ascaridia inflexa, Heterakis inflexa, Fusaria strumosa, Ascaris perspicillum, Ascaridia perspicillum, Ascaris gibbosa, Heterakis perspicillum, Ascaris perspicillum, Ascaris funiculus, Heterakis lineata, Ascaridia lineata, Heterakis compressa, Ascaridia compressa, Heterakis brasiliensis, Ascaridia brasiliensis, Heterakis styphlocerca, Ascaridia styphlocerca, Heterakis granulosa, Ascaridia granulosa, Ascaridia magalhaesi, Ascaridia hamia, Ascaridia anseris, Ascaridia compar, Ascaridia sinensis.)
  • Capillaria anatis (Eucoleus contorta, Trichosoma contortum, Thomix contorta, Capillaria vanelli, Capillaria annulata, Trichocephalus anatis, Trichosoma anatis, Thominx anatis, Capillaria tumida,Capillaria semiteres, Hamularia nodulosa, Trichocephalus capillaris, Trichosoma brevicolle, Trichosoma longicolle, Trichosoma resectum, Trichosoma collare, Capillaria collare, Echinocoelus collare, Thominx collaris, Orthothominx collaris, Trichosoma dubium, Trichosoma retusum, Capillaria corvorum, Cappilaria uruguayensis, Thominx uruguayensis)
  • Capillaria contorta (Eucoleus contorta, Trichosoma contortum, Thomix contorta, Capillaria vanelli, Trichosoma dispar, Trichosoma trilobar, Trichosoma longicolle, Trichosoma obtusiusculum, Capillaria perforans, Eucoleus perforans, Thomix perforans, Capillaria lophortygis, Eucoleus lophortygis, Capillaria triloba, Eucoleus raillieti, Thomix raillieti, Capillaria raillieti)
  • Contracaecum spiculigerum (Ascaris spiculigera, Ascaris variegata, Ascaris mergorum, Ascaris colyborum, Ascaris siluri, Contracaecum siluri, Contracaecum trukestanicum, Contracaecum umiu, Contracaecum himeu)
  • Gapeworm Infection (Tracheal worm infection, Cyathastomiasis, Syngamus infection, Cyathostoma infection)
  • Diorchis nyrocae (Diorchis skrjabini,Schillerius skrjabini, Diorchis abuladze, Haploparaxis stefanskii)
  • Intestinal Fluke Infestation (Intestinal trematode infection, Echinoparyphium recurvatum infection, Echinostomum revolutum infection, Notocotylus spp infection)
  • Echinostoma revolutum (Echinosomum revolutum, Fasciola revoluta, Distoma anatis fuscae, Festucaria anatis, Fasciola anatis, Distoma anatis, Distoma echinatum, Echinostoma echinatum,Distoma dilatatum, Echinostoma dilatatum, Distoma cygni oloris, Distoma fulgulae ferinae, Distomum armatum, Echinostoma oxycephalum, Echinostoma mendax, Echinostoma paraulum, Echinostoma echinocephalum, Echinostoma sudanense, Echinostoma acuticauda, Echinostoma armigerum, Echinostoma coalitum, Echinostoma callawayensis, Echinostoma limicoli, Echinostoma cinetorchis, Echinostoma erraticum, Echinostoma microrchis, Echinostoma neglectum, Echinostoma nephrocystis, Echinostoma columbae, Echinostoma miyagawai, Echinostoma robustum, Echinostoma multispinosus, Cercaria trivolvis)
  • Intestinal Fluke Infestation (Intestinal trematode infection, Echinoparyphium recurvatum infection, Echinostomum revolutum infection, Notocotylus spp infection)
  • Echinuria spp.
  • Echinuria uncinata (Spiroptera uncinata, Filaria uncinata, Dispharagus uncinatus, Acuaria uncinata, Hamannia uncinata, Echinuria jugadornata, Echinuria cygni.)
  • Eustrongylides mergorum (Stongylus mergorum, Spiroptera inflata, Tropidocerca inflata, Tropidurus inflatus, Tetrameres inflata, Microtetrameres inflata, Stongylus papillosis, Stongylus elegans, Hystrichis elegans, Eustrongyloides elegans, Stongylus tubifex, Tropidocerca paradoxa)
  • Eustrongylides papillosus (Stongylus papillosus, Eustrongylus papillosus, Hystrichis papillosus)
  • Eustrongylides tubifex (Stongylus papillosus, Eustrongylus papillosus, Hystrichis papillosus)
