/ Administration Routes / Frequencies
Experimental data in sheep:
- Butorphanol was effective in sheep when tested against a thermal
stimulus, but not when tested against a mechanical stimulus. (P61.62.w1)
- Butorphanol at dose rates of 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 mg/kg
intravenously in sheep produced a clear antinociceptive effect
against a thermal stimulus to the ear with statistically
significant increases in threshold at 5 to 60, 15 to 80 and 15 to
minutes after drug injection respectively. However, doses of 0.05,
0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg all failed to increase the mechanical
nociceptive threshold. (J21.51.w2)
Erinaceus europaeus - West European Hedgehog:
Atelerix albiventris - Four-toed hedgehog:
"Hedgehog" (species not distinguished between Atelerix albiventris - Four-toed hedgehog
or Erinaceus europaeus - West European Hedgehog):
- 0.2-0.4 mg/kg subcutaneously or intramuscularly, every six to eight
hours as required. For analgesia. (B150.w1)
The following information is taken with permission directly from the
International website (W580.Aug2005.w7):
CAUTION! Sedative and anesthetic drug dosages for African elephants often vary from those for Asian elephants. Do not assume that the recommendations for one species can be applied to the other. Significant variation may also occur between individual elephants. The information provided here should be used as a guideline only. Consultation with experienced colleagues is advised.
a) Butorphanol combined with azaperone was used in two captive female African elephants for standing sedation. See details below (Ramsey, 2000).
b) For aggressive adult African elephants, give IM xylazine at total doses of 700 – 1000 mg/ adult elephant (approximate dosages of 0.2 – 0. 3 mg/kg) followed by intravenous butorphanol at doses of 50 – 180 mg/adult elephant (approximate dosages of 0.01 – 0.03 mg/kg), depending on size and temperament. See details below (Ramsey, 2000)
c) For sedation of adult captive African elephants: 0.01 ± 0.003 mg/kg (Fowler, 1995).
d) 8-10 mg total dose was given IV to 1500 kg African elephants following administration of a xylazine-ketamine combination to improve upon the sedative response to this drug combination (Jacobsen, 1988).
e) Xylazine (150 mg IM) combined with butorphanol (6 mg IV) was given to an 8 yr old African elephant weighing 1500 kg for radiography of a broken tusk (Heard et.al. 1986).
a) Ramsay, E. 2000. Standing sedation and tranquilization in captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana).
Proc. Am. Assoc. Zoo Vet. Pages: 111-114
Excerpt from abstract: Intramuscular azaperone in combination with butorphanol was used on one female elephant for aggressive debridement of a facial abscess and on another aggressive cow. The azaperone doses ranged from 0.068 – 0.12 mg/kg. In one immobilization, 10 mg butorphanol was mixed with azaperone (0.12 mg/kg) in the initial dart (tranquilization was rated good). In the other procedures, butorphanol, 0.006 – 0.014 mg/kg (total doses = 20 – 50 mg), was given IV 24 – 73 minutes post-azaperone administration, to attain (0.006 mg/kg given at 24 and 25 minutes) or maintain (0.013 and 0.014 mg/kg given at 40 and 73 min, respectively) control. The azaperone and butorphanol combination sedation events were ranked as good (n=3) or excellent (n=2). Naloxone (0.004 mg/kg IV; total dose =12.8 mg) was used to reverse the effects of butorphanol in the animal receiving the highest butorphanol dosage.
b) Ramsay, E. 2000. Standing sedation and tranquilization in captive African
elephants (Loxodonta africana). Proc. Am. Assoc. Zoo Vet. Pages: 111-114
Excerpt from abstract: Xylazine in combination with butorphanol was used to sedate 2 African elephants, twice each. The adult male elephant (estimated weight = 5000 kg) received a total dose of 800 mg (0.16 mg/kg) xylazine IM, and 26 minutes later received 180 mg (0.036 mg/kg) butorphanol IV for radiology, performed outside of the elephant restraint device. This immobilization was rated excellent but when the same dosages were used 2 years later, the immobilization was initially rated only as good. Supplemental butorphanol (20 mg) was given during the second immobilization 77 min after xylazine injection and the subsequent phase of the immobilization was rated as fair. One female elephant (estimated weight = 3500 kg) received 100 mg (0.035 mg/kg) xylazine IV mixed with 15 mg (0.005 mg/kg) butorphanol IV. Fourteen minutes later an additional 50 mg xylazine and 10 mg butorphanol were given IV. A local block was subsequently used to lance a subcutaneous abscess on the abdomen and this immobilization was rated as good. On a subsequent immobilization for physical examination and blood collection, this animal received 500 mg (0.14 mg/kg) xylazine IM, followed 44 min later by 50 mg (0.014 mg/kg) butorphanol IV. This immobilization was rated only as fair.
c) Fowler,M.E., 1995. Elephants. In: Restraint and handling of wild and domestic animals. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, USA p. 265.
d) Jacobson,E.R. 1988. Chemical restraint and anesthesia of elephants.
