ENVIRONMENTS
Information provided on habitat use of specific ecological groups

North American Mosquito Habitats

Continental Land Zones

Aquatic Zones

Individual Living Species Zones (Animals, Plants etc)

HABITAT SYSTEMS WITHIN THE LIFE ZONES OF:

General Background Information

In the "West Nile Virus" Wildpro Volume, the concept of grouping habitats by the requirements of (and use by) a species group has been explored in a very simplistist manner - specifically North American Mosquito Habitats. These individual habitat types will eventually be linked into their specific Biomes, and moved to a lower stage within the Environment hierarchy.

Wildpro does not hold detailed information on specific biomes at present, although linkages are being created to explore data relationships to enable the construction of future volumes. A Life Zone classification system is currently being explored and the philosophy behind the development of each life zone classification is based on the following:

  • Continental Land Zones
    Using the Holdridge Life Zone Classification Scheme (B500.19.sib1) for the continental land zones, continental environments have been categorised into the following major groups - using Biotemperature (mean positive temperatures) as the first classification; then considered by total annual precipitation, evaporation, predominant vegetation type).

  • Aquatic Zones
    Aquatic Zones are limited to those where water is the predominant medium for all species - e.g. large fresh-water lakes, oceans. These are initially subdivided according to their salinity, then considered by depth, water flow ( tidal and free-running), temperature, predominant species (e.g. coral / kelp), etc.

  • Individual Living Species Zones (Animals, Plants etc.)
    This section is designed to incorporate those habitats preferred by species that live inside the body of another species, e.g. parasites, symbionts etc. Species Zones are initially subdivided at kingdom, phylum or class level; then by the individual systems usually inhabited by parasites or symbionts / attacked by infectious agents - e.g. for vertebrates: gastrointestinal lumen / epithelial tissue.

The general background information below to designed to assist those who may wish to access the environmental information currently available in Wildpro.

"Environments" are the combinations of physical factors, chemicals and species that make up the complex world in which we live. The habitats in which living organisms exist vary constantly with time, season and introduction and loss of species. Each area of the earth, no matter how small, contains its own individual combination of substrate, climate and species; as a result, no two habitats are the same. The earth's surface has been divided into biomes and those biomes into ecosystems in attempt to classify habitat "types". Classification is desirable so that particularly fragile or specialised habitat "types", particularly those with important species present that may be under threat, can be preserved and protected by man.

Currently within Wildpro we have gathered information on the MANAGEMENT of habitat, which is contained in four major sections:

  • Accommodation Design section of "How to..." - Guidance on best practice husbandry and veterinary techniques and on the management of species, diseases and habitats:

This section includes information on how to optimise the environment for waterfowl management, including pond design and management of water bodies used for waterfowl..

Guidance for industries on managing wetlands for wildlife, including information on construction and maintenance - kindly provided by the Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust (See the flowchart Industries on Managing Wetlands for Wildlife for easy access to the guidelines).

Detailed information on how the environment in which a host species is maintained may be managed to control and prevent disease and how populations within the environment may be managed.

Guidance on the investigation and control of large-scale Disease outbreaks in free-ranging wildlife - kindly provided by the National Wildlife Health Center, United States Geological Survey.