  • Fimbriaria fasciolaris (Taenia anatis, Taenia fasciolaris, Taenia malleus Alyselminthis malleus, Fimbriaria malleus, Halysis malleus, Fimbriaria mitra, Taenia pediformis, Epision plicatus, Notobothrium arcticum, Fimbriaria plana)
  • Heterakis dispar (Ascaris dispar, Fusaria dispar, Ganguleterakis dispar, Strongylus acuticaudata, Heterakis caudata, Ganguleterakis caudata, Raillietakis caudata, Heterakis circumvallata, Ganguleterakis circumvallata, Raillietakis circumvallata, Heterakis chenonettae, Heterakis hyperborea, Ganguleterakis hyperboreus, Heterakis hyperboreus, Heterakis papillosa, Heterakis stylosa, Heterakis altaica, Heterakis tenuicaudata)
  • Heterakis gallinarum (Ascarides teretes, Heterakis gallinarum, Ascaris gallinae, Ascaris papillosa, Heterakis papillosa, Ascaris phasiani, Ascaris vesicularis, Fusaria reflexa, Ascaris undulosa-striata, Heterakis longecaudata, Heterakis parisi, Heterakis pediocetes)
  • Hymenolepis collaris (Taenia collari, Taenia collaris, Weinlandia collaris, Microsomacanthus collaris, Dicranotaenia collaris, Sobolevicanthus collaris, Myxolepis collaris, Myxacanthus collaris, Taenia torquata, Halysis torquata, Taenia breviarticulata, Alyselminthus sinuosa, Halysis sinuosa, Taenia sinuosa, Hymenolepis inuata, Drepanidotaenia sinuosa, Taenia infundibuliformis, Taenia anserum, Taenia bairdii)
  • Hymenolepis compressa (Taenia compressa, Microsomacanthus compressa, Hymenolepis megarostellis, Hymenolepis solowiowi, Nadejdolepis solowiowi)
  • Hymenolepis coronula (Taenia coronula, Dicranotaenia coronula, Drepanidotaenia coronula, Diplacanthus coronula, Lepidotrias coronula, Weinlandia coronula, Hymenolepis megalhystera, Hymenolepis querquedula, Weinlandia querquedula, Dicranotaenia introversa, Weinlandia introversa, Hymenolepis introversa, Dicranotaenia macrostrobiloides, Hymenolepis macrostrobiloides, Weinlandia macrostrobiloides, Hymenolepis sacciperium, Dicranotaenia sacciperium, Hymenolepis anceps, Hymenolepis mergi, Dicranotaenia mergi, Dicranotaenia deglandii, Hymenolepis parvisaccata, Dicranotaenia parvisaccata, Hymenolepis apcaris, Dicranotaenia kutassi, Dicranotaenia pseudocoronula, Hymenolepis makundi, Hymenolepis cameroni)
  • Hymenolepis lanceolata (Taenia anseris, Taenia acutissima, Taenia lanceolata, Taenia lanceola. Hyalysis lanceolata, Dilepis lanceolata, Drepanidotaenia lanceolata, Diplacanthus Lanceolata, Taenia anserum, Hymenolepis anserum, Drepanidotaenia lobata)
  • Hymenolepis megalops (Cloacotaenia megalops, Taenia anatis-marilae, Taenia megalops, Drepanidotaenia megalops, Weinlandia megalops, Orlovilepis megalops, Taenia cylindrica, Lallum magniparuterina)
  • Hymenolepis tenuirostris (Taenia tenuirostris, Drepanidotaenia tenuirostris, Diplacanthus tenuirostris, Dilepis tenuirostris, Microsomacanthus tenuirostris, Monosaccanthes tenuirostris, Taenia krabbei, Taenia conscripta, Hymenolepis tritesticulata, Weinlandia tenuirostris, Drepanidotaenia tenuirostris, Microsomacanthus tenuirostris)
  • Hyptiasmus arcuatus (Hyptiasmus tumitus, Monostoma arcuatum, Cyclocoelum arcuatum, Hyptiasmus arcuatum, Hyptiasmus laevigatus, Hyptiasmus tumidus, Hyptiasmus oculeus, Transcoelum oculeum, Hyptiasmus magnus, Stossichium magnum, Hyptiasmus coelonodus, Transcoelum sigillum, Hypatiasmus sigillum, Hyptiasmus magniproles, Hyptiasmus theodori, Ophthalmophagus theodori
  • Hypoderaeum conoideum (Cuculanus conoideus, Distomum conoideum, Echinostoma conoideum, Hypoderaeum conoideu, Fascoila appendiculata, Distoma oxycephalum, Distoma froelichii, Opisthorchis pianae, Psilochasmus lecithosus, Hypoderaeum sinensis, Hypoderaeum magnocirrusa)

