Chemicals / Complex Chemical Agents/ Chemical:

Ketamine (with special reference to Ruminants, Hedgehogs, Elephants, Bears, Lagomorphs, Ferrets, Great Apes and Cranes)

INFORMATION AVAILABLE

GENERAL CHEMICAL INFORMATION THERAPEUTIC INFORMATION [DOSE, FREQUENCY & ROUTE]

NUTRITIONAL INFORMATION

TOXICITY INFORMATION ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION
Information in this page has been entered to support the current volumes of Wildpro and further information will be added as new volumes are completed. This page is not intended to substitute for the manufacturer's data sheet and the information is not yet complete for all species, or for all contra-indications etc.

CAUTION: Before any pharmaceutical product is used, the manufacturer's data sheet, containing information on uses, dosage and administration, contra-indications, warnings etc., should always be consulted. It is important to remember that licensing of pharmaceutical products for use in a particular species/condition, as well as mandatory meat and milk withdrawal times for food-producing animals, varies between countries and changes with time. Withdrawal times also may vary between different pharmaceutical formulations and depending on route of administration. In the EU, the prescription cascade must be followed (see LCofC1.2H and W564.Apr05.w1); note that specific restrictions apply for food-producing animals. In the USA, FARAD may be consulted regarding residues and meat and milk withdrawal times.

General Chemical Information

Summary 
Dissociative anaesthetic. (B205.5.w5, B263)

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Names and Formulae
Type A derivative of phencyclidine. (B201.6.w6, B263, J2.3.w2); a cyclohexylamine derivative. (B205.5.w5)
Alternative Names
  • Ketamine hydrochloride. (B263)
  • Ketamine HCl. (B263)
  • "Ketalar; Ketaset; Ketaject." (W324)
  • dl-2-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)-cyclohexanone hydrochloride. (B121, J2.3.w2)
  • Ketaset (Fort Dodge), Vetalar-V (Pharmacia). (B201.6.w6)
  • CI-581 (J2.3.w2)
Chemical Formula C13H16ClNO. (W324)
Chemical Structure
  • Two optical isomers exist; the clinically used ketamine is a racemic mixture. (B205.5.w5)
  • d-ketamine is about four times as potent as l-ketamine. (B205.5.w5)
  • (B135.24.w24)
Molecular Weight 237.7285. (W324)
Related Chemicals Phencyclidine, tiletamine. (B205.5.w5)

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Physical Properties / Chemistry
Appearance
  • Ketamine hydrochloride: white crystalline powder with a characteristic odour. (B263, J2.3.w2)

Melting point
  • 258-281°C. (B263)
Boiling point --
Density --
Water solubility
  • 1g soluble in 5 mL of water. (B263)
  • Soluble in water (up to 20% or even more). (J2.3.w2)
Other solubility
  • Lipophilic. 
  • 1g soluble in 14 mL of alcohol. (B263)
Acid/Base
  • Commercial injections: pH 3.5-5.5. (B263, J2.3.w2)

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Pharmacology & General Information
Pharmacology
  • Rapid-acting general anaesthetic with significant analgesic activity and without cardiopulmonary depressant effects. (B263)
  • Inhibits GABA and may also block serotonin, noradrenaline (norepinephrine), and dopamine in the central nervous system. Thought to induce analgesia and amnesia by functionally disrupting the central nervous system through overstimulation or induction of a cataleptic state. (B263)
  • Depresses the thalamoneocortical system. (B263)
  • Activates the limbic system. (B263)
  • Induces anaesthetic stages I and II (not III). (B263)
  • In cats causes a slight hypothermic effect, with body temperature following administration of therapeutic doses dropping by about 1.6°C. 
  • Increases muscle tone or causes no change in muscle tone. (B263)
  • Reflexes: pinnal, pedal, photic, corneal, laryngeal and pharyngeal reflexes are not affected. (B263)
  • Respiratory effects: No significant respiratory depression at usual doses but decreased respiratory rate at higher doses. (B263)
  • Cardiovascular effects: secondary to increased sympathetic tone, resulting in increases in cardiac output, heart rate, mean aortic pressure, pulmonary artery pressure, central venous pressure. (B263) If the sympathetic system is blocked, ketamine causes negative inotropic effects. (B263)
  • Rise in arterial blood pressure (hypertension) is probably caused by increased circulating catecholamines due to blockage by ketamine of reuptake of noradrenaline by adrenergic nerve terminals. (B205.5.w5)
  • Cardiac arrhythmias are uncommon. (B205.5.w5)
  • Generally increased skeletal muscle tonus; tendon reflexes brisk. (B205.5.w5)
  • Hepatic: induces microsomal enzymes. Little clinical significance if apparent from this. (B263)
  • Duration of anaesthesia: determined by redistribution rather than by elimination half-life. (B263)
  • Increased dose gives increased duration of anaesthesia. (B263)
  • Antagonistic actions at the N-methyl d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the brain and spinal cord. (B201.6.w6)
  • Interrupts the cerebral association between the limbic and cortical systems. (B201.6.w6)
  • NMDA antagonist. (J213.4.w1)
  • Can prevent "windup" in pain processing. (J213.4.w1)
Storage / Stability
  • At high pH will precipitate as a free base. (B263)
Legal Category (In UK) POM (B266)

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References

Associated Techniques

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ORGANISATIONS

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ELECTRONIC LIBRARY
(Further Reading)
Click image for full contents list of ELECTRONIC LIBRARY

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Authors Debra Bourne (V.w5)
Referees Suzanne I. Boardman (V.w6); Becki Lawson (V.w26)

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Therapeutic Information

Uses/Indications
Activity
  • General anaesthetic (dissociative anaesthetic). (B263)
  • Produces profound analgesia without muscle relaxation. (B205.5.w5)
  • Laryngeal and pharyngeal reflexes are retained. (B205.5.w5)
Appropriate Use
  • General anaesthesia. (B201.6.w6)
    • May be used in combination with butorphanol, detomidine, metetomidine, romifidine, xylazine. (B201.6.w6)
  • Useful for sedation of reptiles. (B205.5.w5)
  • Useful for birds when inhalation agents are unavailable. (B205.5.w5)
Limitations
  • Not for use as the sole anaesthetic agent in horses, donkeys, dogs. (B201.6.w6)
    • In horses/donkeys use only following deep sedative premedication with xylazine, romifidine or detomidine. (B201.6.w6)
  • Poor muscle relaxation when used alone. (B201.6.w6); tonic-clonic limb muscle spasms may occur even without stimulation (surgical or other). (B205.5.w5)
  • Increases salivation; saliva may obstruct the airway. (B205.5.w5)
Notes
  • Individuals under ketamine anaesthesia may appear in a light plane of anaesthesia but be insensitive to surgical stimulation. (B201.6.w6)
  • Duration of action appears to be shorter for all species than with phencyclidine or tiletamine. (B205.5.w5)

