Chemicals / Complex Chemical Agents/ Chemical:

Prednisolone (with special reference to Ruminants, Hedgehogs, Elephants, Bears, Lagomorphs, Ferrets, Great Apes and Cranes)

INFORMATION AVAILABLE

GENERAL CHEMICAL INFORMATION THERAPEUTIC INFORMATION [DOSE, FREQUENCY & ROUTE] NUTRITIONAL INFORMATION
TOXICITY INFORMATION ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION
Information in this page has been entered to support the current volumes of Wildpro and further information will be added as new volumes are completed. This page is not intended to substitute for the manufacturer's data sheet and the information is not yet complete for all species, or for all contra-indications etc.

CAUTION: Before any pharmaceutical product is used, the manufacturer's data sheet, containing information on uses, dosage and administration, contra-indications, warnings etc., should always be consulted. It is important to remember that licensing of pharmaceutical products for use in a particular species/condition, as well as mandatory meat and milk withdrawal times for food-producing animals, varies between countries and changes with time. Withdrawal times also may vary between different pharmaceutical formulations and depending on route of administration. In the EU, the prescription cascade must be followed (see LCofC1.2H and W564.Apr05.w1); note that specific restrictions apply for food-producing animals. In the USA, FARAD may be consulted regarding residues and meat and milk withdrawal times.

General Chemical Information

Summary 
Synthetic glucocorticoid (steroid) anti-inflammatory drug. (B263)

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Names and Formulae
Type Synthetic glucocorticoid.  (B263)
Alternative Names "Metacortandralone; delta1-dehydrocortisol; delta1-hydrocortisone; 1,4-pregnadiene-3,20-dione-11b,17a,21-triol; 11b,17a,21-trihydroxy-1,4-pregnadiene-3,20-dione; (11b)-11,17,21-Trihydroxypregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione; 1,4-Pregnadiene-11b,17a,21-triol-3,20-dione; 3,20-Dioxo-11b,17a,21-trihydroxy-1,4-pregnadiene; D1-Dehydrohydrocortisone; Hydroretrocortine; Decaprednil; Meticortelone; Ultracortene-H; Precortilon; PreCortisyl; Precortancyl; Cortalone; Predniretard; Predniliderm; Solone; Prednicen; Dicortol; Hefasolon; Hydeltra; Klismacort; Delta-Cortef; Deltastab; Paracortol; Deltisolone; Codelcortone; Hydrodeltisone; Prenolone; Hydrodeltalone; Sterolone; Sterane; Prednelan; Decortin H; Deltacortril; Scherisolon; Di-Adreson-F; Hostacortin H; Nisolone; Ropredlone; Flamasone; Predonin; 11beta,17alpha,21-Trihydroxypregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione." (W324)
Chemical Formula C21H28O5 (W324)
Chemical Structure  
Molecular Weight 360.4492. (W324)
Related Chemicals Prednisone (in vivo is converted in the liver to prednisolone). (B263)

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Physical Properties / Chemistry
Appearance
  • White or practically white crystalline powder. (B263)

Melting point 240C (dec) (W324)
Boiling point --
Density --
Water solubility
  • Very slightly soluble. (B263)
Other solubility
  • Slightly soluble in alcohol. (B263)
Acid/Base --

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Pharmacology & General Information
Pharmacology --
Storage / Stability
  • Store below 40C and preferably at 15 to 30C; avoid freezing liquid products. (B263)
  • Store tablets and oral liquids in tight containers. (B263)
  • Prednisolone sodium succinate: store at room temperature; protect from light. (B263)
    • Once reconstituted use immediately; do not store. (B263)
Legal Category (In UK) POM (B266)

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References

Associated Techniques

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ORGANISATIONS

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ELECTRONIC LIBRARY
(Further Reading)
Click image for full contents list of ELECTRONIC LIBRARY

