Chemicals / Complex Chemical Agents/ Chemical:

Clindamycin (with special reference to Hedgehogs, Lagomorphs, Ferrets and Great Apes)

INFORMATION AVAILABLE

GENERAL CHEMICAL INFORMATION THERAPEUTIC INFORMATION [DOSE, FREQUENCY & ROUTE]

NUTRITIONAL INFORMATION

TOXICITY INFORMATION ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION
Information in this page has been entered to support the current volumes of Wildpro and further information will be added as new volumes are completed. This page is not intended to substitute for the manufacturer's data sheet and the information is not yet complete for all species, or for all contra-indications etc.

CAUTION: Before any pharmaceutical product is used, the manufacturer's data sheet, containing information on uses, dosage and administration, contra-indications, warnings etc., should always be consulted. It is important to remember that licensing of pharmaceutical products for use in a particular species/condition, as well as mandatory meat and milk withdrawal times for food-producing animals, varies between countries and changes with time. Withdrawal times also may vary between different pharmaceutical formulations and depending on route of administration. In the EU, the prescription cascade must be followed (see LCofC1.2H and W564.Apr05.w1); note that specific restrictions apply for food-producing animals. In the USA, FARAD may be consulted regarding residues and meat and milk withdrawal times.

General Chemical Information

Summary 
Lincosamide antibiotic with activity against many anaerobes, Gram-positive aerobic cocci, and protozoa such as Toxoplasma gondii (Apicomplexa). (B263)

Return to Top of Page

Names and Formulae
Type Semisynthetic derivative of lincomycin. (B263)
Alternative Names "Cleocin; L-threo-alpha-D-galacto-Octopyranoside, methyl 7-chloro-6,7,8-trideoxy-6-(((1-methyl-4-propyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)carbon yl) amino)-1-thio-, (2S-trans)-, Hydrochloride monohydrate; Dalacin C; Sobelin; 7(S)-Chloro-7-deoxylincomycin; 7-Deoxy-7(S)-chlorolincomycin; Dalactine; U-21251; Antirobe; Klimicin C; Klimicin; Methyl 7-chloro-6,7,8-trideoxy-6-(1-methyl-trans-4-propyl-L-2-pyrrolidinecarboxamido)-1-thio-L-threo-alpha-D-galacto-octopyranoside; Clindatech; Dalacin; Hydrochloride monohydrate (Dalactine); Klimicin Methyl xamido)-1-thio-L-threo-alpha-D-galacto-octopyranoside; Methyl 7-cloro-6, 7, hio-L-threo-alpha-D-galacto-octopyranosido." (W324)
Chemical Formula C18H33ClN2O5S (W324)
Chemical Structure --
Molecular Weight 424.9821. (W324)
Related Chemicals --

Return to Top of Page

Physical Properties / Chemistry
Appearance
  • Clindamycin hydrochloride hydrate: white or practically white crystalline powder with a faint characteristic odour.(B263)

  • Clindamycin phosphate ester: white to off-white hygroscopic crystalline powder with a faint characteristic odour. (B263)

  • Clindamycin palmitate hydrochloride: white to off-white amorphous powder with a faint characteristic odour. (B263)

Melting point --
Boiling point --
Density --
Water solubility
  • Clindamycin hydrochloride hydrate: freely soluble in water. (B263)

  • Clindamycin phosphate ester: freely soluble in water (400mg soluble in 1.0 ml of water). (B263)

  • Clindamycin palmitate hydrochloride: freely soluble in water. (B263)

Other solubility  
Acid/Base
  • Commercially available injection: pH 5.5-7.(B263)

Return to Top of Page

Pharmacology & General Information
Pharmacology
  • Lincosamides are believed to act by binding to the 50S ribosomal subunit of susceptible bacteria and thus inhibiting formation of peptide bonds. (B263)
  • May be bacteriostatic or bactericidal depending on (a) the concentration of drug at the site of infection; (b) the susceptibility of the organism. (B263)
  • Possesses intrinsic neuromuscular blocking activity. (B263)
Storage / Stability
  • Clindamycin palmitate hydrochloride powder for oral suspension: store at room temperature. (B263)