 

  • Intestinal Fluke Infestation (Intestinal trematode infection, Echinoparyphium recurvatum infection, Echinostomum revolutum infection, Notocotylus spp infection)
  • Hystrichis tricolor (Spiroptera tricolor, Strongylus anatis, Strongylus tubifex, Eustrongylus tubiflex, Hystrichis tubiflex, Spiroptera tadornae, Hystrichis orispinus, Hystrichis wedli, Hystrichis neglectus, Hystrichis varispinosus)
  • Intestinal Fluke Infestation (Intestinal trematode infection, Echinoparyphium recurvatum infection, Echinostomum revolutum infection, Notocotylus spp infection)
  • Oxyspirura mansoni (Filaria mansoni, Spiroptera mansoni, Yorkeispirura mansoni, MIcrofilaria seguini, Oxyspirura parvovum)
  • Ocular Fluke Infection (Philophthalmus gralli infection, Oriental eyefluke infection, Ocular trematode infection)
  • Porrocaecum crassum (Ascaris crassa)
  • Porrocaecum ensicaudatum (Fusaria ensicaudata, Ascaris ensicaudata, Ascaris turdi, Ascaris teres, Ascaris sturni, Ascaris cornicis, Ascaris corvi, Fusaria crenata, Fusaria lancea, Ascaris corvi, Spiroptera turdi)
  • Gapeworm Infection (Tracheal worm infection, Cyathastomiasis, Syngamus infection, Cyathostoma infection)
  • Tetrameres americana (Tetrameres confusa, Tropisurus americana)
  • Tetrameres crami (Tropisurus crami, Petrowimeres crami)
  • Tetrameres fissispina (Tropidocerca fissispina, Tropisurus fissispina, Petrowimeres fissispina, Acanthophorus tenuis, Tropidocerca tenuis, Acanthophorus horridus, Filaria pulicis, Spiroptera pulicis.)
  • Trichostrongylus tenuis (Strongylus tenuis, Strongylus pergracilis, Trichostrongylus pergracilis, Strongylus serratus)
  • Typhlocoelum cucumerinum (Distoma cucumerium, Monostoma cucumerium, Monostoma sarcidiornicola, Monostoma flavum, Typhlocoelum flavum, Typhlocoelum sarcidiornicola, Typhlultimum sarcidiornicola, Tracheophilus sarcidiornicola, Monostoma cymbium, Typhlocoelum obovale , Typhlocoelum reticulare, Typhlocoelum americanum, Typhlocoelum gambense, Typhlocoelum shovellus, Typhlophilus shovellus)
  • Typhlocoelum sisowi (Typhlocoelum cymbium, Typhlocoelum cymbius, Haematotrephus cymbius, Tracheophilus cymbium, Tracheophilus cymbius, Typhlocoelum cucumerinum cymbium,Typhlocoelum cucumerinum americanum, Typhlocoelum hepaticum)
  • Zygocotyle lunata (Amphistoma lunatum, Chiorchis lunatus, Zygocotyle ceratosa, Cercaria poconensis, Solenorchis travassosi, Zygocotyle ceratosa)
  • Intestinal Fluke Infestation (Intestinal trematode infection, Echinoparyphium recurvatum infection, Echinostomum revolutum infection, Notocotylus spp infection)