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Authors Debra Bourne (V.w5); Gracia Vila-Garcia (V.w67)
Referees Suzanne I. Boardman (V.w6); Becki Lawson (V.w26); Susan Mikota (V.w72)

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Therapeutic Information

Uses/Indications
Activity --
Appropriate Use
  • For the treatment of inflammatory and allergic disorders.(B201.7.w7)
  • In the treatment of adrenocortical insufficiency. (B201.7.w7)
  • In the treatment of myasthenia gravis. (B201.7.w7)
  • In inflammatory bowel disease. (B201.7.w7)
  • In neoplasia treatment. (B201.7.w7)
Limitations --
Notes --

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Pharmacokinetics and Drug Interactions
Absorption /Bioavailability --
Distribution --
Plasma Protein binding / Storage --
Elimination Route --
Elimination half-life / Clearance Rate --
Drug Interactions Prednisolone sodium phosphate:
  • Reported physically incompatible with: calcium gluconate/gluceptate, dimenhydrinate, metaraminol bitartrate, methotrexate sodium, prochlorperazine edisylate, polymixin B sulfate, promazine HCl, promethazine. (B263)
  • Reported physically compatible with: ascorbic acid injection, cephalothin sodium, cytarabine, erythromycin lactobionate, flourouracil, heparin sodium, methicillin sodium, penicillin G potassium, penicillin G sodium, tetracycline HCl, vitabin B-complex with C. (B263)
  • Compatibility depends on factors such as pH, concentration, temperature and diluents. (B263)

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Administration
Formulations available
  • Tablets, oral granules, injection. (B201.7.w7, (B270.33.w33)
    • Prednisolone sodium succinate. (B270.33.w33)
    • Prednisolone acetate injection. (B270.33.w33)
    • Sodium phosphate salts and succinate esters of glucocorticoids may be given by intravenous injection. (B201.7.w7)
    • Acetate esters of glucocorticoids are insoluble and should not be given intravenously. (B201.7.w7)
Doses / Administration Routes / Frequencies Information in this page has been entered to support the current volumes of Wildpro and further information will be added as new volumes are completed. This page is not intended to substitute for the manufacturer's data sheet and the information is not yet complete for all species, or for all contra-indications etc.

CAUTION: Before any pharmaceutical product is used, the manufacturer's data sheet, containing information on uses, dosage and administration, contra-indications, warnings etc., should always be consulted. It is important to remember that licensing of pharmaceutical products for use in a particular species/condition, as well as mandatory meat and milk withdrawal times for food-producing animals, varies between countries and changes with time. Withdrawal times also may vary between different pharmaceutical formulations and depending on route of administration. In the EU, the prescription cascade must be followed (see LCofC1.2H and W564.Apr05.w1); note that specific restrictions apply for food-producing animals. In the USA, FARAD may be consulted regarding residues and meat and milk withdrawal times.


Administration

Erinaceus europaeus - West European Hedgehog:

  • 2.5 mg/kg subcutaneously. For inflammation. (B22.27.w3)
  • 10 mg/kg subcutaneously. For shock. (B22.27.w3)
Atelerix albiventris - Four-toed hedgehog:
  • 2.5 mg/kg subcutaneously every 12 hours; 10 mg/kg for shock. (J204.59.w1)
"Hedgehog" (species not distinguished between Atelerix albiventris - Four-toed hedgehog or Erinaceus europaeus - West European Hedgehog):
  • 2.5 mg/kg subcutaneously every 12 hours. For allergies. (B267)
  • 10 mg/kg subcutaneously or intramuscularly. For shock. (B267)

Elephants:

The following information is taken with permission directly from the Elephant Care International website (W580.Aug2005.w29):

Elephants:
a) For treatment of heatstroke: 1mg / 3 kg body weight (Schmidt, 1986).