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Pharmacokinetics and Drug Interactions
Absorption /Bioavailability
  • Following intramuscular injection in the cat, peak levels in about 10 minutes. (B263)
Distribution
  • Widely distributed into body tissues; highest levels in the brain, liver, lung, fat. (B263)
  • Brain/plasma ration becomes constant within less than one minute. (B205.5.w5)
  • Rapidly crosses the placenta. (B205.5.w5)

Cattle:

  • Following administration of 5 mg/kg intravenously in calves, t1/2α 6.90 min, V'd(area) 1.94 L/kg. (J234.2.w1)
  • Following administration of a bolus of 100 mg/mL ketamine at a rate of 5 mg/kg body weight intravenously over five seconds, the half-life of distribution, t1/2α was 6.9 +/- 0.9 min (mean +/- SEM) in unpremedicated female calves; in female and male calves which had been premedicated with xylazine (0.2 mg/kg body weight, intramuscularly) t1/2α was 4.00 +/- 0.9 min and 3.5 +/- 0.41 min respectively. The apparent volume of distribution Vd(area) was 4.04 +/- 0.66 L/kg in unpremedicated female calves and in premedicated calves it was lower: 1.41 +/- 0.32 L/kg in the females (significantly different, P<0.01) and 2.90 +/- 1.09 L/kg in the male calves. (J289.7.w2)

Sheep: 

  • Half-life of distribution t1/2α about six minutes, V'd(area) about 2.0 L/kg. (J234.2.w1)
  • Following administration of 11.6 mg/kg ketamine intravenously in adult female Welsh Mountain or Cheviot sheep, plasma half-life of the rapid phase of distribution about 8 min with an apparent volume of distribution of 130L; the slower phase had a half-life of about 30 min. Concentrations in CSF rose rapidly and peaked at four minutes, at a concentration similar to the peak plasma concentration, then decreased in a pattern which closely followed changes in the plasma. At the point of recovery from the ketamine anaesthesia (the time at which halothane anaesthesia had to be resumed), which was 20 +/- 2.5 minutes, plasma levels were about 1.0 µg/mL while CSF concentrations were higher at about 1.8 µg/mL. (J289.1.w1)
Plasma Protein binding / Storage
Elimination Route
  • Hepatic: metabolised in the liver, mainly by demethylation and hydroxylation. (B263); at least four metabolites are produced. (B205.5.w5)
    • Metabolism of the drug is rapid. (J289.1.w1)
  • Renal: both unchanged drug and metabolites are excreted in urine. (B263, B205.5.w5, J289.1.w1)
Elimination half-life / Clearance Rate

Cattle:

  • In calves one hour (approx.) (B263)
  • Following administration of 5 mg/kg intravenously, t1/2 β 60.5 min, ClB 40.39 mL/kg/min. (J234.2.w1)
  • Following administration of a bolus of 100 mg/mL ketamine at a rate of 5 mg/kg body weight intravenously over five seconds, the half-life of elimination t1/2β was 60.5 +/- 5.4 min (mean +/- SEM) in unpremedicated female calves; in female and male calves which had been premedicated with xylazine (0.2 mg/kg body weight, intramuscularly) t1/2β was 54.2 +/- 11.4 min and 58.6 +/- 16.6 min respectively. Mean plasma clearance in unpremedicated female calves was 40.4 +/- 6.6 mL/min/kg; in the premedicated female calves clearance was about half this, 21.3 +/- 5.4 mL/min/kg while in male premedicated calves it was 36.40 +/- 6.67 mL/min/kg. (J289.7.w2)

Sheep:

  • Elimination half-life t1/2β about 42 minutes, ClB about 65 mL/kg/min. (J234.2.w1)
  • Following administration of 11.6 mg/kg ketamine intravenously in adult female Welsh Mountain or Cheviot sheep, initial plasma clearance was about 250 mL/min/kg for the first 15 minutes and then about 67 mL/min/kg.. (J289.1.w1)
Drug Interactions
  • Physically compatible with sterile water for injection, D5W, normal saline (0.9% saline). (B263)
  • Physically compatible with xylazine: may be mixed in the same syringe. (B263)
  • Physically incompatible with barbiturates and with diazepam: precipitation may occur if they are mixed in the same syringe or intravenous bag. (B263)
  • Recovery time following ketamine may be prolonged if narcotics, barbiturates or diazepam are used. (B263)
  • Use with halothane may prolong recovery time from ketamine and also inhibit the cardiac stimulatory effects of ketamine. (B263)
  • Anaesthetic effect of ketamine may be prolonged in individuals receiving chloramphenicol. (B263)
  • Hypertension and tachycardia have occurred in humans with concomitant thyroid hormone treatment. (B263)
  • Enhanced/prolonged respiratory depression may occur in the presence of neuromuscular blockers such as succinylcholine or tubocurarine. (B263)

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Administration
Formulations available UK:
  • Ketaset (Fort Dodge) UK: ketamine (as hydrochloride) 100 mg/mL; 10mL and 50mL. For horses, dogs, cats, primates. (B201.6.w6)
  • Vetalar-V (Pharmacia) UK: ketamine (as hydrochloride) 100 mg/mL; 10mL and 20mL. For horses, dogs, cats, primates. (B201.6.w6)
Doses / Administration Routes / Frequencies Cattle:
  • For chemical restraint: 

Experimental data:

  • In female calves without premedication, with a bolus of 100 mg/mL ketamine at a rate of 5 mg/kg body weight intravenously over five seconds, anaesthesia lasted for 6-14 minutes (9.8 +/- 1.7 min, mean +/- SEM). (J289.7.w2)
  • In female calves premedicated with 0.2 mg/kg xylazine intramuscularly, with a bolus of 100 mg/mL ketamine at a rate of 5 mg/kg body weight intravenously over five seconds, anaesthesia lasted for 17-26 minutes (22.3 +/- 2.5 min, mean +/- SEM). In male calves, the same drug regimen gave 10-26 minutes of anaesthesia (18.3 +/- 3.8 min). (J289.7.w2)

Sheep:

  • For chemical restraint:
    • 22 mg/kg intramuscularly. Premedicate with atropine 0.22 mg/kg and acepromazine 0.55 mg/kg then the ketamine. (B263, B355.w1) Anaesthetic time may be extended by giving 2 to 4 mg/kg ketamine intermittently. (B263, B355.w1)
    • Or 2 mg/kg intravenously for induction then constant infusion of 4 mL/minute of ketamine at a concentration of 2 mg/mL in 5% dextrose. (B263, B355.w1)
    • 2 to 10 mg/kg intravenously (or intramuscularly) gives anaesthesia with good analgesia; duration of anaesthesia about 30 minutes. Usually used in combination with a sedative such as xylazine. (B217.69.w69)
    • Intravenous administration of a mixture of 2.2 mg/kg ketamine and 0.11 mg/kg xylazine in the same syringe may be used for induction with extension of anaesthesia by repeat injection of half of this dose of both drugs. (B355.w1)

Goats:

  • For chemical restraint:
    • 11 mg/kg intramuscularly. Premedicate with atropine 0.4 mg/kg then 20 to 25 minutes later xylazine 0.22 mg/kg intramuscularly then about 10 minutes later the ketamine. Anaesthesia may be extended by giving further doses of ketamine at 2 to 4 mg/kg for a short extension or 6 mg/kg for a longer extension. (B263, B355.w1)
    • Intravenous administration of a mixture of 2.2 mg/kg ketamine and 0.11 mg/kg xylazine in the same syringe may be used for induction with extension of anaesthesia by repeat injection of half of this dose of both drugs. (B355.w1)

Cats:

  • 11-33 mg/kg by intramuscular (preferred), subcutaneous or intravenous injection. (B201.6.w6)

Erinaceus europaeus - West European Hedgehog:

  • 80 mg/kg by intramuscular injection. (J15.21.w1)
  • 20 mg/kg intramuscularly. Sedation and narcosis; inject into the gluteal muscles, not the neck (where there is brown fat). (B22.27.w3)
  • 20 mg/kg intramuscularly. "variable success" reported. (B156.7.w7)
  • 5-30 mg/kg intramuscularly. For sedation/anaesthesia. Better used in combination with other drugs. (D107)
  • 10-20 mg/kg. In combination with Medetomidine 100 µg/kg for general anaesthesia. (B284.6.w6)
  • Medetomidine 0.2 mg / ketamine 5.0 mg/kg; subcutaneous injection. Relaxation and deep sedation but not necessarily anaesthesia sufficient for e.g. ear tagging without response. Reversal of medetomidine using atipamezole (1.0 mg/kg intramuscular).  (J2.26.w1)
  • Medetomidine 0.1 mg / ketamine 5.0 mg/kg; intramuscular injection. Anaesthesia. Reversal of medetomidine using atipamezole 0.3-0.5 mg/kg.  (B267, D93)
  • Medetomidine 0.2 mg / ketamine 2 mg/kg / fentanyl 0.1 mg/kg; subcutaneous injection. Anaesthesia with good muscle relaxation. Reversal of medetomidine using atipamezole (1.0 mg/kg intramuscular) and of fentanyl using naloxone (0.16 mg/kg intramuscularly). (J2.26.w1)
  • Xylazine 1-2.5 mg/kg / ketamine 5-15 mg/kg. For anaesthesia; reverse the xylazine with atipamezole 1 mg/kg. (D107)

Atelerix albiventris - Four-toed hedgehog:

  • 5 to 20 mg/kg intramuscularly. Sedation, anaesthesia. Avoid injection into the neck area (where there is brown fat); may be used in combination with diazepam or xylazine; recovery may be rough and/or prolonged. (B267)
  • 5 to 20 mg/kg. May be used in combination with diazepam 0.5 to 2.0 mg/kg or xylazine 0.5 to 1.0 mg/kg.(J204.59.w1)

"Hedgehog" (species not distinguished between Atelerix albiventris or Erinaceus europaeus):

  • Ketamine 5 to 20 mg/kg intramuscularly alone; or in combination with 0.5 to 1.0 mg/kg xylazine intramuscularly or 0.5 to 1.0 mg/kg intramuscular diazepam; duration of sedation and recovery may be prolonged with injectable anaesthetics. (J34.24.w1)

Elephants:

The following information is taken with permission directly from the Elephant Care International website (W580.Aug2005.w17):

Elephants:

CAUTION! Sedative and anesthetic drug dosages for African elephants often vary from those for Asian elephants. Do not assume that the recommendations for one species can be applied to the other. Significant variation may also occur between individual elephants. Higher doses may be needed in wild or excited animals. Unless otherwise specified, doses refer to captive elephants. The information provided here should be used as a guideline only. Consultation with experienced colleagues is advised.

a,b) Adverse effect: A single case of photosensitization (similar to that noted with the use of acepromazine) was seen in an Asian elephant sedated with ketamine-xylazine. The author also reports that “the synergy of ketamine-xylazine combination seen in other animals like carnivores is not noticed in elephants.” (Cheeran, 2002).

c) 5-10 mg/kg ketamine IM; can be combined with xylazine; the dose of individual drugs can be reduced up to 50% when combinations are used (Nayer et.al. 2002).

d) ketamine:xylazine in a 1.25:1 ratio with xylazine (Sarma et al. 2001).
e) 0.33 mg/kg ketamine combined with 0.12 mg/kg xylazine for immobilization of baby or juvenile Asian elephants; 1.14 mg/kg ketamine combined with 0.14 mg/kg xylazine for immobilization of baby or juvenile African elephants (Fowler, 1995).
f) A 3000 kg Asian cow was immobilized with 350 mg ketamine and 350 mg xylazine IM to repair a ventral hernia. Induction took 10 minutes, the cow became recumbent, and the duration of anesthesia was 120 minutes. Sedation was adequate for surgical manipulation (Nayar et.al. 1992).
g) A mixture containing 100-150 mg xylazine and 50-100 mg ketamine injected IV in laterally recumbent Asian elephants produces quick, safe and dependable analgesia, anesthesia, and muscular relaxation (Pathak, 1991). 
h) A 650 kg African elephant was premedicated with 0.27 mg/kg ketamine (175 mg) and 0.23 mg/kg xylazine (150 mg) IM followed 20 minutes later by an IV injection of 0.9 µg/kg etorphine (0.6 mg) then maintained on 1.0-1.5% halothane to perform a tusk extraction. Following a 3- hour surgery, the elephant was reversed with 1.8 µg/kg diprenorphine (1.2 mg) IV and 46 µg yohimbine IV and was standing in 5 minutes (Welsch et al. 1989). 