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BIOLOGICAL (SPECIES) AGENTS
Leeches, Pentastomes & Crustacea affecting Waterfowl

CAUSAL ORGANISMS (Synonyms)

DISEASE (Synonyms)

Leech Infection (Duck leech infestation, Nasal leech infestation)
Leech Infection (Duck leech infestation, Nasal leech infestation)

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BIOLOGICAL (SPECIES) AGENTS
Insects, Mites & Ticks affecting Waterfowl

CAUSAL ORGANISMS (Synonyms)

DISEASE (Synonyms)

(See information on specific diseases for details of which specific fungal species are associated)

  • Avian Malaria (Plasmodium Infection, Haematozoan Infection, Hemosporidian Infection)
  • Eastern Equine Encepalitis (Eastern encephalitis, Eastern equine encephalomyelitis, Eastern encephalomyelitis, EEE, EE)
  • West Nile Virus disease (West Nile Fever, WNV Disease, West Nile, West Nile enteritis, West Nile viral enteritis, Near Eastern equine encephalitis, Lourdige)
  • Myiasis (Fly larvae infestation, Maggot infestation)
  • Myiasis (Fly larvae infestation, Maggot infestation)

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BIOLOGICAL (SPECIES) AGENTS
Single-celled - Protozoa affecting Waterfowl

CAUSAL ORGANISMS (Synonyms)

DISEASE (Synonyms)

  • Chylomastix spp. (Chylomastix gallinarium) (Chylomastix gallinarium)
  • Eimeria spp. (Eimeria abramovi, Eimeria anatis, Eimeria anseris, Eimeria aythyae, Eimeria battakhi, Eimeria brantae, Eimeria bucephalae, Eimeria clarkei, Eimeria crassa, Eimeria danailovi, Eimeria farra, Eimeria fulva, Eimeria hermani, Eimeria koganae, Eimeria kotlani, Eimeria krylovi, Eimeria magnalabia, Eimeria mulardi, Eimeria nocens, Eimeria nyroca, Eimeria parvula, Eimeria pulchella, Eimeria saitamae, Eimeria schachdagica, Eimeria stigmosa, Eimeria striata, Eimeria truncata) (Eimeria abramovi, Eimeria anatis, Eimeria anseris, Eimeria aythyae, Eimeria battakhi, Eimeria brantae, Eimeria bucephalae, Eimeria clarkei, Eimeria crassa, Eimeria danailovi, Eimeria farra, Eimeria fulva, Eimeria hermani, Eimeria koganae, Eimeria kotlani, Eimeria krylovi, Eimeria magnalabia, Eimeria mulardi, Eimeria nocens, Eimeria nyroca, Eimeria parvula, Eimeria pulchella, Eimeria saitamae, Eimeria schachdagica, Eimeria stigmosa, Eimeria striata, Eimeria truncata)
  • Eimeria spp. (Eimeria boschadis, Eimeria christianseni, Eimeria somateriae, Eimeria truncata)
  • Dinoflagellate Toxicity (Marine dinoflagellate toxicity, Dinoflagellate poisoning, Paralytic shellfish poisoning, Red Tide)
  • Dinoflagellate Toxicity (Marine dinoflagellate toxicity, Dinoflagellate poisoning, Paralytic shellfish poisoning, Red Tide)
  • Haemoproteus spp. (Haemoproteus nettionis, Haemoproteus greineri) (Haemoproteus nettionis, Haemoproteus greineri)
  • Isospora spp. (Isospora anseris, Isospora mandari) (Isospora anseris, Isospora mandari)
  • Leucocytozoon spp. (Leucocytozoon simondi) (Leucocytozoon simondi)
  • Leukocytozoonosis (Leucocytozoon infection, Hemosporidian Infection, Haematozoan Infection)
  • Plasmodium spp. (Plasmodium circumflexum, Plasmodium elongatum, Plasmodium lophurae, Plasmodium relictum, Plasmodium praecox, Plasmodium vaughani.)
  • Avian Malaria (Plasmodium Infection, Haematozoan Infection, Hemosporidian Infection)
  • Sarcocystis spp. (Sarcocystis rileyi) (Sarcocystis rileyi)
  • Sarcocystosis (Sarcosporidiosis, Rice-breast disease, Sarcocystis sp. Infection.)
  • Toxoplasma spp. (Toxoplasma gondii) (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichomonas spp. (Trichomonas gallinae) (Trichomonas gallinae)
  • Trypanosoma spp. (Trypanosoma avium, Trypanosoma calmetti)
  • Tyzzeria spp. (Tyzzeria alleni, Tyzzeria chenicusae, Tyzzeria pellerdyi, Tyzzeria perniciosa, Tyzzeria parvula)(Tyzzeria alleni, Tyzzeria chenicusae, Tyzzeria pellerdyi, Tyzzeria perniciosa, Tyzzeria parvula)
  • Wenyonella spp. (Wenyonella anatis, Wenyonella gagari, Wenyonella pellerdyi, Wenyonella philiplevinei)

