/ Administration Routes / Frequencies
Use of Drugs
- Before administration of any pharmaceutical product the manufacturer's datasheet must be
consulted regarding operator safety, relevant withdrawal times etc.
- Many drugs are not registered for use in particular species and
additional care should
be taken in their use, with proper regard for possible toxic effects.
- Consideration should
be given to relevant legislation regarding the use of drugs.
- In the UK, guidelines regarding the use of drugs are set out in the Royal College
of Veterinary Surgeons' Guide to Professional Conduct 2000: (See: LCofC1
- RCVS Guide to Professional Conduct 2000 - Choice of Medicinal Products).
- Dogs, cats: single dose not effective; three days of treatment are
- Generally 50 mg/kg orally for three consecutive days, e.g. for
susceptible ascarids, hookworms, whipworms and tapeworms (active
against Taenia spp. tapeworms but not against Dipylidium
- For Giardia infection, 50 mg/kg orally daily for three days,
or 25 mg/kg orally every 12 hours for 3-7 days. (B263)
- For Capillaria aerophila, 25-50 mg/kg every 12 hours for
10-14 days, or 50 mg/kg orally once daily for 10-14 days. (B263)
- For roundworms, tapeworms and Giardia. Orally, 50 mg/kg daily
for three days (treatment in adults); 50 mg/kg daily for three days in
pups under six months old, for prophylaxis; 100 mg/kg as a single dose
for treatment in adults. (B373.2.w2)
- For transplacental transmission, 25 mg/kg daily from day 40 of
pregnancy through to two days postpartum. (B373.2.w2)
- For lungworms, 50 mg/kg daily for seven days. (B373.2.w2)
Bears (Ursidae - Bears (Family)):
Erinaceus europaeus - West European Hedgehog:
- 100 mg/kg oral once daily for five to seven days. (J15.21.w1)
- > 500 bodyweight, 10 mg/100g bodyweight; <500 g
bodyweight, 5mg/100g bodyweight or 20-30 mg/kg bodyweight, oral. for
five days (lungworm); for two days (gastro-intestinal worms). For lungworms
Crenosoma, Capillaria; nematodes of the
stomach and intestines, Acanthocephala, Capillaria spp..
- 100 mg/kg once daily for five days. Useful as an in-feed
treatment of gastro-intestinal nematodes and against lungworms; may
have some effect against tapeworms. (B284.6.w6)
- 220 mg/kg oral, three doses at two-week intervals. (D107)
Atelerix albiventris - Four-toed hedgehog:
- 20-30 mg/kg orally for ten days. For nematodes. (B267)
- 10-30 mg/kg oral; repeat after 2-3 weeks. (J204.59.w1)
"Hedgehog" (species not distinguished between Atelerix albiventris - Four-toed hedgehog
or Erinaceus europaeus - West European Hedgehog):
- 5 mg/kg orally every 24 hours for five days. For nematodes. (B267)
- 10-30 mg/kg orally for five days. For nematodes such as Crenosoma
and Capillaria spp. (B267)
- 10-15 mg/kg orally; repeat after two or three weeks. For nematodes. (B150.w1)
- 10-25 mg/kg orally once, repeated after two weeks. For nematode
- Asian Elephant:
For gastro-intestinal nematode infection:
- 12 g dissolved in 200 ml of water as a single dose. (J12.65.w1)
- 5 mg/kg orally as a single dose. (J12.65.w2)
The following information is taken with permission directly from the
International website (W580.Aug2005.w12):
- Oryctolagus cuniculus domesticus - Domestic rabbit:
a) 5 mg/kg po (Raman, et.al., 2000).
b) 2.5 mg/kg orally as a single dose (Chandrasekharan,2002);(Chandrasekharan et.al.,1995).
c) 2.0 –2.5 mg/kg orally as a single dose mixed with jaggery or rice (Chandrasekharan, 1992).
d) 5 mg/kg po in feed as a single dose (Strao et.al., 1992).
e) Chronic murshidiasis in an Asian elephant was resolved with 50 g fenbendazole repeated at 30 days (Tripathy et.al. 1991).
f) 5 mg/kg po as a single dose (Roy and Mazumdar, 1988).
g) 12 g of Panacur dissolved in 2000 ml water in 2 divided doses at a 3 -day interval (Lahkar and Das,1988).
a) Raman,M., Jayathagaraj,M.G., Rajavelu,G., and John,M.C. 2000. Strongylosis in captive elephants - a report. Indian Journal of Animal Health 39:(2):85-86
Summary: Strongylosis was observed in a group of elephants (n=4) maintained in a private circus in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India [date not given]. Examination of faecal samples showed larvae which were identified as Murshidia sp., Quilonia sp., and Decrusia sp. larvae. All elephants were treated with fenbendazole at a dose of 5 mg/kg body weight. A decline of egg count was observed after 1-2 days of treatment. Identification at the earlier stages of infection, good nutrition and hygiene, and less exertion might be the cause of absence of significant clinical signs like anaemia, dehydration and others. It is concluded that use of fenbendazole at the rate of 5 mg/kg body weight in the mega herbivores with repetition after 3 weeks, and regular deworming every 3-6 months, yield satisfactory results.
b) Chandrasekharan,K. 2002. Specific diseases of Asian elephants.
Journal of Indian Veterinary Association Kerala 7:(3):31-34
b) Chandrasekharan,K., Radhakrishnan,K., Cheeran,J.V., Nair,K.N.M., and Prabhakaran,T., 1995.
