Chemicals / Complex Chemical Agents/ Chemical:
Halothane (with special reference to Hedgehogs, Elephants, Bears, Lagomorphs and Ferrets)




Information in this page has been entered to support the current volumes of Wildpro and further information will be added as new volumes are completed. This page is not intended to substitute for the manufacturer's data sheet and the information is not yet complete for all species, or for all contra-indications etc.

CAUTION: Before any pharmaceutical product is used, the manufacturer's data sheet, containing information on uses, dosage and administration, contra-indications, warnings etc., should always be consulted. It is important to remember that licensing of pharmaceutical products for use in a particular species/condition, as well as mandatory meat and milk withdrawal times for food-producing animals, varies between countries and changes with time. Withdrawal times also may vary between different pharmaceutical formulations and depending on route of administration. In the EU, the prescription cascade must be followed (see LCofC1.2H and W564.Apr05.w1); note that specific restrictions apply for food-producing animals. In the USA, FARAD may be consulted regarding residues and meat and milk withdrawal times.

General Chemical Information

Halogenated inhalant general anaesthetic agent. 

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Names and Formulae
Type Halogenated inhalant general anaesthetic agent. (B263)
Alternative Names "2-Bromo-2-Chloro-1,1,1-Trifluoro-ethane; Fluothane; Anestan; 1,1,1-Trifluoro-2-chloro-2-bromoethane; bromochlorotrifluoroethane; 1,1,1-trifluoro-2-bromo-2-chloroethane; 2,2,2-trifluoro-1-chloro-1-bromoethane; 1,1,1-trifluoro-2,2-chlorobromoethane; chalothane; fluorotane; fluktan; halotan; halsan; narkotan; narcotan; Halan; freon 123b1; rhodialothan; FC-123B1; 1-Bromo-1-chloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethane; HALOTHANE (2-BROMO-2-CHLORO-1,1,1-TRIFLUOROETHANE )" (W324)
Chemical Formula C2HBrClF3 (W324)
Chemical Structure (B135.24.w24)
Molecular Weight 197.3821 (W324)
Related Chemicals Isoflurane, methoxyflurane, enflurane, sevoflurane, desflurane. (B135.24.w24, B205.6.w6, B263)

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Physical Properties / Chemistry
  • Volatile clear colourless liquid, with a characteristic chloroform-like odour and a sweet burning taste. (B135.24.w24, B263, W324)

Melting point --
Boiling point 50.2°C. (W324)
Density At 20°C:
  • Specific gravity 1.872-1.877. (B263); 1.8636. (W324)
  • Vapour pressure 243 mm Hg (B263); 240 mmHg (B205.6.w6).
  • Similar physical properties to isoflurane. (B201)
Water solubility
  • Slightly soluble. (B263)
  • Slightly soluble. 0.01-0.1 g/100 mL at 18 °C. (W324)
Other solubility
  • Miscible with alcohol. (B263)
Acid/Base --

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Pharmacology & General Information
  • Inhalational anaesthetics are thought to act on the lipid bilayer of cell membranes via a non-specific, possibly physical mechanism. No specific receptors have been identified. (B205.6.w6, B263)
  • Effects of halothane include depression of the CNS, depression of the centres regulating body temperature, increased cerebral blood flow, respiratory depression (pronounced in ruminants), hypotension, vasodilatation, myocardial depression. (B263)
  • Dose-dependent depression of cardiac output and arterial blood pressure mainly by a negative inotropic effect; also some blockage of transmission at sympathetic ganglia. (B205.6.w6)
  • Neuromuscular blocking effect (minimal). (B205.6.w6)
  • Bradycardia is apparently due to action on the vagus nerve. B205.6.w6
Storage / Stability
  • Store below 40°C in a tight, light-resistant container. (B263)
  • Stable, non-inflammable in clinical use. (B205.6.w6, B263)
  • May react with aluminium, brass and lead, but not copper, in the presence of moisture. (B263)

  • Rubber and some plastics are soluble in halothane and will deteriorate rapidly if used with this compound. (B263)

Legal Category (In UK) --

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Associated Techniques




(Further Reading)
Click image for full contents list of ELECTRONIC LIBRARY

Authors Debra Bourne (V.w5)
Referees Suzanne I. Boardman (V.w6); Becki Lawson (V.w26)