i) Xylazine (0.1 ± 0.04 mg/kg of body weight, mean ± SD) and ketamine (0.6 ± 0.13 mg/kg) administered IM induced good chemical restraint in standing juvenile African elephants during a 45-minute transport period before administration of general anesthesia (Heard et al. 1988). 

j) For standing sedation of adult Asian elephants: 0.3 to 0.7 mg/kg ketamine and 0.1 mg/kg xylazine IM. For immobilization of Asian elephants: 1.0 to 1.5 mg/kg ketamine and 0.14 mg/kg xylazine IM. In 13 of 14 immobilized elephants, respiratory and heart rates remained stable throughout the duration of immobilization. The mean induction time was 11.6 minutes and the mean duration of immobilization was 27 minutes. Mean respiratory and heart rates were 17 and 45 /minute respectively (Jacobson, 1988). 

k) A 4000 kg African elephant immobilized with 2.3 µg/kg carfentanil was given 100 mg ketamine IV during a 50 minute duration period (Jacobson et.al 1988). 

l) A group of 15 African elephants were immobilized with a combination of xylazine (0.2 mg/kg of body weight, IM) and ketamine (1 to 1.5 mg/kg of body weight, IM). See details in abstract below (Allen, 1986). 

m) A 1125 kg African elephant was sedated with 100 mg ketamine, 100 mg xylazine and 8 mg butorphanol given IM for a tusk examination. A 423 kg African elephant as given 160 mg ketamine and 35 mg xylazine IM for radiography of tusks (Heard et al 1986). 

n) Twenty-two juvenile African elephants were given a combination of xylazine (mean +/- SD = 0.14 +/- 0.03 mg/kg of body weight) and ketamine (1.14 +/- 0.21 mg/kg) as a single IM injection. See details in abstract below (Jacobson et al 1985).
 
Elephant References:
a) Cheeran,J. 2002. Adverse drug experiences in elephants. Journal of Indian Veterinary Association Kerala 7:(3):61
b) Cheeran,J.V., Chandrasekharan,K., and Radhakrishnan,K. 2002. Tranquilization and translocation of elephants. Journal of Indian Veterinary Association Kerala 7:(3):42-46

c) Nayar,K.N.M., Chandrasekharan,K., and Radhakrishnan,K. 2002. Management of surgical affections in captive elephants. Journal of Indian Veterinary Association Kerala 7:(3):55-59
d) Sarma,K.K. and Pathak,S.C. 2001. Cardio vascular response to xylazine and Hellabrunn mixture with Yohimbine as reversal agent in Asian elephants. Indian Veterinary Journal 78:(5):400-492 Abstract: Xylazine (0.1 mg/kg body weight) produced highly significant bradycardia and hypotension in recumbent Asian elephants, with a peak depression observed at the 30th minute for heart rate and 30th minute in the mean arterial pressure (MAP). Ketamine (1.25 : 1 ratio with xylazine) mildly marginalised the bradycardia, but remarkably improved the MAP. Yohimbine, used to reverse the sedation produced by xylazine did not appear to influence these parameters to any appreciable levels.

e) Fowler,M.E., 1995. Elephants. In: Restraint and handling of wild and domestic animals. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, USA pp. 265-269

f) Nayar,K.N.M., Radhakrishnan,K., Chandrasekharan,K., Cheeran,J.V., Ravindran,S., and George,P.O., 1992. Anaesthesia for surgical manipulations in the elephant. In: Silas,E.G., Nair,M.K., and Nirmalan,G. (Editors), The Asian Elephant: Ecology, Biology, Diseases, Conservation and Management (Proceedings of the National Symposium on the Asian Elephant held at the Kerala Agricultural University, Trichur, India, January 1989). Kerala Agricultural University, Trichur, India pp. 156-158 Abstract: Anaesthesia using chloral hydrate, thiopentone sodium, xylazine and ketamine was induced in ten elephants. The effects, duration of induction and anaesthesia were recorded. Post anaesthesia complications were not encountered in any of the animals. Surgical manipulations could be carried out under anaesthesia induced with these drugs.

g) Pathak,S.C. 1991. Xylazine-ketamine anesthesia in Indian elephant (Elephas maximus indicus) - trial on 53 clinical cases. International Seminar on Veterinary Medicine in Wild and Captive Animals, Nov. 8-10, Bangalore, India. Pages: 21 Abstract: Veterinarians are often required to attend and undertake surgery on elephants. Unless the animal is deeply sedated or anesthetized certain works become impractical. Xylazine has proved to be a good sedative and analgesic in elephants. This drug is not freely available in India and is costly. The drug is usually used by intramuscular route but to reduce the dose it has been used intravenously. Intravenous use may be risky for its bradycardia effect and fall in cardiac output. Ketamine, on the other hand, has no depressant effect on the cardiovascular and respiratory system but produces muscular tremor and stiffness of the skeletal muscle. Combination of Xylazine and Ketamine minimizes the undesirable aspects of both the drugs. A mixture containing 100-150 mg xylazine and 50-100 mg ketamine injected intravascularly to the laterally recumbent elephant produced quick, safe and dependable analgesia, anesthesia, and muscular relaxation. Surgical operations like tusk extraction, bullet extraction, umbilical and pleural herniorraphy, trunk injury, extensive wound repair, etc. were performed in 53 elephants. Recovery followed without excitement and untoward effect based on the observations of this trial on clinical cases, combination of Xylazine and Ketamine is recommended in elephant.
h) Welsch,B., Jacobson,E.R., Kollias,G.V., Kramer,L., Gardner,H., and Page,C.D. 1989. Tusk extraction in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 20:(4):446-453 Abstract: Unilateral dentoalveolar abscesses and/or tusk fractures were identified and tusk extractions performed in seven 3.5-21-yr-old African elephants (Loxodonta africana) of both sexes weighing 650-3,000 kg. Following immobilization with etorphine hydrochloride or carfentanil citrate, six of seven elephants were intubated and maintained on a 1-1.5% halothane in oxygen mixture; one elephant was maintained in lateral recumbency by multiple i.v. injections of etorphine. All elephants were positioned with the affected tusk up. For one elephant, two surgical procedures were required to remove the tusk. In six of seven elephants, the tusks were sectioned transversely and the tusk wall thinned by enlarging the pulp cavity with carbide burs. In those tusks with remaining pulp, the pulp was removed with stainless steel rods and hooks. Next, the tusk was sectioned longitudinally into three or four segments using a wood saw within the pulp chamber. bone gouges, osteotomes, and a mallet were used to free the outer epithelial and alveolar attachments from the tusk. Starting with the smallest segment, the sections were removed using long screwdriver-shaped stainless steel rods. The alveolar chamber was then periodically flushed postsurgically with a dilute organic iodine solution. For six of seven elephants, complete granulation of the alveolar chamber was evident by 4 mo postsurgery; the seventh elephant showed partial healing with granulation tissue at 2 mo following surgery.

