Summary Information
Classification Chemicals / Complex Chemical Agents / Type:

(This chemicals section is currently predominantly used in Wildpro to link different data types and demonstrate inter-relationships. It does not contain detailed information on the chemical itself.)

Alternative Names --
Notes Information in this page has been entered to support the current volumes of Wildpro and further information will be added as new volumes are completed. This page is not intended to substitute for the manufacturer's data sheet and the information is not yet complete for all species, or for all contra-indications etc.

CAUTION: Before any pharmaceutical product is used, the manufacturer's data sheet, containing information on uses, dosage and administration, contra-indications, warnings etc., should always be consulted. It is important to remember that licensing of pharmaceutical products for use in a particular species/condition, as well as mandatory meat and milk withdrawal times for food-producing animals, varies between countries and changes with time. Withdrawal times also may vary between different pharmaceutical formulations and depending on route of administration. In the EU, the prescription cascade must be followed (see LCofC1.2H and W564.Apr05.w1); note that specific restrictions apply for food-producing animals. In the USA, FARAD may be consulted regarding residues and meat and milk withdrawal times.

Third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic. (B263)

  • Cephalosporins inhibit mucopeptide synthesis in bacterial cell walls. This results in a defective cell wall and an osmotically unstable spheroplast. (B263)
  • Compared with first and second-generation cephalosporins (e.g. Cephalexin), third-generation cephalexins, while retaining good activity against Gram-positive bacteria, also have an expanded activity against Gram-negative organisms. (B263)
  • Widely distributed to most tissues and fluids, including in bone (increased levels in inflamed bone), pleural fluid, pericardial fluid, synovial fluid. (B263)
  • High levels in urine and may reach therapeutic concentrations in bile if no biliary obstruction. (B263)
  • Poor penetration into the prostate and into the aqueous humour of the eye. (B263)
  • Does not reach therapeutically effective levels in the cerebrospinal fluid even when the meninges are inflamed. (B263)
  • Low concentrations reached in milk. (B263)
  • Fetal serum levels may reach or pass 10% of maternal serum levels. (B263)
  • Wide, species-specific variation in plasma protein binding. (B263)
  • Excretion of cephalosporins is via the kidneys; tubular secretion and/or glomerular filtration. (B263)

Drug interactions:

  • Potential additive nephrotoxicity if cephalosporins are used concurrently with parenteral aminoglycosides or other nephrotoxic drugs. (B263)
  • Synergistic or additive activity may occur when used concurrently with aminoglycosides, penicillins or chloramphenicol, against certain bacteria. (B263)
  • Use concurrently with bacteriostatic antibiotics is not generally recommended, particularly in acute infections with rapidly-proliferating bacteria. (B263)
  • Serum levels and serum half lives are increased by administration of probenecid as this blocks the tubular secretion by the kidneys of most cephalosporins. (B263)

The following information is taken with permission directly from the Elephant Care International website (W580.Sept2005.w8):


a) 2.2 – 4.4 mg/kg (Houck, 1986)

b) 1.1 mg/kg IM (Schmidt, 1986)

c) Naxcel can be reconstituted with less diluent than the package recommendations (25 to 35 ml vs 80 ml) and injections are well-tolerated (Mikota, 2003).

d) See also Cephalosporins (General Information) 

Elephant References:

a) Houck, R: Senior Veterinarian, Ringling Brothers and Barnum and Bailey Circus, 8607 Westwood Center Drive, Vienna, Virginia, 22182, personal communication, 1986. In: Olsen,J.H., 1999. Antibiotic therapy in elephants. In: Fowler,M.E. and Miller R.E. (Editors), Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine: Current Therapy 4. W.B. Saunders, 
Philadelphia, PA,USA p. 538

b) Schmidt, M.J: Senior Research Veterinarian, Washington Park Zoo, Portland, Oregon, personal communication, 1986. In: Olsen,J.H., 1999. Antibiotic therapy in elephants. In: Fowler,M.E. and Miller R.E. (Editors), Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine: Current Therapy 4. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, PA,USA p. 538

c) Author’s (Mikota) experience. 

Lagomorphs - Oryctolagus cuniculus domesticus - Domestic rabbit:

Great Apes

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