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Therapeutic Information

  • Smooth rapid induction using vapour concentrations of 2-4% in the inspired air. (B205.6.w6)
  • Maintenance of anaesthesia with 0.8-2.0%. (B205.6.w6)
  • Reasonably rapid and excitement-free recovery from anaesthesia of short duration. (B205.6.w6)
Appropriate Use
  • As an inhalant anaesthetic. (B263)
    • Relatively safe, potent and controllable, non-flammable, relatively low cost. (B263)
    • Does not irritate the mucosa of the respiratory tract. (B205.6.w6)
    • Moderate muscle relaxation. (B205.6.w6)
  • Lack of analgesic properties. (B205.6.w6)
  • "Recovery does not depend on drug metabolism and therefore these agents [inhalational anaesthetics] are useful in species for which there is little information on use of general anaesthetics, because their action will be similar in all mammals." (B201)
  • Shivering commonly observed in animals during recovery from halothane anaesthesia does not appear to be related to either whole body temperature or environmental temperature. This may increase oxygen uptake with may be harmful in animals suffering from respiratory and/or cardiovascular diseases which limit their oxygen uptake when breathing normal air. (B205.6.w6)

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Pharmacokinetics and Drug Interactions
Absorption /Bioavailability
  • Rapid absorption from the lungs. (B263)
  • Is distributed into milk. (B263)
  • Blood:gas partition coefficient 2.3 at 37°C. (B135.24.w24, v)
  • Brain:blood partition coefficient 2.9 at 37°C. (B135.24.w24)
  • Minimum Alveolar Concentration (MAC):
    • Human: 0.75%. (B135.24.w24); 0.76 %(B263)
    • Dog: 0.76%. (B263)
    • Cat: 0.82%. (B263)
    • Horse: 0.88%. (B263)
    • Factors which may affect MAC include acid/base status, temperature, administration of other CNS depressants, age, presence of acute disease. (B263)
Plasma Protein binding / Storage --
Elimination Route
  • Mainly excreted via the lungs. (B263)
  • About 12% of absorbed halothane is metabolised in the liver to trifluoroacetic acid, chlorine and bromine radicals; these are excreted in the urine. (B263)
Elimination half-life / Clearance Rate --
Drug Interactions
  • Use of paracetamol (acetaminophen) for post-operative analgesia is not recommended in individuals which have received halothane anaesthesia. (B263)
  • Sensitisation of myocardium to sympathomimetics, particularly catecholamines; this may result in ventricular arrhythmias. If these drugs (e.g. dopamine, adrenaline (epinephrine), noradrenaline (norepinephrine), ephedrine, metaraminol) are required, reduced dosages, intensive monitoring and caution are required. (B263)
  • Additive neuromuscular blockade may occur if used with non-depolarising neuromuscular blocking agents, aminoglycosides (systemic), lincomycins (systemic). (B263)
  • It is reported than significant hypotension may occur if d-tubocurarine is used together with halothane. (B263)
  • Use of inhalant anaesthetics concomitant with succinylcholine may result in increased incidence of cardiac effects (bradycardia, arrhythmias, sinus arrest, apnoea); in susceptible individuals the combination may also increase the risk of malignant hyperthermia. (B263)

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Formulations available
  • Halothane with addition of thymol and ammonia to maintain stability. (B263)

In UK:

Doses / Administration Routes / Frequencies

Use of Drugs (Medication):

  • Before administration of any pharmaceutical product the manufacturer's datasheet must be consulted regarding operator safety, relevant withdrawal times etc.
  • Many drugs are not registered for use in particular species and additional care should be taken in their use, with proper regard for possible toxic effects. 
  • Consideration should be given to relevant legislation regarding the use of drugs.
  • In the UK, guidelines regarding the use of drugs are set out in the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons' Guide to Professional Conduct 2000: (See: LCofC1 - RCVS Guide to Professional Conduct 2000 - Choice of Medicinal Products).
General comments:
  • Administered via an appropriate precision vaporiser. (B201.6.w6)
  • Administer with at least 30% oxygen. (B201.6.w6)
  • In general in mammals, a concentration of 3 - 4% is required to induce anaeshesia in unpremedicated individuals, and 0.8 - 1.0% will maintain anaesthesia in 50% of patients. (B546)
Erinaceus europaeus - West European Hedgehog:
  • Inspired concentration for induction:
    • 5% in oxygen for induction of general anaesthesia. (B284.6.w6, D93)
  • Inspired concentration for maintenance:
    • 1-3% in oxygen for maintenance of general anaesthesia. (B284.6.w6)
    • 2-4% in oxygen for maintenance of general anaesthesia. (D93)
"Hedgehog" (species not distinguished between Atelerix albiventris - Four-toed hedgehog or Erinaceus europaeus - West European Hedgehog):