i) Heard,D.J., Kollias,G.V., Webb,A.I., Jacobson,E.R., and Brock,K.A. 1988. Use of halothane to maintain anesthesia induced with etorphine in juvenile African elephants. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 193:254-256 Excerpts: Sixteen 3- to 5-year-old African elephants were anesthetized one or more times for a total of 27 diagnostic and surgical procedures. Xylazine (0.1 ± 0.04 mg/kg of body weight, mean ± SD) and ketamine (0.6 ± 0.13 mg/kg) administered IM induced good chemical restraint in standing juvenile elephants during a 45-minute transport period before administration of general anesthesia. After IM or IV administration of etorphine (1.9 ± 0.56 micrograms/kg), the mean time to lateral recumbency was 20 ± 6.6 and 3 ± 0.0 minutes, respectively. The mean heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and respiration rate during all procedures was 50 ± 12 beats/min, 106 ± 19 mm of Hg, and 10 ± 3 breaths/min, respectively. Cardiac arrhythmias were detected during 2 procedures. In one elephant paroxysmal ventricular tachycardia was detected and the procedure terminated when the arrhythmia failed to stabilize after multiple doses of lidocaine (1 mg/kg, IV). In another elephant, second degree atrioventricular block returned to normal sinus rhythm after IV administration of atropine (0.04 mg/kg). In one elephant, low mean blood pressure (54 mm of Hg) responded to reduction in halothane (vaporizer setting 1 to 0.75%) and slow infusion of dobutamine HCl ((250 mg/1,000 ml) given to effect. The systolic blood pressure increased to 90 mm of Hg and remained high with a continuous infusion of dobutamine (5 µg/kg/min). Immediately after induction in another elephant, profound respiratory depression (< 1 breath / minute) and palpably weak arterial pulse were identified. Intravenous administration of diprenorphine at half the recommended reversal dose resulted in improvement of respiration and palpable arterial pulse, without the elephant developing signs of complete anesthetic reversal. Alterations in systolic blood pressure, ear flapping, and trunk muscle tone were useful for monitoring depth of anesthesia. Results indicated that halothane in oxygen was effective for maintenance of surgical anesthesia in juvenile African elephants after induction with etorphine. Note: A correction appeared in a later volume 193(6): p.721.

j) Jacobson,E.R. 1988. Chemical restraint and anesthesia of elephants. Proc.Ann.Elephant Workshop 9. Pages: 112-119

k) Jacobson,E.R., Kollias,G.V., Heard,D.J., and Caligiuri,R. 1988. Immobilization of African elephants with carfentanil and antagonism with nalmefene and diprenorphine. Journal of Zoo Animal Medicine 19:1-7
l) Allen,J.L. 1986. Use of tolazoline as an antagonist to xylazine-ketamine-induced immobilization in African elephants. American Journal of Veterinary Research 47:(4):781-783 Abstract: A group of 15 African elephants (Loxodonta africana) were immobilized with a combination of xylazine (0.2 mg/kg of body weight, IM) and ketamine (1 to 1.5 mg/kg of body weight, IM). Ten of the African elephants were allowed to remain recumbent for 30 minutes and the remaining 5 elephants, for 45 minutes before they were given tolazoline (0.5 mg/kg of body weight, IV). For the group of 15, the mean induction time (the time required from injection of the xylazine-ketamine combination until onset of recumbency) was 14.2 ± 4.35 minutes (mean ± SD), and standing time (the time required from the tolazoline injection until the elephant stood without stimulation or assistance) was 2.8 ± 0.68 minutes. All of the elephants were physically stimulated (by pushing, slapping, shouting) before they were given tolazoline, and none could be aroused. After tolazoline was given and the elephant was aroused, relapses to recumbency did not occur. Recovery was characterized by mild somnolence in an otherwise alert and responsive animal. Failure (no arousal) rates were 0% (95% confidence interval, 0 to 0.3085) for elephants given tolazoline after 30 minutes of recumbency and 100% for elephants that were not given tolazoline. There was no significant (P less than 0.05) difference in standing time 30 or 45 minutes after tolazoline injection.

m) Heard,D.J., Jacobson,E.R., and Brock,K.A. 1986. Effects of oxygen supplementation on blood gas values in chemically restrained juvenile African elephants. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 189:(9):1071-1074 

Abstract: Arterial oxygen and carbon dioxide tensions were determined in sedated immature African elephants and in elephants immobilized with etorphine hydrochloride or with an etorphine-ketamine combination. For manipulative and surgical procedures, the Hudson demand value was used for oxygen supplementation during 6 procedures, and insufflation was used during 2 procedures. The Hudson demand value was more effective than insufflation in sustaining adequate arterial oxygenation.

n) Jacobson,E.R., Allen,J., Martin,H., and Kollias,G.V. 1985. Effects of yohimbine on combined xylazine-ketamine-induced sedation and immobilization in juvenile African elephants. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 187:(11):1195-1198 Abstract: Twenty-two juvenile African elephants were given a combination of xylazine (mean +/- SD = 0.14 +/- 0.03 mg/kg of body weight) and ketamine (1.14 +/- 0.21 mg/kg) as a single IM injection; one elephant was immobilized twice, 77 days apart. After injection, 14 elephants were immobilized, 4 were sedated deeply, 2 were sedated moderately, and 2 were sedated minimally. Immobilized elephants had a mean immobilization time of 11.6 +/- 6.9 minutes. At the conclusion of a variety of clinical procedures, 12 of the 14 elephants immobilized with a single dose combination of xylazine and ketamine were given yohimbine (0.13 +/- 0.03 mg/kg) IV, and the remaining 2 elephants were allowed to recover spontaneously; the elephants given yohimbine had a mean standing time of 2.4 +/- 1.1 minutes. Of the 8 sedated elephants, 5 were given an additional dose of combined xylazine (0.08 +/- 0.03 mg/kg), and ketamine (0.61 +/- 0.19 mg/kg) IM, and 1 elephant was given ketamine (0.47 mg/kg) IV. After injection, 4 of the 8 elephants were recumbent laterally within 17 minutes and 2 remained standing, under deep sedation. Seven of the 8 elephants were given yohimbine (0.13 +/- 0.03 mg/kg) IV; all were ambulatory in 2 minutes. Results indicated that yohimbine may be useful in controlling duration of xylazine-ketamine sedation and immobilization in juvenile African elephants.