  • Clindamycin palmitate hydrochloride oral suspension (product for human use) once reconstituted: store at room temperature  (15-30C) for up to two weeks; do not refrigerate as thickening may occur. (B263)

  • Clindamycin hydrochloride hydrate oral suspension (product for veterinary use) once reconstituted: store at room temperature  (15-30C); extended shelf-life. (B263)

  • Clindamycin hydrochloride hydrate oral capsules: store at room temperature (15-30C). (B263)

  • Clindamycin phosphate injection: store at room temperature; crystals may form with refrigeration or freezing but these resolubilise on warming. (B263)

Legal Category (In UK) --

Return to Top of Page

References

Associated Techniques

--

ORGANISATIONS

--

ELECTRONIC LIBRARY
(Further Reading)
Click image for full contents list of ELECTRONIC LIBRARY

--
Authors Debra Bourne (V.w5)
Referees Suzanne I. Boardman (V.w6); Becki Lawson (V.w26)

Return to Top of Page

Therapeutic Information

Uses/Indications
Activity
  • Active against most Gram-positive aerobic cocci including Staphylococcus and Streptococcus  spp. (not including Streptococcus faecalis).(B263)
  • Active against Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Nocardia asteroides, Erysipelothrix, Toxoplasma and Mycoplasma spp.(B263)
  • Generally active against anaerobic bacteria including Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium tetani (but not Clostridium difficile), Bacteroides spp. (including many Bacteroides fragilis strains), Fusobacterium spp., Peptostreptococcus spp., Actinomyces spp. and Peptococcus spp.(B263)
  • Usually more active against any given organism than is lincomycin.(B201.1.w1, B263)
Appropriate Use
  • Clindamycin-sensitive organisms. (B201.1.w1)
  • Particularly against staphylococcal osteomyelitis. (B201.1.w1)
  • In dogs: Staphylococcus aureus wounds, abscesses and osteomyelitis (in-label use). (B263)
  • Against pathogenic anaerobic organisms. (B263)
  • Against protozoal infections such as toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii infection) (Toxoplasmosis). (B263)
Limitations
Notes
  • Complete cross-resistance between clindamycin and lincomycin. (B263)
  • Partial cross-resistance between clindamycin/lincomycin and erythromycin. (B263)
  • Absorption appears not to be affected significantly by kaolin.(B263)

Return to Top of Page

Pharmacokinetics and Drug Interactions
Absorption /Bioavailability
  • After oral dosing: peak serum levels reached in about 45 to 60 minutes (in humans).(B263)
    • Decreased rate of absorption in the presence of food but total absorption not affected (in humans).(B263)
  • After intramuscular injection: peak serum levels reached after about one to three hours (in humans). (B263)
Distribution
  • Widely distributed to most tissues, with therapeutic levels reached in bone, synovial fluid, bile, pleural fluid, peritoneal fluid, skin, heart muscle (in humans). (B263)
  • Good penetration into abscesses and white blood cells (in humans). (B263)
  • CNS levels may reach 40% of serum levels if the meninges are inflamed (in humans). (B263)
  • Crosses the placenta; cord blood concentrations about 46% of maternal serum levels. (in humans). (B263)
  • In milk reaches concentrations similar to plasma levels (in humans). (B263)
Plasma Protein binding / Storage
  • Plasma protein binding of about 93% (in humans). (B263)
Elimination Route
  • Partially metabolised in the liver: both active and inactive metabolites are produced. (B263)
  • Unchanged drug and metabolites are excreted in urine, bile and faeces. (B263)
Elimination half-life / Clearance Rate
  • In dogs: after oral administration elimination half life three to five hours; after subcutaneous administration elimination half-life 10 to 13 hours.(B263)
  • Prolonged half-live in individuals with severe renal dysfunction or severe hepatic dysfunction. (B263)
Drug Interactions
  • Use with caution in conjunction with other neuromuscular blocking agents.(B263)
  • Antagonism with erythromycin shown in vitro. (B263)
  • Possible antagonism with chloramphenicol (not confirmed).(B263)