Proc.Ann.Elephant Workshop 9. pp. 112-119.
e) Heard,D.J., Jacobson,E.R., and Brock,K.A. 1986. Effects of oxygen supplementation on blood gas values in chemically restrained juvenile African elephants.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 189:(9):1071-1074
Abstract: Arterial oxygen and carbon dioxide tensions were determined in sedated immature African elephants and in elephants immobilized with etorphine hydrochloride or with an etorphine-ketamine combination. For manipulative and surgical procedures, the Hudson demand value was used for oxygen supplementation during 6 procedures, and insufflation was used during 2 procedures. The Hudson demand value was more effective than insufflation in sustaining adequate arterial oxygenation.
Bears (Ursidae - Bears (Family)):
- 0.075 mg/kg intramuscularly into the pectoral
muscles 20 minutes before the onset of surgery then hourly during
surgery. (during Cholecystectomy in Bears).
- Oryctolagus cuniculus domesticus - Domestic rabbit:
- 100 - 500 micrograms/kg subcutaneously or intravenously. (B373.Guide.w41)
- 0.5 mg/kg plus acepromazine
0.5 mg/kg, subcutaneously or intramuscularly, for sedation. (B600.4.w4)
- Can be given mixed in the same syringe. (B600.4.w4)
- The combination causes vasodilatation. (B600.4.w4)
- 0.1 - 0.4 mg/kg subcutaneously, intramuscularly or intravenously
every 2 - 4 hours. Analgesia
lasts for 2 - 4 hours. (B601.15.w15,
- 0.1 - 1.0 mg/kg subcutaneously, intramuscularly or intravenously
every four to six hours. (B602.41.w41,
- 0.1 - 1.0 mg/kg subcutaneously, intramuscularly or intravenously
every four hours. (B548.w8)
- 0.1 - 0.5 mg/kg subcutaneously every four hours. (B546)
- Note: use of higher doses has also been suggested: 1.0 - 5.0
mg/kg subcutaneously every 4 - 6 hours. (B548.w8)
- However, "Lower dose preferred." (B548.w8)
- Used in combination with Medetomidine
and Ketamine for
sedation/anaesthesia. See: Medetomidine-Ketamine-Butorphanol Anaesthesia in Rabbits
Ferrets - Mustela
putorius furo - Ferret:
- 0.05 - 0.5 mg/kg subcutaneously or intramuscularly every 8 - 12
- 0.05 - 0.5 mg/kg subcutaneously or intramuscularly every four
- 0.05 - 2.0 m/kg intramuscularly or subcutanoeuly, every four hours. (J213.3.w1)
- Ketamine 5 mg/kg plus Medetomidine
80 µg plus Butorphanol
100 µg intramuscularly or subcutaneously. Note: if the 100
µg dose of butorphanol is exceeded, hypoxia may occur. (B626.App.w22)
1.5 mg plus Xylazine 1.5
mg/kg plus Butorphanol
0.2 mg/kg intramuscularly. Can be combined in one syringe.
Xylazine can be reversed using yohimbine 0.5 mg/kg intramuscularly. (J213.3.w1)
- 0.1 - 0.2 mg/kg intramuscularly or intravenously. (B336.39.w39)
- This is used in combination with other agents, in chemical
- Can be reversed with Naloxone,
0.02 mg/kg intramuscularly or intravenously. (B336.39.w39)
- Induction of anaesthesia:
- Ketamine 2.0 - 3.0
mg/kg plus Medetomidine
0.02 - 0.04 mg/kg plus butorphanol 0.2 - 0.4 mg/kg can
be used for induction of anaesthesia in great apes. Oxygen should be
supplied, plus additional inhalant anaesthetic agent as required.
The anaesthetised individual should be monitored closely. (B336.39.w39)
- Primates: 0.05 - 0.1 mg/kg intramuscularly twice daily. (D425.3.15.w3o)