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BIOLOGICAL (SPECIES) AGENTS
Plant Species affecting Waterfowl

CAUSAL ORGANISMS (Synonyms)

DISEASE (Synonyms)

  • Cymopterus ibapensis - Ibapah springparsley (Epallageiton ibapense, Epallageiton watsonii, Cymopterus longipes, Cymopterus watsonii, Spring parsley.)
  • Cymopterus longipes - Longstalk springparsley (Epallageiton longipes)
  • Glycine max - Soybeans (Dolichos soja, Glycine gracilis, Glycine hispida, Phaseolus max, Soja hispida, Soja max)
  • Sweetpea Poisoning , Beta-Aminoproprionitrile Toxicity, BAPN toxicity, Lathyrism, Sweet Pea poisoning)
  • Petroselinum crispum - Parsley (Apium petroselinum, Carum petroselinum, Petroselinum hortense, Petroselinum sativum, Petroselinum vulgare)
  • Ricinus communis - Castor bean (Toto ni vavalagi, Maskerekur, lama palagi, uluchul skoki, agaliya, castor bean.)
  • Potato Poisoning (Green Potato Poisoning, Sprouting Potato Poisoning, Solanum tuberosum Poisoning)

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CHEMICAL AGENTS
Complex Chemical Compounds
affecting Waterfowl

CAUSAL AGENTS (Synonyms)

DISEASE (Synonyms)