Clindamycin for injection:

  • Reported compatible with: "amikacin sulfate, ampicillin sodiumaztreonam, carbenicillin disodium, cefamandole naftate, cefazolin sodium, cefonicid sodium, cefoperazone sodium, cefotaxime sodium, ceftazimide sodium, ceftizoxime sodium, cefuroxime sodium, cephalothrin sodium, cimetidine HCl, gentamicin sulfate, heparin sodium, hydrocortisone sodium succinate, kanamycin sulfate, methylprednisolone sodium succinate, magnesium sulfate, mepiridine HCl, metoclopramide HCl, metronidazole, morphine sulfate, penicillin G potassium/sodium, piperacillin sodium, potassium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, tobramycin HCl (not in syringes), verapamil HCl, and vitamin B-complex with C." (B263) In intravenous solutions, reportedly compatible for at least 24 hours with: "D5W, Dextrose combinations with Ringer's, lactated Ringer's, sodium chloride, D10W, sodium chloride 0.9%, Ringer's injection, and lactated Ringer's injection." (B263)
  • Reported incompatible with: aminophylline, ranitidine HCl, ceftriaxone sodium. (B263)
  • Compatibility is affected by factors including pH, concentration, temperature and diluents used. (B263)

Return to Top of Page

Administration
Formulations available In UK:
Doses / Administration Routes / Frequencies

Use of Drugs (Medication):

  • Before administration of any pharmaceutical product the manufacturer's datasheet must be consulted regarding operator safety, relevant withdrawal times etc.
  • Many drugs are not registered for use in particular species and additional care should be taken in their use, with proper regard for possible toxic effects. 
  • Consideration should be given to relevant legislation regarding the use of drugs.
  • In the UK, guidelines regarding the use of drugs are set out in the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons' Guide to Professional Conduct 2000: (See: LCofC1 - RCVS Guide to Professional Conduct 2000 - Choice of Medicinal Products).
General comments:
  • For the treatment of toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasmosis): 12.5 mg/kg orally or intramuscularly every 12 hours for 28 days. (B263)
  • For the treatment of toxoplasmosis: 5-20 mg/kg intravenously, intramuscularly, subcutaneously or orally every 12 hours for 15 days. (B263)

Erinaceus europaeus - West European Hedgehog:

  • 5-10 mg/kg twice daily. Orally. (J15.21.w1)
  • 5.5 mg/kg orally every twelve hours. For anaerobes; in dental disease. (B267)
  • 10-20 mg/kg twice daily orally. For infected wounds, abscesses and dental infections. (B284.6.w6)
  • 20 mg/kg twice daily. Particularly for dental problems and bone infections. (D93)
  • 12.5 mg/kg once daily for five days orally. (D107)

Lagomorphs - Oryctolagus cuniculus domesticus - Domestic rabbit:

  • Use is contraindicated as lincosamides cause potentially fatal clostridial enterotoxaemia (Clostridial Enteritis and Enterotoxicosis in Rabbits). (B546)
  • "Do not use." (B602.41.w41)
  • Note: Clindamycin has been used topically in the treatment of abscesses in rabbits:
    • In antibiotic impregnated poly-methyl methacrylate (AIPMMA) beads (See: Production of Antibiotic-Impregnated Beads (Techniques)).
    •  In some cases of head abscesses, a 25 mg clindamycin capsule can be pricked using a needle, and then sutured into the cavity of the abscess to provide a slow release antibiotic. Simultaneous probiotic use in the rabbit's diet is recommended. (B606.4.w4)

Ferrets - Mustela putorius furo - Ferret:

  • "Aquadrops have 25 mg/mL, dog dose is 5.5 mg/100g, approx 6mg/0.25 mL for ferrets. No apparent toxicity with use in one 600 g body weight gill at 25 mL for 23 days. Bitter taste; give a sugar/honey bolus before and after. (B626.App.w22)
  • 5 - 10 mg/kg orally every 12 hours. (B602.41.w41, B631.21.w21, J213.3.w1)