Elephant References:
a) Schmidt,M.J., 1986. Proboscidea (Elephants). In: Fowler,M.E. (Editor), Zoo and wild animal medicine. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia,PA, USA pp. 884-923 [B10.49.w21]

Bears:

  • In general: "Domestic dog drugs and dosages are used to treat bears." (B336.51.w51)
  • In a bear with Inhalant Allergic Dermatitis, oral prednisolone: 80 mg on days 1,3,5,7,9 and 40 mg on days 2,4,6,8,10, then reducing to 60 mg on "odd" numbered days and 25 mg on even days, through the summer and fall pollen seasons, together with antihistamines, gave good control of the pruritis. (P1.1988.w3)
Lagomorphs - Oryctolagus cuniculus domesticus - Domestic rabbit:
  • 0.5 - 2.0 mg/kg orally, intramuscularly or subcutaneously. As an anti-inflammatory. (B600.4.w4)
  • 0.2 - 2.0 mg/kg orally or subcutaneously. (B603.5.w5)
  • Note: In general, inflammation in rabbits should be treated using a NSAID, not a corticosteroid. a single intravenous bolus may be useful in treatment of shock or acute inflammation (e.g. Encephalitozoonosis in Lagomorphs (Parasitic Disease)). Corticosteroids may be useful in the management of neoplasia, particularly lymphoproliferative disorders, and may be useful in allergic or autoimmune disorders. (B603.5.w5)
  • 0.25 - 0.5 mg/kg orally every 12 hours for three days followed by every 48 hours. As an anti-inflammatory. (B546)
  • 0.25 - 0.5 mg/kg orally every 12 hours for three days, then every 24 hours for three days, then every 48 hours. (B601.15.w15)
  • 0.5 - 2.0 mg/kg orally every 12 hours. (B602.41.w41)

Ferrets - Mustela putorius furo - Ferret:

  • Prednisone [converted in the liver to prednisolone] 0.5 - 2.0 mg/kg orally every 12 - 24 hours. (B602.41.w41)
  • 0.10 - 2.5 mg/kg orally once or twice daily. An anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic agent with a wide range of uses in the treatment of insulinoma, eosinophilic gastroenteritis etc. (B626.App.w22)
    • 2.5 mg/kg initially, decreasing dose. In the treatment of insulinoma. (B626.App.w22)
  • 0.25 - 2.2 mg/kg orally every 12 hours. Lower doses for the treatment of insulinoma; higher doses for immunosuppression. (B631.21.w21)
  • 0.5 - 2.0 mg/kg orally or intramuscularly. Insulin theragy and as an antiinflammatory. (J213.3.w1)

Great Apes

  • Adult Pan troglodytes - Chimpanzee:
    • Prednisolone sodium succinate 10 mg/kg intravenously. (W768.Jun2012.w1)
    • 0.5 -2.2 mg/kg orally. (W768.Jun2012.w1)
  • Primates:
    • Prednisolone sodium succinate 11 - 25 mg/kg intravenously for treatment of shock. (D425.3.15.w3o)
    • Prednisolone sodium succinate 2.0 - 4.0 mg/kg intravenously or intramuscularly  for treatment of allergic bronchitis, asthma. (D425.3.15.w3o)
    • 0.1 - 0.5 mg/kg subcutaneously or intravenously three times daily for treatment of allergic reactions. (D425.3.15.w3o)
    • 1.0 - 2.0 mg/kg orally twice daily for immunosuppression. Note: taper off the dose over a period of 2-3 months for immune skin diseases, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis, eosinophilic gastritis/enteritis. (D425.3.15.w3o)

Cranes

  • Prednisolone 2 mg/kg intramuscularly or intravenously every 12 hours or every 24 hours. In the treatment of shock, trauma, chronic lameness. (B115.8.w4)
  • Prednisolone sodium succinate 10-20 mg/kg intramuscularly or intravenously in the treatment of shock. Give as required. (B115.8.w4)
    • 30 mg/kg intravenously once. For the treatment of shock. (B12.56.w14)
Monitoring parameters --

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Withdrawal period / Withholding time
Notes Before the use of any pharmaceutical product in food-producing animals the label instructions for the product should be consulted regarding withdrawal requirements.

