Chemicals / Complex Chemical Agents/ Chemical:
Clavulanic Acid

INFORMATION AVAILABLE

GENERAL CHEMICAL INFORMATION THERAPEUTIC INFORMATION [DOSE, FREQUENCY & ROUTE]

NUTRITIONAL INFORMATION

TOXICITY INFORMATION ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION
Information in this page has been entered to support the current volumes of Wildpro and further information will be added as new volumes are completed. This page is not intended to substitute for the manufacturer's data sheet and the information is not yet complete for all species, or for all contra-indications etc.

Before any pharmaceutical product is used, the manufacturer's data sheet, containing information on uses, dosage and administration, contra-indications, warnings etc., should always be consulted."

General Chemical Information

Summary 
Beta-lactamase inhibitor use in combination with amoxycillin to increase the range of action of the antibiotic. (B201.1.w1)

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Names and Formulae
Type Beta-lactamase inhibitor. (B201..1.w1)
Alternative Names
  • Potassium clavulanate (the form present in commercially available preparations). (B201.1.w1, B263)
Chemical Formula C8H9NO5 (W324)
Chemical Structure
Molecular Weight 199.1628. (W324)
Related Chemicals --

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Physical Properties / Chemistry
Appearance

Off-white crystalline powder. (B263)

Melting point --
Boiling point --
Density --
Water solubility --
Other solubility --
Acid/Base

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Pharmacology & General Information
Pharmacology
  • Competitively and irreversibly binds to beta-lactamases, including types II, II, IV and IV, and penicillinases produced by Staphylococcus spp. (B263)
Storage / Stability
  • Store amoxycillin/potassium clavulanate products at temperatures below 24 C (75 F) in tight containers; protect from excessive humidity. (B263)
  • Store reconstituted oral suspensions refrigerated; discard after ten days. (B263)
Legal Category (In UK) --

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References

Associated Techniques

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ORGANISATIONS

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ELECTRONIC LIBRARY
(Further Reading)
Click image for full contents list of ELECTRONIC LIBRARY

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Authors Debra Bourne (V.w5)
Referees Suzanne I. Boardman (V.w6); Becki Lawson (V.w26)

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Therapeutic Information

Uses/Indications
Activity
  • As a potent inhibitor of beta-lactamase its presence in preparations of amoxycillin makes the combined product active against most strains of Staphylococcus aureus and some Escherichia coli, also against Bacteroides spp. and Klebsiella spp. (B201.1.w1)
Appropriate Use
  • For use in combination with amoxycillin against amoxycillin-sensitive bacterial infections including infections with micro-organisms producing beta-lactamase. (B201.1.w1)

Indications:

  • USA: oral amoxycillin/potassium clavulanate tablets/suspensions are approved for use in dogs and cats for treatment of urinary tract, skin and soft tissue infections caused by susceptible organisms and in dogs for periodontal disease caused by susceptible strains of bacteria. (B263)
Limitations
  • No significant intrinsic antibacterial activity. (B201.1.w1) Weak antibacterial activity alone. (B263)
  • Little if any synergistic action if used in combination with Amoxycillin against organisms which are anyway susceptible to amoxycillin. (B263)
  • Usually ineffective against type I cephalosporinases (plasmid-mediated, often produced by Enterobacteriaceae, particularly Pseudomonas aeruginosa). (B263)
  • Amoxycillin/clavulanate preparations are usually ineffective against Staphylococcus spp. which are resistant to penicillinase-resistant penicillins (such as oxacillin). (B263)
Notes --

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Pharmacokinetics and Drug Interactions
Absorption /Bioavailability
  • Following oral administration, relatively stable in the presence of gastric acid and readily absorbed from the gastro-intestinal tract. (B263)
  • Dog: Absorption half life 0.39 hours; peak levels about one hour after administration. (B263)
Distribution
  • Distributed with amoxycillin into lungs, pleural fluid, peritoneal fluid. (B263)
  • Low concentrations in the saliva, sputum and cerebro-spinal fluid. (B263)
    • Higher concentrations in the cerebro-spinal fluid in individuals with inflamed meninges. (B263)
  • Readily crosses the placenta. (B263)
  • Low concentrations in milk. (B263)
Plasma Protein binding / Storage
  • Dogs: 13% plasma protein-bound. v
Elimination Route
  • Extensively metabolised, mainly to 1-amino-4-hydroxybutan-2-one. (B263)
  • Some of the drug is excreted unchanged in urine (glomerular filtration). (B263)
    • Urine levels are considered high, but may be only one fifth of the levels of amoxycillin.  (B263)
  • Dog: 34-52% excreted in urine (unchanged drub and metabolites), 25-27% excreted in faeces, 16-33% excreted into respired air. (B263)
Elimination half-life / Clearance Rate --
Drug Interactions
  • There is no evidence that the presence of clavulanic acid affects the pharmacokinetics of amoxycillin. (B263)

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Administration
Formulations available In UK:
  • Synulox (Pfizer Limited) (Amoxycillin/clavulaniic acid) various forms including palatable drops, palatable tablets and ready-to-use injection. (B266)
Doses / Administration Routes / Frequencies

Use of Drugs (Medication):

  • Before administration of any pharmaceutical product the manufacturer's datasheet must be consulted regarding operator safety, relevant withdrawal times etc.
  • Many drugs are not registered for use in particular species and additional care should be taken in their use, with proper regard for possible toxic effects. 
  • Consideration should be given to relevant legislation regarding the use of drugs.
  • In the UK, guidelines regarding the use of drugs are set out in the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons' Guide to Professional Conduct 2000: (See: LCofC1 - RCVS Guide to Professional Conduct 2000 - Choice of Medicinal Products).
General comments:
  • See Amoxycillin
  • Note: doses given are combined dose of amoxycillin plus clavulanate. (B263)
Monitoring parameters --

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Withdrawal period / Withholding time
Notes Before the use of any pharmaceutical product in food-producing animals the label instructions for the product should be consulted regarding withdrawal requirements.

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Toxic Information

Toxic effects of Pharmaceutical Products
Contraindications / Precautions --
Adverse Effects / Side Effects / Warnings --
Operator Warnings Before the use of any pharmaceutical product the label instructions for the product should be consulted regarding operator safety/warnings.
Overdose / Acute Toxicity --

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Detailed Toxicological Information
Classification --
Acute Toxicity --
Chronic Toxicity --
Reproductive effects --
Teratogenic effects --
Mutagenic effects --
Carcinogenic effects

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Organ toxicity --
Bird Toxicity --
Aquatic organism activity --
Other organism toxicity --

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Nutrient Information

Nutritional Data
Sources --
Biological Use --
Recommended Daily Allowance / Recommended level in food --
Stability in food (Storage time) --
Interactions --

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External / Environmental Information

External / Environmental Uses
Use --
Formulation --
Application method --
Application Concentration --
Persistence of Effect / Frequency of Application --

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Effects on the Environment
Effects in the aquatic environment

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Effects on land --

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Persistence in the Environment
Breakdown in soil and groundwater

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Breakdown in water --
Breakdown in vegetation --

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