- Seven different toxin types, A-G, produced by Clostridium
botulinum have been identified. Toxin production occurs only when
the bacterium is actively growing and multiplying, and is dependent on a bacteriophage
- Botulinum type C toxin is a neuroparalytic agent produced by Clostridium
botulinum which blocks the release of neurotransmitter in a three-stage
process: i) binds to the presynaptic cell membrane (rapid, irreversible); ii) penetrates
membrane, enters cell; iii) disables mechanism for acetylcholine release (cleaves
synaptobrevin, a protein found in membrane of synaptic vesicles and which is critical for
acetyl choline release).
- The toxin is produced by Clostridium
botulinum growing in organic matter, including carcasses; maggots feeding
on carcasses ingest toxin, ducks feeding on maggots ingest toxin in the maggots.
- 0.05-0.25g of maggots, or as few as 2-4 maggots can contain sufficient
toxin to produce clinical botulism
(J1.12.w4, J7.27.w1, B15, B36.38.w38, B48.12.w12).
|Associated Waterfowl Diseases
(Limberneck, Western duck sickness, Duck disease, Alkali poisoning)
||Waterfowl Disease Summary
- A paralytic, frequently fatal disease, caused by ingestion of toxin
produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Death is usually from respiratory
arrest, cardiac arrest or drowning.
- Outbreaks affecting thousands and even millions of birds have been
recorded. This is probably the most important disease of migratory birds, on a world-wide