The following information is taken with permission directly from the Elephant Care International website (W580.Aug2005.w15):

CAUTION! Sedative and anesthetic drug dosages for African elephants often vary from those for Asian elephants. Do not assume that the recommendations for one species can be applied to the other. Significant variation may also occur between individual elephants. Higher doses may be needed in wild or excited animals. Unless otherwise specified, doses refer to captive elephants. The information provided here should be used as a guideline only. Consultation with experienced colleagues is advised.

Special Note Concerning the Use of Halothane: several authors recommend that halothane be discontinued for a period of time (10-40 minutes) prior to the administration of narcotic antagonists in elephants immobilized with etorphine or carfentanil. The administration of oxygen (with a high flow rate and frequent emptying of the re-breathing bag) facilitates removal of halothane and can prevent ataxia once the narcotic antagonist is given. 

a) Halothane at 1-2% was used to maintain anesthesia in two five-year-old African elephants with estimated weights of 1200 and 1000 kg subsequent to the administration of azaperone and etorphine. See abstract below for further details (Stegmann, 1999).

b) Halothane at 1-2% was used to maintain anesthesia in 6 elephants ( 650-1500 kg) immobilized with etorphine or carfentanil. Flow rates varied from 5ml/kg/min to 10 ml/kg/min (Welsch, 1989).

c) Halothane was used to maintain anesthesia in 16 juvenile (3-5 yr) African elephants immobilized 1 or more times (27 procedures). Xylazine (0.1 ± 0.04 mg/kg) and ketamine (0.6 ± 0.13 mg/kg) were given IM for a 45-minute transport. Anesthesia was induced with etorphine (1.9 ±0.56 µg/kg). Endotracheal tubes of 18, 22, and 26 mm (I.D.) were used in elephants weighing 150-304 kg, 204-350 kg, and 280-636 kg respectively. Halothane %
varied from 0.5 ± 0.78% during the first 30 minutes to 1.0 ± 0.42% which was attributed to the additive effect of the etorphine and/or the xylazine/ketamine combination given for transport (Heard 1988).
d) Seven young African elephants (1-2 yrs) were maintained on 0.5 % halothane following induction with etorphine and intubated with 22-26 mm (I.D.) endotracheal tubes (Jacobson 1986).

e) A 25-year-old African elephant (estimated weight 3000 kg) was induced with 6 mg etorphine IM. Trunk passages were intubated with 13 mm (I.D.) endotracheal tubes and cuffs partially inflated. Halothane was initially given at 2.5% at a flow rate of 14L/min. A 30-L rebreathing bag was used. At 30 minutes the halothane was decreased to 0.5%. At 45 minutes the elephant showed signs of arousal. Etorphine (1 mg) was given and halothane increased to 2.5%. Total anesthesia time was 150 minutes. Halothane was discontinued and oxygen administered for 10 minutes prior to narcotic reversal (Tamas 1983).

f) Halothane was used to maintain etorphine-acepromazine induced anesthesia in two Asian elephants. Procedure 1: Elephant “Joti” estimated weight 1000 kg. Premedicated with 1.3 etorphine plus acetylpromazine (Immobilon®). Induced with 5% halothane at a flow rate of 1.5L/min for 10 minutes (HR = 64). Maintained for 25 minutes with 2 % halothane at 5 L/min. Anesthesia discontinued due to shallow respiration but resumed after 20 minutes with 3% halothane at 5 L/min. A total of 38 ml of halothane was administered in 68 min (0.55 ml/min). Procedure 2: same elephant: 80-minute procedure with total consumption of halothane 26 ml (0.43 ml/min). Procedure 3: Elephant : Raima” weight 890 kg premedicated with 1.2 mg Immobilon®). Anesthesia induced with 2% halothane at 2 L/min. Total duration of anesthesia 52 minutes and total halothane consumption 17 ml (0.33 ml/min) (Jarofke, 1961). 