Great Apes

  • Adult Pan troglodytes - Chimpanzee: 150-300 mg orally four times daily, or 300 - 600 mg intramuscularly twice daily or three times daily. (W768.Jun2012.w1)
  • 5.5 - 11 mg/kg intramuscularly or orally twice daily. CAUTION: can cause clostridial overgrowth and colitis; use with caution when giving orally. Give Protexin (probiotic) during treatment. (D425.3.15.w3o)
  • Primate: 12.5 - 25 mg/kg twice daily. In the treatment of Toxoplasmosis. (D425.3.15.w3o)
Monitoring parameters
  • Clinical efficacy. (B263)
  • Severe diarrhoea or other adverse effects. (B263)
  • With prolonged therapy (more than 30 days), periodic kidney and liver function tests, and blood counts, are recommended by the manufacturer. (B263)

Return to Top of Page

Withdrawal period / Withholding time
Notes Before the use of any pharmaceutical product in food-producing animals the label instructions for the product should be consulted regarding withdrawal requirements.

Return to Top of Page

Toxic Information

Toxic effects of Pharmaceutical Products
Contraindications / Precautions
  • Caution if used in individuals with hepatic or renal dysfunction. Decrease in dose may be required in individuals with severe hepatic or renal dysfunction.(B201.1.w1, B263)
    • Monitor renal/hepatic function and blood parameters if treatment is prolonged. (B201.1.w1)
  • Contraindicated in horses, rodents (hamsters, chinchillas, guineapigs), lagomorphs (rabbits), ruminants: may cause serious, sometimes fatal gastrointestinal effects (B201.1.w1, B263)
  • Contraindicated in individuals known to be hypersensitive to lincosamides (clindamycin, lincomycin).(B201.1.w1, B263)
  • Use with caution in conjunction with other neuromuscular blocking agents.(B263)
Adverse Effects / Side Effects / Warnings
  • Dogs, cats: gastroenteritis with emesis, loose stools and infrequently in dogs bloody diarrhoea.(B263)
  • Pain at site of intramuscular injection.(B263)
  • Puppies/kittens may develop diarrhoea following dosing of their lactating mother. (B263)
  • "Safety in breeding animals has not been established." (B201.1.w1)
  • In cattle: trace amounts of lincomycin (accidental contamination of foodstuffs) may lead to drop in milk production, inappetance, diarrhoea and sometimes ketosis. (B201.1.w1)
Operator Warnings Before the use of any pharmaceutical product the label instructions for the product should be consulted regarding operator safety/warnings.
Overdose / Acute Toxicity --

Return to Top of Page

Detailed Toxicological Information
Classification --
Acute Toxicity --
Chronic Toxicity
  • Dogs: no toxicity following oral administration of up to 300mg/kg per day for up to one year. (B263)
  • Dogs: following oral administration of 600mg/kg per day, signs of anorexia, vomiting and weight loss. (B263)
Reproductive effects --
Teratogenic effects
  • No implication of teratogenic effects however safe use during pregnancy has not been established. (B263)
Mutagenic effects --
Carcinogenic effects

--

Organ toxicity --
Bird Toxicity --
Aquatic organism activity --
Other organism toxicity --

Return to Top of Page

Nutrient Information

Nutritional Data
Sources --
Biological Use --
Recommended Daily Allowance / Recommended level in food --
Stability in food (Storage time) --
Interactions --

Return to Top of Page

External / Environmental Information

External / Environmental Uses
Use --
Formulation --
Application method --
Application Concentration --
Persistence of Effect / Frequency of Application --

Return to Top of Page

Effects on the Environment
Effects in the aquatic environment

--

Effects on land --

Return to Top of Page

Persistence in the Environment
Breakdown in soil and groundwater

--

Breakdown in water --
Breakdown in vegetation --

Return to Top of Page