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Toxic Information

Toxic effects of Pharmaceutical Products
Contraindications / Precautions
  • Prolonged treatment with glucocorticoids may suppress the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) and result in atrophy of the adrenal glands. (B201.7.w7)
    • Prolonged therapy should be avoided if possible, to minimise the risk of precipitating signs of adrenal insufficiency in the event of superimposed stress or when therapy ceases. (B201.7.w7)
  • Use corticosteroids with caution during pregnancy due to the risk of causing fetal abnormalities and abortion. (B201.7.w7)
  • In horses: use of corticosteroids is contraindicated for treatment of laminitis. (B201.7.w7)
  • Glucocorticoids and vaccines should not be administered concurrently with one another. (B201.7.w7)
  • If the course of therapy lasts for longer than two weeks, the dose of prednisolone should not be stopped abruptly but reduced gradually. (B201.7.w7)
  • For prolonged treatment, the dose should be tapered to the lowest level clinically acceptable for maintenance of the required effect then a gradual transition made to give twice this dose on alternate days. In dogs the dose should be given in the morning to minimise suppression of the HPA axis; for cats evening medication has been suggested (however the diurnal rhythm of the HPA in cats is uncertain). (B201.7.w7)
Adverse Effects / Side Effects / Warnings
  • In horses: use of corticosteroids may induce laminitis. (B201.7.w7)
  • Long term administration of glucocorticoids may cause iatrogenic hyperadrenocorticism. (B201.7.w7)
  • Administration of corticosteroids may cause hepatomegaly and a concurrent rise in serum levels of hepatic enzymes.  (B201.7.w7)
  • Administration of glucocorticoids may change the required dosage of insulin in diabetic patients and may unmask diabetes in individuals not previously diagnosed as diabetic. (B201.7.w7)
  • Glucocorticoid treatment may cause gastric and colonic ulceration. (B201.7.w7)
  • The immunosuppression and modification of inflammatory processes by glucocorticoids may facilitate progression of infectious disease. (B201.7.w7)
    • If glucocorticoids are used in an individual with a known infection, an appropriate antimicrobial drug should be administered concurrently. (B201.7.w7)
  • Glucocorticoids have catabolic effects including: muscle wasting, cutaneous atrophy, telogen arrest of hair follicles, delay in healing of wounds, suppression of both corneal stroma repair and epithelial repair in cases of corneal ulceration. (B201.7.w7)

Reported side effects from glucocorticoid treatment include effects on blood cells and blood chemistry, central nervous system, endocrine system, gastro-intestinal system, renal system, musculoskeletal system and skin, as well as reduction in growth, redistribution of body fat, increased risk of infection, enhanced spread of infection and poor wound healing. (B270.33.w33)

Operator Warnings Before the use of any pharmaceutical product the label instructions for the product should be consulted regarding operator safety/warnings.
Overdose / Acute Toxicity --

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Detailed Toxicological Information
Classification --
Acute Toxicity --
Chronic Toxicity --
Reproductive effects --
Teratogenic effects --
Mutagenic effects --
Carcinogenic effects

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Organ toxicity --
Bird Toxicity --
Aquatic organism activity --
Other organism toxicity --

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Nutrient Information

Nutritional Data
Sources --
Biological Use --
Recommended Daily Allowance / Recommended level in food --
Stability in food (Storage time) --
Interactions --

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External / Environmental Information

External / Environmental Uses
Use --
Formulation --
Application method --
Application Concentration --
Persistence of Effect / Frequency of Application --

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Sources in the Environment
Natural sources --
Human-associated sources --

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Effects on the Environment
Effects in the aquatic environment

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Effects on land --

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Persistence in the Environment
Breakdown in soil and groundwater

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Breakdown in water --
Breakdown in vegetation --

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