  • Aflatoxicosis (Mycotoxicosis) (Mycotoxicity, aflatoxicosis, groundnut poisoning, fusariotoxicosis, fusariotoxin poisoning, fusariomycotoxicosis, trichothecene mycotoxicosis, T-2 toxicosis, vomitoxicosis, zearalenone toxicosis, ergotism.)
  • Neoplasias (Tumours)
  • Anticoagulant rodenticides (Benzopyrans, Brodifacoum, Bromadiolone, Chlorophacinone, Coumafuryl, Coumatetralyl, Diphacinone, Diphenadione, Dicumarol, Indone, Warfarin, Indanedione derivative)
  • Sweetpea Poisoning , Beta-Aminoproprionitrile Toxicity, BAPN toxicity, Lathyrism, Sweet Pea poisoning)
  • Avian Botulism (Limberneck, Western duck sickness, Duck disease, Alkali poisoning
  • Dinoflagellate Toxicity (Marine dinoflagellate toxicity, Dinoflagellate poisoning, Paralytic shellfish poisoning, Red Tide)
  • Carbamates (Carbaryl, Butylate, Carbofuran, Methomyl, Benomyl, EPTC, Aldicarb, Thiram)
  • Coal Tar (Anthracene, Cresols, Creosote, Creosotenaphthalene, Dimethylnaphthalenes, Phenanthrene, Pitch greases, Naphthalene)
  • Cyanide Poisoning (Hydrocyanic Acid Poisoning, Prussic Acid Poisoning, Cyanide Toxicity)
  • Dimetridazole (1,2-dimethyl-5-nitroimidazole, Emtryl, Metronex, Flagyl, Torgyl)
  • Levamisole (Imidathiazole, Tetramizole, Anthelpo , Armadose Breakwormer, Bionem, Chanaverm, Decazole, Levacide, Levacur, Levadin, Levam Wormaway, Levipor, Nilverm, Nitratil Pour-on, Ridaverm LD , Ripercol Pour-on, Spartakon, Sure LD, Vermisole, Wormaway)
  • Oil (Petroleum products, crude oil, light oil, bunker oil, petrol, gasoline, cooking oil)
  • Organochlorines (such at DDT, DDE, DDD, lindane, aldrin, dieldrin, heptachlor, chlordane, endrin, HCH, mirex, chlordecone, toxaphene)
  • Organophosphates (Phosphates e.g. mevinphos, Phosphorothionates e.g. parathion, diazinon, Phosphorothiolates e.g. demeton, omethoate, Phosphorothionothiolates e.g. phorate, malathion, Phosphorodithiolates e.g. ethoprop, Phosphoramidates e.g. fenamiphos, Phosphoramidothionates e.g. isophenphos, Phosphoramidothiolates e.g. methamidophos), Coumaphos (Negasunt), Dichlorvos (Aquagard), Nuvan Top, Diazinon (Droplix), Fenthion (Tiguvon), Phosmet ( Dermol Plus, Nupor, Porect, Poron 20, Vet-Kem Sponge-on))
  • Polychlorinated Biphenyls (Various trade names including Aroclor (USA), Clophens (Germany), Fenclors (Italy), Phenoclors, Pyralenes (France), Kanechlors (Japan))
  • Castor Bean Toxicity (Castor Bean Poisoning, Ricin Toxicity, Castorbean Toxicity, Castorbean Poisoning)
  • Dinoflagellate Toxicity (Marine dinoflagellate toxicity, Dinoflagellate poisoning, Paralytic shellfish poisoning, Red Tide)

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CHEMICAL AGENTS
Metals / Minerals
affecting Waterfowl

CAUSAL AGENTS (Synonyms)

DISEASE (Synonyms)

  • Arsenic [Chemical symbol - As] - excess
  • Cadmium [Chemical symbol - Cd] - excess
  • Calcium [Chemical symbol - Ca] - deficiency Chemical symbol - Ca] - deficiency
  • Calcium [Chemical symbol - Ca] - excessChemical symbol - Ca] - excess
  • Copper [Chemical symbol - Cu] - excessChemical symbol - Cu] - excess
  • Copper Toxicity (Copper Toxicosis, Copper Poisoning, Copper Sulphate Poisoning)
  • Fluoride [Chemical symbol - F] - excess
  • Lead [Chemical symbol - Pb] - excessChemical symbol - Pb] - excess
  • Manganese [Chemical symbol - Mn] - deficiency
  • Angel Wing (Slipped wing, Flip wing, Dropped wing, Carpal deformity, Carpometacarpal deformity, Valgus carpal deformity, Heeled-over wing, Rotating wing, Tilt wing, Sword wing, Spear wing, Straw wing, Reversed wing, Aeroplane wing, Drooped wing, Dropped wing, Crooked wing)
  • Manganese Deficiency (Perosis)
  • Perosis (Slipped tendon, slipped hock)
  • Mercury [Chemical symbol - Hg] - excessChemical symbol - Hg] - excess
  • Mercury Toxicity (Minimata disease , Methylmercury toxicity, mercury poisoning, mercury intoxication)
  • Salt [Chemical symbol - NaCl] (Sodium Chloride, Common salt) - excess<Chemical symbol - NaCl] (Sodium Chloride, Common salt) - excess
  • Selenium [Chemical symbol - Se] - deficiencyChemical symbol - Se] - deficiency
  • Capture Myopathy (Exertional Myopathy, Stress Myopathy, Exertional Rhabdomyolysis, Overstraining Disease, Polymyopathy, White Muscle Disease, Transport Myopathy, Spastic Paresis, Muscle Necrosis, Leg Paralysis, Muscular Dystrophy, Degenerative Myopathy, Ideopathic Muscle Necrosis, White Muscle Stress Syndrome)
  • Egg Binding (Egg Retention, Eggbound, Dystocia)
  • Vitamin E / Selenium deficiency (White muscle disease)
  • Selenium [Chemical symbol - Se] - excessChemical symbol - Se] - excess
  • Zinc [Chemical symbol - Zn] - deficiency
  • Zinc [Chemical symbol - Zn] - excess

