/ Administration Routes / Frequencies
Use of Drugs
- Before administration of any pharmaceutical product the manufacturer's datasheet must be
consulted regarding operator safety, relevant withdrawal times etc.
- Many drugs are not registered for use in particular species and
additional care should
be taken in their use, with proper regard for possible toxic effects.
- Consideration should
be given to relevant legislation regarding the use of drugs.
- In the UK, guidelines regarding the use of drugs are set out in the Royal College
of Veterinary Surgeons' Guide to Professional Conduct 2000: (See: LCofC1
- RCVS Guide to Professional Conduct 2000 - Choice of Medicinal Products).
- Dosing regimen should produce high peak plasma concentrations as
this drug operates by a concentration-dependent killing mechanism. (B201.1.w1)
Erinaceus europaeus - West European Hedgehog:
- 10 mg/kg twice daily. Orally, intramuscularly, subcutaneously or
- 10-20 mg/kg twice daily intramuscularly or subcutaneously. Broad
spectrum, particularly useful for respiratory tract infections and for
- 10 mg/kg subcutaneously or orally, once daily for at least five days.
- 12.5 mg/kg once daily for five days subcutaneously. For infected
- 25 mg/kg once daily for 3-5 days subcutaneous. For chest
Atelerix albiventris - Four-toed hedgehog:
"Hedgehog" (species not distinguished between Atelerix albiventris - Four-toed hedgehog
or Erinaceus europaeus - West European Hedgehog):
- 2.5-5.0 mg/kg orally or intramuscularly every 12 hours. (B267)
- 5-10 mg/kg orally, subcutaneously or intramuscularly every twelve
- 5.0-10.0 mg/kg oral, intramuscularly or subcutaneously every 12 hours. Broad
- 5.0-10.0 mg/kg orally or subcutaneously, every 12 hours. (B150.w1)
- Asian Elephant
- 1.33 mg/kg intramuscularly once daily was given for nine days;
enrofloxacin was chosen based on culture
and sensitivity for infection of a urogenital surgical wound. (P1.1996.w1)
- In a pharmacokinetic study, enrofloxacin was administered orally to
captive adult female Elephas maximus
- Asian Elephants
at 2.5 mg/kg bodyweight. Tablets were given either mixed in a gruel of
pellets, rolled oats, rice bran and water, or in balls of
mixture of rolled oats, bran and molasses. Both forms were accepted by
the elephants. Three elephants were given only hay for six
hours after dosing while three received pellets and grain also within
two hours after dosing. The harmonic mean half-life after was 18.4 hours for all
elephants, peak serum concentration of enrofloxacin was 1.31 +/- 0.40
µg/mL (mean +/- SD) at 5.0 +/- 4.2 hours after administration. The
was 20.72 +/- 4.25 (µg x h)/mL. It was noted that the
elimination half-life was prolonged compared to the value in horses
for orally administered enrofloxacin and that the dose of 2.5 mg/kg
produced potentially therapeutic serum concentrations and could be
given once daily. "Analysis of these results suggests that enrofloxacin administered with feed in the manner described in this study could be a potentially useful antimicrobial for use in treatment of captive Asian elephants with infections attributable to organisms, such as Bordetella spp, Escherichia coli, Mycoplasma spp, Pasteurella spp, Haemophilus spp, Salmonella spp, and Staphylococcus spp."
Ciprofloxacin was also detectable in serum, but at low, variable
levels (mean 0.1 +/- 0.07 µg/mL at five hours). (J13.66.w1)
The following information is taken with permission directly from the
International website (W580.Aug2005.w10):
a) 1.07 – 1.25 mg/kg orally BID. No adverse effects noted after 2 weeks (Schmidt, 1986).
b) 1.5 – 2.8 mg/kg orally once daily. Blood levels evaluated on one elephant found that once daily dosing maintained blood levels (Houck, 1986).
a) Schmidt, M.J: Senior Research Veterinarian, Washington Park Zoo, Portland, Oregon, personal communication, 1986. In: Olsen,J.H., 1999.
Antibiotic therapy in elephants. In: Fowler,M.E. and Miller R.E. (Editors), Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine: Current Therapy 4. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, PA,USA p. 538
b) Houck, R: Senior Veterinarian, Ringling Brothers and Barnum and Bailey Circus, 8607 Westwood Center Drive, Vienna, Virginia, 22182, personal communication, 1986. In: Olsen,J.H., 1999.