Review of the Incidence, Etiology and Control of Common Diseases of Asian Elephants with Special Reference to Kerala. In: Daniel,J.C. (Editor), A Week with Elephants; Proceedings of the International Seminar on Asian Elephants. Bombay Natural History Society; Oxford University Press, Bombay, India pp. 439-449
c) Chandrasekharan,K., 1992. Prevalence of infectious diseases in elephants in Kerala and their treatment. In: Silas,E.G., Nair,M.K., and Nirmalan,G. (Editors), The Asian Elephant: Ecology, Biology, Diseases, Conservation and Management (Proceedings of the National Symposium on the Asian Elephant held at the Kerala Agricultural University, Trichur, India, January 1989). Kerala Agricultural University, Trichur, India pp. 148-155
d) Rao, D.S.T., Yathiraj, S., Choudhuri, P.C., and Reddy, P.K. 1992. Treatment of helminthiosis in elephants. Indian Journal of Animal Science 62(12):1155-1156. Ref ID: 2648
Abstract (Summary): Strongyle and paramphistome eggs were found in the faeces of 3 elephants belonging to S V Dairy Farm, Tirupati. The body weights of these elephants were calculated using the formula: weight (kg) = 12.8 (n+ng) - 4281, where g is chest girth (cm) and ng is neck girth (cm). A drug containing 25% fenbendazole was given orally at a dosage of 5 mg/kg. One elephant had diarrhoea and was also given astringent. No eggs were detected after 7 days in 2 cases and after 14 days in all 3 cases.
e) Tripathy,S.B., Acharjyo,L.N.M., and Padhi,N.K. 1991. Use of fenbendazole against murshidiasis in zoo elephant. International Seminar on Veterinary Medicine in Wild and Captive Animals, Nov. 8-10, Bangalore, India. Pages: 29 Abstract: Treatment of a chronic case of murshidiasis in a captive elephant with fenbendazole has been reported. Large numbers (epg 4200) of Murshidia eggs were detected in the faeces. Differential count of the blood revealed lymphocytosis (63%) and neutropenia (27%). Reduction in feed intake, oedematous swelling on dependent parts of the body, debility and reduction in body weight were recorded. Oral administration of 50 g of Panacur (25% fenbendazole) repeated after 30 days, 50 g of Minamil (mineral mixture) once daily for 30 days and 100 g of Livol (liver tonic) daily for 15 days along with 30 ml of Neurobiocin IM every third day for 5 injections brought clinical recovery and gain in body weight 2 months and 4 months after initiation of treatment respectively. The number of Murshidia eggs reduced by 70% and 100% in per gram of faeces when examined 5 and 10 days post treatment with
f) Roy,S. and Mazumdar,B.K. 1988. Anthelmintic activity of fenbendazole (Panacur) against Murshidia murshida in zoo elephants. Indian Veterinary Journal 65:(6):531-532 Summary:
Three Indian elephants, Elephas maximus, infected with M. murshida were treated with a single dose of fenbendazole at 5 mg/kg mixed into feed (cooked rice). Faecal samples were negative in one elephant 3 days after treatment, and in all animals 7 days after treatment. No side effects were recorded.
g) Lahkar,B.C. and Das,M.R. 1988. A note on the successful treatment of trichostrongyle infection of elephants (Elephas maximus) with Panacur (fenbendazole).
Indian Veterinary Journal 65:(6):538 Summary: Six Indian elephants, E. maximus infected with gastrointestinal nematodes (700-1400 epg faeces) were given 12 g Panacur (fenbendazole) in the form of a bolus with flour, in 2 doses 3 days part. Faecal samples from all animals were negative 3 days after the second dose. No side effects were recorded.
Ferrets - Mustela putorius fero - Ferret:
- 20 mg/kg orally, daily for five days. (B201,
For the treatment of nematodes. (B631.21.w21)
- 50 mg/kg once daily orally for three days. (B626.App.w22)
- 10 - 100 mg/kg orally every 24 hours for 3 - 14 days. For the
treatment of gastrointestinal nematode infections. (B336.39.w39)
Pan troglodytes - Chimpanzee:
50 mg/kg per day orally for three days; repeat after three weeks. (W768.Jun2012.w1)
- Primates: 50 mg/kg once or daily for three day. In the
treatment of nematode infections. (D425.3.15.w3o)
- 50 - 100 mg/kg orally, repeated after 14 days as required.
For the treatment of infections with intestinal strongyle or
- 100 mg/kg orally repeated after 14 days. (B12.56.w14)
- 50 - 100 mg/kg orally daily for five days, repeated after 14
days. For the treatment of gapeworms and capillarids. (B336.20.w20)
- 100 mg/kg orally daily for five days, repeated after 14 days
for the treatment of
Gapeworm Infection. (B12.56.w14)
- 100 mg/kg orally for five days, repeated after 10-14 days.
For the treatment of capillariasis and other nematode infections.(B115.8.w4)
- Against Trichostrongylus tenuis. Given in feed at 1kg/tonne feed, to give
7-10mg/kg bodyweight in divided doses over 14 days. Contra-indication treatment
after March. (B201)
- Against Syngamus, Heterakis, Ascaridia, 12mg/kg as a single
dose, orally by addition to feed. (B201)
- Against Capillaria, 24mg/kg in divided doses over 3 days, orally by addition to
- May give repeated doses every 6-8 weeks for prevention of helminth infections. (B201)
- Against nematodes 50-100 mg/kg, orally, single dose, repeat after 10 days (B201).
- Against microfilaria and trematodes 33mg/kg orally, repeat daily for three days
- Against capillaria 20mg/kg, repeat daily for five days (B201).
- 50-100mg/kg bodyweight orally every 5-7 days for roundworms. (B201)
- Against roundworms. 50-100mg/kg orally, every 14 days. (B201)