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CHEMICAL AGENTS
Gross Nutrients, Vitamins, Fatty Acids & Enzymes

CAUSAL AGENTS (Synonyms)

DISEASE (Synonyms)

  • Biotin (Vitamin H) - deficiency
  • Niacin (Nicotinic acid) - deficiency
  • Angel Wing (Slipped wing, Flip wing, Dropped wing, Carpal deformity, Carpometacarpal deformity, Valgus carpal deformity, Heeled-over wing, Rotating wing, Tilt wing, Sword wing, Spear wing, Straw wing, Reversed wing, Aeroplane wing, Drooped wing, Dropped wing, Crooked wing)
  • Gout (Visceral gout, Acute toxic nephritis syndrome, Articular gout)
  • Perosis (Slipped tendon, slipped hock)
  • Splay Leg (Sprawls, Spraddle leg, Splayed legs)
  • Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6, Pyridoxine) - deficiency
  • Thiamine (Vitamin B1, Thiamin) - deficiency
  • Angel Wing (Slipped wing, Flip wing, Dropped wing, Carpal deformity, Carpometacarpal deformity, Valgus carpal deformity, Heeled-over wing, Rotating wing, Tilt wing, Sword wing, Spear wing, Straw wing, Reversed wing, Aeroplane wing, Drooped wing, Dropped wing, Crooked wing)
  • Calcium / Phosphorus / Vitamin D Imbalance (Rickets, Nutritional Secondary Hyperparathyroidism, Calcium Deficiency, Hypovitaminosis D, Vitamin D3 Deficiency, Calcium - Phosphorus Imbalance, Fibrous Osteodystrophy, Metabolic Bone Disease, Nutritional Bone Disease)
  • Mid-incubation Embryonic Death
  • Angel Wing (Slipped wing, Flip wing, Dropped wing, Carpal deformity, Carpometacarpal deformity, Valgus carpal deformity, Heeled-over wing, Rotating wing, Tilt wing, Sword wing, Spear wing, Straw wing, Reversed wing, Aeroplane wing, Drooped wing, Dropped wing, Crooked wing)
  • Capture Myopathy (Exertional Myopathy, Stress Myopathy, Exertional Rhabdomyolysis, Overstraining Disease, Polymyopathy, White Muscle Disease, Transport Myopathy, Spastic Paresis, Muscle Necrosis, Leg Paralysis, Muscular Dystrophy, Degenerative Myopathy, Idiopathic Muscle Necrosis, White Muscle Stress Syndrome)
  • Dead-in-Shell
  • Early Embryonic Death (Early Embryonic mortalitity)
  • Egg Binding (Egg Retention, Eggbound, Dystocia)
  • Splay Leg (Sprawls, Spraddle leg, Splayed legs)
  • Vitamin E / Selenium deficiency (White muscle disease)

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