Elephant References:
a) Stegmann,G.F. 1999. Etorphine-halothane anaesthesia in two five-year-old African elephants (Loxodonta africana). Journal of the South African Veterinary Medical Association 70:(4):164-166 Abstract: Anaesthesia of 2 five-year-old female African elephants (Loxodonta africana) was required for dental surgery. The animals were each premedicated with 120 mg of azaperone 60 min before transportation to the hospital. Before offloading, 1 mg etorphine was administered intramuscularly (i.m.) to each elephant to facilitate walking them to the equine induction/recovery room. For induction, 2 mg etorphine was administered i.m. to each animal. Induction was complete within 6 min. Surgical anaesthesia was induced with halothane-in-oxygen after intubation of the trunk. During surgery the mean heart rate was 61 and 45 beats/min respectively. Systolic blood pressures increased to 27.5 and 25.6 kPa respectively, and were treated with intravenous azaperone. Blood pressure decreased thereafter to a mean systolic pressure of 18.1 and 19.8 kPa, respectively. Rectal temperature was 35.6 and 33.9 degrees C at the onset of surgery, and decreased to 35.3 and 33.5 degrees C, respectively, at the end of anaesthesia. Etorphine anaesthesia was reversed with 5 mg diprenorphine at the completion of 90 min of surgery. Additional information: Case 1 (1200 kg): A narrow oropharynx precluded tracheal intubation. Latex tubing (15mm) was inserted 30 cm into one trunk passage and a 16 mm silicone endotracheal tube was placed in the other trunk passage to administer anesthesia at a flow rate of 15 l/min. Additional etorphine was given 1.5 hours after induction when anesthetic depth suddenly decreased. Azaperone (40 mg) IV reduced blood pressure from systolic/diastolic 27.5/20.5 kPa to 14.4/7.1 kPa within 15 minutes. Total duration of the procedure was 1 hour 45 minutes. Case 2 (1000kg): Trunk passages were intubated with 12 mm cuffed silicon endotracheal tubes and connected to the circle anesthetic machine with a 2nd Y-piece. The flow rate was 15l/min. Azaperone (20 mg IV) reduced blood pressure from systolic/diastolic 29.2/23.2 kPa after instrumentation to 19.3/8 kPa within 5 minutes. Etorphine (0.5 mg) was given IV at 60 and 75 minutes to maintain anesthesia. Duration of procedure was 2 hr.

b) Welsch,B., Jacobson,E.R., Kollias,G.V., Kramer,L., Gardner,H., and Page,C.D. 1989. Tusk extraction in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 20:(4):446-453 Abstract: Unilateral dentoalveolar abscesses and/or tusk fractures were identified and tusk extractions performed in seven 3.5-21-yr-old African elephants (Loxodonta africana) of both sexes weighing 650-3,000 kg. Following immobilization with etorphine hydrochloride or carfentanil citrate, six of seven elephants were intubated and maintained on a 1-1.5% halothane in oxygen mixture; one elephant was maintained in lateral recumbency by multiple i.v. injections of etorphine. All elephants were positioned with the affected tusk up. For one elephant, two surgical procedures were required to remove the tusk. In six of seven elephants, the tusks were sectioned transversely and the tusk wall thinned by enlarging the pulp cavity with carbide burs. In those tusks with remaining pulp, the pulp was removed with stainless steel rods and hooks. Next, the tusk was sectioned longitudinally into three or four segments using a wood saw within the pulp chamber. bone gouges, osteotomes, and a mallet were used to free the outer epithelial and alveolar attachments from the tusk. Starting with the smallest segment, the sections were removed using long screwdriver-shaped stainless steel rods. The alveolar chamber was then periodically flushed postsurgically with a dilute organic iodine solution. For six of seven elephants, complete granulation of the alveolar chamber was evident by 4 mo postsurgery; the seventh elephant showed partial healing with granulation tissue at 2 mo following surgery.