See also:
Raath,J.P., 1999. Relocation of African elephants. In: Fowler,M.E. and Miller,R.E. (Editors), Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine: Current Therapy 4. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, PA, USA pp. 525-533
Altmann,D. and Krebs,W. 1981. Combined Vetalar-Combelen anesthesia of elephant for surgical removal of foreign body from eye.  Erkrankungen der Zootiere 261-265

Bears:

1) In combination with Medetomidine (see: Medetomidine-Ketamine Anaesthesia in Bears):

  • Medetomidine 30-50 µg/kg plus ketamine 1-2.5 mg/kg. (B407.w18)
  • In captive Ursus arctos - Brown bear, medetomidine 20-30 µg/kg + ketamine 0.5-1.0 mg/kg gave an induction time averaging six minutes. (P7.1.w10)
  • In wild Ursus arctos - Brown bear darted from a helicopter, medetomidine 60-80 µg/kg + ketamine 1.0-1.6 mg/kg was required. (P7.1.w10)
    • Supplementation with ketamine, 1.0 mg/kg intravenously was required to enable an incisor to be extracted without the bear showing a pain reaction. (P7.1.w10)
  • In Ursus maritimus - Polar bear: doses used varied: medetomidine from 77-352 µg/kg and ketamine from 1.92-8.81 mg/kg. Variation was due to incorrect body mass estimation and in some cases (four of 12 bears) multiple injections required. (J2.30.w5)
  • In nine captive Ursus maritimus - Polar bear, medetomidine 30 µg/kg plus ketamine 1.0-1.5 mg/kg produced adequate immobilisation. (P1.1990.w6)
  • In eight Ursus arctos - Brown bear, medetomidine 30-40 µg/kg plus ketamine 1.0-1.5 mg/kg produced adequate immobilisation. (P1.1990.w6)
  • In Himalayan bear (Ursus thibetanus - Asiatic black bear) medetomidine 30-40 µg/kg plus ketamine 1.0-1.5 mg/kg produced adequate immobilisation. (P1.1990.w6)
  • In Ursus americanus - American black bear medetomidine 30-40 µg/kg plus ketamine 1.0-1.5 mg/kg produced adequate immobilisation. (P1.1990.w6)
  • In five Ursus maritimus - Polar bear, 159 +/- 34 µg/kg medetomidine and 4.0 +/- 0.8 mg/kg ketamine. (P1.1996.w5)
  • In captive Ursus maritimus - Polar bear (two adult females and three subadults), medetomidine 20-33 ug/kg plus ketamine 1-3 mg/kg (mean 1.5 mg/kg) was sufficient to enable translocation and skin biopsies. (J2.21.w3)
  • In captive Ursus arctos - Brown bear (12 adults, 11 subadults or juveniles) 25-35 µg/kg medetomidine plus 0.7 - 1.5 mg/kg ketamine was sufficient for translocation, tattooing and castration. However, in wild brown bears shot from a helicopter, higher doses were needed. (J2.21.w3)
  • Note: if too low a dose of ketamine is given, sudden recoveries may occur: one captive female brown bear, having not responded to blood sampling, suddenly stood when its screaming cub was carried past. a wild adult male, anaesthetised with 48 ug/kg medetomidine, 1.0 mg/kg ketamine, plus an additional 1.0 mg/kg ketamine suddenly attacked its handlers 78 minutes after darting, without any previous signs indicating arousal. (J2.21.w3)

For further information see: Medetomidine-Ketamine Anaesthesia in Bears

2) In combination with Xylazine (see: Xylazine-Ketamine Anaesthesia in Bears):

  • Usually a 1:2 xylazine:ketamine ratio or a 1:1 ratio. (B10.48.w43) 
  • Xylazine 3-9 mg/kg + Ketamine 3-9 mg/kg OR xylazine 2-4.5 mg/kg + ketamine 5-9 mg/kg. (B10.48.w43)
  • Xylazine 2 mg/kg plus Ketamine 4-10 mg/kg. (B16.9.w9)
  • Xylazine 1-2 mg/kg plus Ketamine 5 mg/kg immobilises most bear species. (J213.4.w3)
  • Xylazine 2 mg/kg plus ketamine 5-8 mg/kg. (B407.w18)
  • Ursus americanus - American black bear: 
    • Xylazine 2 mg/kg + ketamine 4 mg/kg. (D156.w2)
    • Approximately 2:1 ketamine:xylazine ratio (1.5-17.1 mg ketamine + 0.9-10.0 mg/kg xylazine). (J1.15.w11)
    • Range 4 mg/kg ketamine plus 2 mg/kg xylazine to 16 mg/kg ketamine plus 8 mg/kg xylazine, mean 8 mg/kg ketamine plus 4 mg/kg xylazine, in wild bears. (J59.24.w1)
    • Initial intended dose 2.2 mg/kg xylazine plus 4.4 mg/kg ketamine in wild bears. (J1.25.w6)
  • Ursus arctos - Brown bear 
  • Ursus maritimus - Polar bear: 
    • For cubs of the year, effective doses were 1.6-5.0 mg  (mean 2.8 mg/kg) each drug, with first effect after 1.0-3.0 minutes (mean 1.6 minutes) and immobilisation by 1.0-4.0 minutes (mean 1.3 minutes). (J1.17.w12)
    • For older bears, effective doses were 3.3-10.6 mg/kg (mean 6.8 mg/kg) each drug, with first effect after 1.0-10.0 minutes (mean 4.6 minutes) and induction by 4.0-30.0 minutes (mean 13.2 minutes). (J1.17.w12)
    • Bears were tractable (handleable) for a period of at least 30 minutes. (J1.17.w12)
    • In bears of at least one year old, doses of 4.1 - 30.8 mg/kg, median 11.0 mg/kg in one year, and 10.7 mg/kg in a second year. (J1.21.w7)
  • Melursus ursinus - Sloth bear: xylazine 1.4-2.44 mg/kg + ketamine 5.80-9.75 mg/kg. (J4.189.w11)
    • Induction (to sternal recumbency) took 2-25 minutes; ataxia and disorientation were noted prior to development of sternal recumbency. Immobilisation (lateral recumbency) occurred after 4-30 minutes. (J4.189.w11)
    • All bears showed moderate salivation; two vomited white, frothy liquid (food and water had been withheld for 24 hours prior to immobilisation). (J4.189.w11)
  • Ursus thibetanus - Asiatic black bear:
    • Xylazine 2 mg/kg estimated body mass plus ketamine 4 - 5 mg/kg estimated body bass for wild bears following capture in traps. The drugs were administered intramuscularly using a blowpipe. (J46.271.w1)
    • Xylazine 1 mg/kg plus ketamine 15 mg/kg in culvert-trapped bears, for handling and attaching radio-collars. The drugs were administered intramuscularly using a blowpipe. (J345.13.w6)

