Summary Information
Classification Chemicals / Complex Chemical Agents / Type:

(This chemicals section is currently predominantly used in Wildpro to link different data types and demonstrate inter-relationships. It does not contain detailed information on the chemical itself.)

Alternative Names --
Notes Information in this page has been entered to support the current volumes of Wildpro and further information will be added as new volumes are completed. This page is not intended to substitute for the manufacturer's data sheet and the information is not yet complete for all species, or for all contra-indications etc.

CAUTION: Before any pharmaceutical product is used, the manufacturer's data sheet, containing information on uses, dosage and administration, contra-indications, warnings etc., should always be consulted. It is important to remember that licensing of pharmaceutical products for use in a particular species/condition, as well as mandatory meat and milk withdrawal times for food-producing animals, varies between countries and changes with time. Withdrawal times also may vary between different pharmaceutical formulations and depending on route of administration. In the EU, the prescription cascade must be followed (see LCofC1.2H and W564.Apr05.w1); note that specific restrictions apply for food-producing animals. In the USA, FARAD may be consulted regarding residues and meat and milk withdrawal times.

  • Quaternary ammonium anticholinesterase. (B553.7.w7) Parasympathomimetic. (B658)
  • Produces a reversible inhibition of cholinesterase, resulting in decreased hydrolysis of acetyl choline released from neurons, and hence intensification of the action of acetyl choline at cholinergic receptors. (B553.7.w7) (B340, B553, B658, W769)
  • Also some direct effect on cholinergic receptors: e.g. at somatic neuromuscular junctions, muscle twitch stimulant effect is due to direct action. (B553.7.w7)
  • Poor penetration of the blood-brain barrier, therefore little activity in the CNS. (B553.7.w7)
  • Used in humans in the treatment of myasthenia gravis, (B553.7.w7) also in diagnosis and treatment similar syndromes in dogs. (B553.7.w7, B658)
  • Used in the treatment of overdose of non-depolarising neuromuscular blocking agents, and in treatment of cats following massive overdose of ivermectin. (B658)
  • Used in cattle, horses, sheep and pigs for treatment of ruminal atony (in the ruminants), initiation of peristalsis, stimulation of skeletal muscle contractions, and stimulation of bladder emptying. (B658)
  • Contraindicated in individuals with mechanical blockage of the GIT or urinary tract, late pregnancy, hypersensitivity to this class of compounds, or prior treatment with another cholinesterase inhibitor. (B658)
  • Toxicity: skeletal muscle weakness, excessive salivation and drooling, GIT effects (nausea, vomiting, colic, diarrhoea), marked and fixed constriction of the pupil of the eye (miosis), sweating, lacrymation, dyspnoea (due to bronchiolar muscular constriction), bradycardia or tachycardia, reduced blood pressure, agitation, restlessness. Can result in respiratory paralysis due to depolarisation block of the neuromuscular junction, compounded by excessive bronchiolar secretions. (B553.7.w7, B658)
    • Atropine Sulphate (antagonises the muscarinic effects) can be used in the treatment of toxicity. (B553.7.w7, B658) Also mechanically ventilate if required. (B658)
    • Care is required not to confuse cholinergic crisis and myasthenic crisis in individuals with myasthenia gravis. (B658)
  • Dogs, cats: In the treatment of myasthenia gravis, 0.04 mg/kg intramuscularly every six hours (intramuscular administration overcomes the problem of oral medication in individuals which are actively regurgitating). (B658)
  • Dogs:
    • Diagnosis of myasthenia gravis: clinical improvement within 15-30 minutes in response to neostigmine. (B658)
    • Treatment of curare overdose: 0.001 mg subcutaneously, then intravenous Atropine Sulphate 0.04 mg/kg. (B658)
  • Horses: 2-4 mg subcutaneously every two hours after correction of large bowel displacement, to treat paralytic ileus of the large colon. Discontinue once motility returns. (B658)

Great Apes

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