c) Heard,D.J., Kollias,G.V., Webb,A.I., Jacobson,E.R., and Brock,K.A. 1988. Use of halothane to maintain anesthesia induced with etorphine in juvenile African elephants. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 193:254-256 Excerpts: Sixteen 3- to 5-year-old African elephants were anesthetized one or more times for a total of 27 diagnostic and surgical procedures. Xylazine (0.1 ± 0.04 mg/kg of body weight, mean ± SD) and ketamine (0.6 ± 0.13 mg/kg) administered IM induced good chemical restraint in standing juvenile elephants during a 45-minute transport period before administration of general anesthesia. After IM or IV administration of etorphine (1.9 ± 0.56 micrograms/kg), the mean time to lateral recumbency was 20 ± 6.6 and 3 ± 0.0 minutes, respectively. The mean heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and respiration rate during all procedures was 50 ± 12 beats/min, 106 ± 19 mm of Hg, and 10 ± 3 breaths/min, respectively. 
Cardiac arrhythmias were detected during 2 procedures. In one elephant paroxysmal ventricular tachycardia was detected and the procedure terminated when the arrhythmia failed to stabilize after multiple doses of lidocaine (1 mg/kg, IV). In another elephant, second degree atrioventricular block returned to normal sinus rhythm after IV administration of atropine (0.04 mg/kg).
In one elephant, low mean blood pressure (54 mm of Hg) responded to reduction in halothane (vaporizer setting 1 to 0.75%) and slow infusion of dobutamine HCl ((250 mg/1,000 ml) given to effect. The systolic blood pressure increased to 90 mm of Hg and remained high with a continuous infusion of dobutamine (5 µg/kg/min).
Immediately after induction in another elephant, profound respiratory depression (< 1breath/minute) and palpably weak arterial pulse were identified. Intravenous administration of diprenorphine at half the recommended reversal dose resulted in improvement of respiration and palpable arterial pulse, without the elephant developing signs of complete anesthetic reversal.  
Alterations in systolic blood pressure, ear flapping, and trunk muscle tone were useful for monitoring depth of anesthesia. Results indicated that halothane in oxygen was effective for maintenance of surgical anesthesia in juvenile African elephants after induction with etorphine. Note: A correction appeared in a later volume 193(6): p.721.

d) Jacobson,E.R., Chen,C.-L., Gronwall,R., and Tiller,A. 1986. Serum concentrations of etorphine in juvenile African elephants. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 189:(9):1079-1081 Abstract: Eleven juvenile African elephants were given etorphine hydrochloride (2.19 + 0.11 micrograms/kg body weight, mean +SD) as a single IM injection; 3 elephants were given additional etorphine (0.42+0.09) IV. After immobilization, each elephant was maintained in lateral recumbency by administration of a 0.5% halothane/oxygen mixture or by administration of multiple IV injections of etorphine. At postinjection hours 0.25 and 0.5 and at 30-minute intervals thereafter, blood samples were collected via an auricular artery, and serum concentrations of etorphine were determined by use of radioimmunoassay. The highest mean serum concentration of etorphine in 6 elephants given a single IM injection and subsequently maintained on halothane and oxygen was 1.62+0.97 ng/ml at postinjection hours 0.5; thereafter, the mean serum concentration decreased steadily. In 4 elephants maintained in lateral recumbency with multiple IV administrations of etorphine, a correlation was not found between the time to develop initial signs of arousal and serum concentrations of etorphine before arousal. After administration of the initial immobilizing dose of etorphine, the interval between successive IV administrations of etorphine decreased.

e) Tamas,P.M. and Geiser,D.R. 1983. Etorphine analgesia supplemented by halothane anesthesia in an adult African elephant. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 183:(11):1312-1314

f) Jarofke,D. 1981. Use of halothane oxygen anesthesia in elephants (Elephas maximus). Journal of Zoo Animal Medicine 12:(3):93-95

See also:
Jacobson,E.R. 1988. Chemical restraint and anesthesia of elephants. Proc.Ann.Elephant Workshop 9. Pages: 112-119
Lateur,N. and Stolk,P. 1986. Repeated general anesthesia in a male Indian elephant. Proc.Am.Assoc.Zoo Vet. Pages: 128-131 (a 4500 kg Asian elephant was immobilized with etorphine, acepromazine and xylazine and maintained on halothane at 30L/min)