For further information see: Xylazine-Ketamine Anaesthesia in Bears

Lagomorphs - Oryctolagus cuniculus domesticus - Domestic rabbit:

Ferrets - Mustela putorius furo - Ferret:

  • 10 - 50 mg/kg intramuscularly. (B602.41.w41)
  • 20 - 35 mg/kg plus Acepromazine 0.2 - 0.35 mg/kg subcutaneously or intramuscularly. (B602.41.w41)
  • 10 - 20 mg/kg plus Diazepam 1.0 - 2.0 mg/kg intramuscularly. (B602.41.w41)
  • 5 - 8 mg/kg plus Medetomidine 0.08 - 0.1 mg/kg intramuscularly. (B602.41.w41)
  • 5 - 10 mg/kg plus Midazolam 0.25 - 0.5 mg/kg intravenously. (B602.41.w41)
  • 20 - 30 mg/kg intramuscularly. A very safe drug, but with a long recovery. (B626.App.w22)
    • Ketamine 20 - 30 mg/kg plus Xylazine 1.0 - 2.0 mg/kg intramuscularly. Load the xylazine into the syringe first. (B626.App.w22)
    • Ketamine 20 - 30 mg/kg plus Acepromazine for intubation. (B626.App.w22)
    • Ketamine 25 - 35 mg/kg plus Diazepam 2.0 - 3.0 mg/kg intramuscularly. Suitable for minor procedures. (B626.App.w22)
    • Ketamine 5 - 10 mg/kg plus Midazolam 5 mg/kg intramuscularly. As pre-medication before gaseous anaesthesia. (B626.App.w22)
    • Ketamine 10 mg/kg plus Medetomidine 120 µg/kg intramuscularly. (B626.App.w22)
    • Ketamine 5 mg/kg plus Medetomidine 80 µg plus Butorphanol 100 µg intramuscularly or subcutaneously. Note: if the 100 µg dose of butorphanol is exceeded, hypoxia may occur. (B626.App.w22)
  • 10 - 20 mg/kg intramuscularly. Mild sedation, no muscle relaxation, causes sneezing reflex. (B631.22.w22)
    • Ketamine 10 - 20 mg/kg plus Diazepam 1 - 2 mg/kg intramuscularly. Provides light anaesthesia and only poor analgesia. (B631.22.w22)
    • Ketamine 5 - 8 mg/kg plus Medetomidine 0.08 - 0.1 mg/kg intramuscularly. Light anaesthesia with analgesia, hypotension and respiratory depression. Oxygen should be available. Reverse medetomidine with atipamezole. (B631.22.w22)
    • Ketamine 5 - 10 mg/kg ten minutes after 0.25 mg/kg Midazolam. Provides heavy sedation/induction; inhalant anaesthetic then required. (B631.22.w22)
  • 10 - 20 mg/kg for sedation, 10 - 35 mg/kg for surgical anaesthesia. May cause muscular rigidity and is unlikely to provide complete analgesia. Seizures occur in some individuals. Premedication with atropine may be required to reduce salivation. (J213.3.w1)
    • Ketamine 10 - 30 mg/kg plus diazepam 1 - 2 mg/mg intramuscularly. The two drugs can be combined in the same syringe. (J213.3.w1)
    • Ketamine 5 mg/kg Medetomidine 80 micrograms/kg (0.08 mg/kg) intramuscularly. Should be drawn up in separate syringes but can be combined into a single syringe for administration. (J213.3.w1)
    • Ketamine 10 - 30 mg/kg plus Xylazine 1 - 2 mg/kg intramuscularly. Xylazine can be reversed using yohimbine, 0.5 mg/kg intramuscularly. (J213.3.w1)
    • Ketamine 10 - 30 mg/kg plus Acepromazine 0.05 - 0.3 mg/kg intramuscularly. Note: hypotension and hypothermia. (J213.3.w1)
    • Ketamine 5 mg/kg plus Medetomidine 90 micrograms/kg plus butorphanol 0.1 mg/kg intramuscularly. Should be drawn up in separate syringes but can be combined into a single syringe for administration. Note: medetomidine can be reversed using atipamezole 400 mg/kg. (J213.3.w1)
  • Microdosing for perioperative analgesia:
    • Ketamine plus Fentanyl has been used at micro-doses via a constant rate infuser (CRI) during and after surgery. Use of this combination reduces the concentration of anaesthetic inhalant (gaseous) anaesthetic agent required and reduces  hypotension associated with gaseous anaesthesia. Following a 0.1 mg/kg loading dose of ketamine, ketamine is given intra-operatively via CRI at 0.3 - 0.4 mg/kg/hour with fentanyl at 10-20 µg/kg/hour, then post-operatively ketamine at 0.3 - 0.4 mg/kg/hour (with fentanyl at 5 - 10 µg/kg/hour). (J513.7.w3)