Antibiotic therapy in elephants. In: Fowler,M.E. and Miller R.E. (Editors), Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine: Current Therapy 4. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, PA,USA p.538
Bears (Ursidae - Bears (Family)):
- Oryctolagus cuniculus domesticus - Domestic rabbit:
- 5 mg/kg orally once daily or as a divided dose twice daily; or
injection 5 mg/kg once daily. (B373.1.w1)
- Note: in young individuals, may cause arthropathies. Limit
administration by subcutaneous or intramuscular injection, as these
routes may leas to muscle necrosis or development of sterile abscess. (B548.w8)
- 5 - 10 mg/kg orally or subcutaneously twice daily. (B373.Guide.w41)
- 5 - 10 mg/kg subcutaneously, orally or intravenously every 12 hours
or 20 mg/kg subcutaneously, orally or intravenously every 24 hours, or
100 - 200 mg/L drinking water. (B546)
- 5 mg/kg orally, subcutaneously, intramuscularly or intravenously
every 12 hours. (B548.w8)
- 5 - 10 mg/kg orally, subcutaneously, or intramuscularly every 12
- 5 - 20 mg/kg orally or intramuscularly every 12 hours. For 14 -
30 days for treatment of Pasteurellosis in Lagomorphs.
- 100 mg per litre of drinking water. In a clinical trial, this was
effective against Pasteurellosis in Lagomorphs
if intake exceeded 5 mg/kg per 24 hours. (B548.w8)
- 200 mg per litre of drinking water. In a clinical trial against Pasteurellosis in Lagomorphs,
for 14 days. (B548.w8)
- 5 mg/kg twice daily subcutaneously, 10 mg/kg once daily
subcutaneously, or 5 - 10 mg/kg orally twice daily. (B600.4.w4)
- 5 mg/kg orally, subcutaneously or intramuscularly every 12 hours. (B601.15.w15)
- 50 - 100 mg per litre of drinking water. (B373.Guide.w41,
- 5 -15 mg/kg orally, subcutaneously or intramuscularly every 12
- 10 mg/kg orally every 12 hours. Good oral bioavailability, wide
tissue distribution, broad-spectrum including against Pasteurella,
Bordatella, Staphylococcus, Listeria and Yersinia
spp.. Not effective against anaerobic bacteria, therefore a poor
choice in the treatment of bite wounds and tooth-related abscesses.
Ferrets - Mustela
putorius furo - Ferret:
- 3 - 5 mg/kg subcutaneously or intramuscularly or 5 - 15 mg/kg
orally twice daily. Note: injection site necrosis may
occur. Not suitable for use in young ferrets due to the potential for
joint cartilage erosion. "Broad spectrum drug for hepatitis
especially. Use low dosage. Injectable form can be given orally mixed
in syrup." May be overused, resistance may be a problem.
Possible long-term toxicity. (B626.App.w22)
- 10 - 20 mg/kg intramuscularly, subcutaneously or orally every 12 -
24 hours. "Injectable form causes inflammation and necrosis.
Oral suspension made from tablets in the US; oral suspension available
commercially in the UK." (B631.21.w21)
- 5.0 - 10 mg/kg orally, subcutaneously or intramuscularly every 12
hours. Oral route preferable; tissue necrosis can occur with
intramuscular or subcutaneous administration, so avoid these routes if
- 10 - 20 mg/kg intramuscularly, subcutaneously or orally twice daily.
Pan troglodytes - Chimpanzee:
5 mg/kg intramuscularly, orally or subcutaneously, once daily. (W768.Jun2012.w1)
- In the treatment of
Shigellosis, 8.5 mg/kg
orally in drink if the individual will take it, otherwise parenterally. (P6.2.w10)
- Primates: 5 mg/kg subcutaneously, intramuscularly or orally once
or twice daily. Broad spectrum activity, particularly against
Gram-negatives. Useful for respiratory tracta nd gastro-intestinal
tract infections, and for any severe infection. Difficult to give orally
due to its unpleasant taste. Caution in juveniles as can cause arthropathy.
- 8 - 15 mg/kg orallyor intramuscularly every 12 hours.
- Potential to cause necrosis when given intramuscularly,
therefore oral administration whenever possible. (B336.20.w20)
Broad spectrum. (B12.56.w14,
- Active against mycoplasmas and chlamydial organisms. (B12.56.w14)