  • Inhalation anaesthesia with halothane may be used to prolong anaesthesia following induction using an injectable anaesthetic combination. (B16.9.w9)
  • Following induction of anaesthesia with medetomidine and ketamine [see: Medetomidine-Ketamine Anaesthesia in Bears], halothane at 1% or less is sufficient for anaesthetic maintenance; higher concentrations can be used if required for deeper anaesthesia. (P1.1990.w5)

Ferrets - Mustela putorius furo - Ferret:

  • Induction: 3.0 - 3.5%; maintenance: 0.5 - 2.5%. With an oxygen rate of 500 mL/kg per minute. (B626.App.w22)
  • Induction 5%, maintenance 1.5%, with an oxygen flow rate of 1.0 - 1.5 litres per minute. (J213.3.w1)
Monitoring parameters --

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Withdrawal period / Withholding time
Notes Before the use of any pharmaceutical product in food-producing animals the label instructions for the product should be consulted regarding withdrawal requirements.

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Toxic Information

Toxic effects of Pharmaceutical Products
Contraindications / Precautions
  • Contraindicated in individuals with a history of/predilection towards malignant hyperthermia. (B263)
  • Use with caution in individuals with hepatic impairment. (B263)
  • Use with caution in individuals with increased CSF pressure, head injury or myasthenia gravis. (B263)
  • Use with caution in individuals with cardiac arrhythmias or pheochromocytoma (cardiac arrhythmias due to catecholamines). (B263)
Adverse Effects / Side Effects / Warnings
  • Dose-related hypotension. (B263)
    • Treatable by volume expansion and dobutamine. (B263)
  • Dose-dependent respiratory depression with decreases in both rate and depth leading to greatly reduced minute volume and subsequent progressive rise in CO2 until an equilibrium is reached between CO2 production and elimination. (B205.6.w6)
  • In pigs, horses, dogs, cats: malignant hyperthermia-stress syndrome reported. (B263)
  • Cardiac depression and dysrhythmias. (B263)
    • Dose-dependent depression of cardiac output and arterial blood pressure. (B205.6.w6)
    • Commonly bradycardia. (B205.6.w6)
    • Arrhythmias are usually associated with accumulation of CO2 due to respiratory depression, hypoxia, release of catecholamines, overdose of halothane). (B205.6.w6)
    • Dysrhythmias due to halothane have been treated/prevented using lidocaine (Lignocaine). (B263)
    • Propranolol has been used to treat catecholamine-induces tachyarrhythmias; alternatively, switching to a different inhalation agent may be employed. (B205.6.w6)
  • In humans: rare reports of jaundice and post-anaesthetic fatal hepatic necrosis. (B263)
  • In dogs, horses, sheep: minimal hepatic and renal pathological changes have been found following prolonged anaesthesia. (B205.6.w6)
Operator Warnings
  • Before the use of any pharmaceutical product the label instructions for the product should be consulted regarding operator safety/warnings.
  • Waste gas scavenging is required to minimise human exposure to inhalational anaesthetics (even in small doses) for long periods. (B201.6.w6)
Overdose / Acute Toxicity
  • Removal of overdose may be speeded up by mechanical ventilation of the lungs. (B201.6.w6)
  • In most species (not horses), respiratory failure precedes cardiac failure "by a considerable margin." (B205.6.w6)

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Detailed Toxicological Information
Acute Toxicity  
Chronic Toxicity  
Reproductive effects  
Teratogenic effects
  • Data from some animal studies indicate that halothane may be teratogenic. (B263)
Mutagenic effects  
Carcinogenic effects


Organ toxicity  
Bird Toxicity  
Aquatic organism activity  
Other organism toxicity  

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Nutrient Information

Nutritional Data
Sources --
Biological Use --
Recommended Daily Allowance / Recommended level in food --
Stability in food (Storage time) --
Interactions --

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External / Environmental Information

External / Environmental Uses
Use --
Formulation --
Application method --
Application Concentration --
Persistence of Effect / Frequency of Application --

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Effects on the Environment
Effects in the aquatic environment


Effects on land --

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Persistence in the Environment
Breakdown in soil and groundwater


Breakdown in water --
Breakdown in vegetation --

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