Great Apes

  • 6.0 - 8.0 mg/kg intramuscularly or intravenously. (B336.39.w39)
    • For chemical restraint. (B336.39.w39)
    • Doses as high as 15 mg/g have been reported. (B336.39.w39)
  • Induction of anaesthesia:
    • Ketamine 1.0 mg/kg plus Xylazine 0.25 mg/kg plus Tiletamine-Zolazepam 1.25 mg/kg can be used for induction of anaesthesia in great apes. Oxygen should be supplied, plus additional inhalant anaesthetic agent as required. The anaesthetised individual should be monitored closely. (B336.39.w39)
    • Ketamine 2.0 mg/kg plus Medetomidine 0.03 - 0.04 mg/kg can be used for induction of anaesthesia in great apes. Oxygen should be supplied, plus additional inhalant anaesthetic agent as required. (B336.39.w39)
    • Ketamine 2.0 - 3.0 mg/kg plus Medetomidine 0.02 - 0.04 mg/kg plus Butorphanol 0.2 - 0.4 mg/kg can be used for induction of anaesthesia in great apes. Oxygen should be supplied, plus additional inhalant anaesthetic agent as required. The anaesthetised individual should be monitored closely. (B336.39.w39)
      • Atipamezole can be used for reversal of the medetomidine, and Naloxone for reversal of the butorphanol. (B336.39.w39)
    • Ketamine 3.0 mg/kg plus Butorphanol 0.4 mg/kg plus Midazolam 0.3 mg/kg can be used for induction of anaesthesia in great apes. Oxygen should be supplied, plus additional inhalant anaesthetic agent as required. The anaesthetised individual should be monitored closely. (B336.39.w39)
      • Naloxone can be used for reversal of the butorphanol, and flumazenil for reversal of the midazolam. (B336.39.w39)
  • Adult Pan troglodytes - Chimpanzee: 5.0 - 40.0 mg/kg intramuscularly. (W768.Jun2012.w1)
  • Adult Pan troglodytes - Chimpanzee: ketamine 15 - 20 mg/kg plus Xylazine 1.0 mg/kg intramuscularly (W768.Jun2012.w1)

Cranes

  • 10-22 mg/kg intramuscularly once. Effects last for 20-30 minutes. (B115.8.w4)
Monitoring parameters --

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Withdrawal period / Withholding time
Notes --

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Toxic Information

Toxic effects of Pharmaceutical Products
Contraindications / Precautions
  • Contraindicated in individuals with known hypersensitivity. (B263)
  • Not for use in animals for human consumption. (B263)
  • Caution in individuals with significant hypertension, heart failure or arterial aneurysm. (B263)
  • Caution in individuals with hepatic insufficiency. (B263); contraindicated in individuals with hepatic impairment. (B201.6.w6)
  • Caution in individuals with renal insufficiency (in humans with renal sufficiency the duration of action is not prolonged). (B263); contraindicated in individuals with renal impairment. (B201.6.w6)
  • Contraindicated in individuals in the latter stages of pregnancy. (B201.6.w6)
  • Contraindicated for use alone for major surgery: insufficient muscle relaxation is produced and it is difficult to assess the depth of anaesthesia. (B205.5.w5, B263)
  • Not for use in individuals with elevated CSF pressure or following head trauma, as it may increase CSF pressure. (B263)
  • Not generally for use in individuals with pre-existing seizure disorder due to its supposed epileptogenic potential; extreme caution is required if used in such individuals. (B263)
  • Use with caution in individuals which are to undergo myelography, as myelography may induce seizures. (B263)
  • Relative contraindication in individuals with intra-ocular pressure or open globe injury. (B263)
  • Relative contraindication for individuals requiring pharyngeal, laryngeal or tracheal procedures. (B263)
  • Significantly lower dosage may be required in individuals with significant blood loss. (B263)
  • Use in individuals susceptible to malignant hyperthermia is controversial. (B263)
  • Possible caution required in individuals with hyperthyroid or receiving thyroid replacement. (B263)
Adverse Effects / Side Effects / Warnings
  • Intramuscular injection is painful. (B201.6.w6)
  • Hypersalivation and other autonomic signs (may be reduced using atropine or glycopyrrolate). (B263)
  • Hypotension. (B201.6.w6)
  • Increased cardiac output. (B201.6.w6)
  • Tachycardia. (B201.6.w6)
  • It is reported that a small proportion of individuals are unresponsive to ketamine at normal doses. (B201.6.w6)
  • Mild respiratory depression: increased tidal rate does not compensate for the decreased tidal volume. (B205.5.w5)
  • Rise in arterial blood pressure (hypertension). (B205.5.w5)
  • In cats: 
    • Hypersalivation. (B201.6.w6)
    • Seizures may occur in up to 20% of individuals; treat with diazepam if necessary. (B263)
    • Rarely other CNS effects ranging from mild effects to blindness and death). (B263)
    • May cause hyperthermia; this may be alleviated by low dose (0.01-0.02 mg/kg intravenous) acepromazine.
    • Anecdotal reports of acute congestive heart failure (CHF) in cats with pre-existing mild/moderate heart disease. (B263)
    • Pain following intramuscular injection. (B263)
    • Muscle twitching and mild tonic convulsions. (B201.6.w6)
    • Eyes may remain open; bland eye ointment may be used for protecting the cornea. (B201.6.w6)
  • In dogs:
    • If used alone may produce convulsions. (B201.6.w6)
  • In sheep:
    • Following ketamine anaesthesia for caesarean section, lambs may appear unaware of their surroundings for up to 12 hours, with extreme difficulty in persuading the lambs to suckle within the first six hours. (B205.5.w5)
Operator Warnings  
Overdose / Acute Toxicity
  • Wide therapeutic index. (B263)
  • Significant respiratory depression may be seen with excess or too rapid administration. (B263)
    • Respiratory depression may be countered by mechanical assistance of respiration. (B263)
    • Yohimbine with 4-aminopyridine has been suggested as a partial antagonist for use in cats. (B263)

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Detailed Toxicological Information
Classification --
Acute Toxicity --
Chronic Toxicity
  • Rats, dogs, monkeys: no adverse effects (no alterations in haematology, bone marrow or urinary values) following daily ketamine injections. (B205.5.w5)
Reproductive effects
  • Dog: no adverse effects on dam or pups following 25 mg/kg ketamine given twice weekly for three weeks during each third of pregnancy. (B205.5.w5)
  • Rabbit: individuals given daily ketamine during the period of organogenesis produced normal litters. (B205.5.w5)
Teratogenic effects --
Mutagenic effects --
Carcinogenic effects

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Organ toxicity --
Bird Toxicity --
Aquatic organism activity --
Other organism toxicity --

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Nutrient Information

Nutritional Data
Sources --
Biological Use --
Recommended Daily Allowance / Recommended level in food --
Stability in food (Storage time) --
Interactions --

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External / Environmental Information

External / Environmental Uses
Use --
Formulation --
Application method --
Application Concentration --
Persistence of Effect / Frequency of Application --

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Sources in the Environment
Natural sources --
Human-associated sources --

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Effects on the Environment
Effects in the aquatic environment

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Effects on land --

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Persistence in the Environment
Breakdown in soil and groundwater

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Breakdown in water --
Breakdown in vegetation --

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