||Chemicals / Complex Chemical Agents/
- Chemical Name:
and chemical names include: Ambush; Ectiban; Pounce;
3-(2,2-Dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid (3-phenoxyphenyl)methyl
FMC 33297; indothrin; BW-21-Z; Eksmin; Kafil; Permasect; Perthrine; Pramex; Outflank;
Talcord; Nix; Dragnet; (3-phenoxyphenyl)methyl
3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate; Ketokil; Biomist; Pertox;
Persect; Anomethrin N; Antiborer 3768; Atroban; Chinetrin; Coopex; Corsair;
Cyclopropanecarboxylic acid, 3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethyl-, 3-phenoxybenzyl ester,
(+-)-, (cis,trans)-; Diffusil h; Ecsumin; Efmethrin; Exmin; Ipitox; Kavil; Kestrel;
Matadan; MP 79; NIA-33297; Outflank-stockade; Perigen; Perigen W; Permanone 10; Permanone
40; Permethrin, mixed cis,trans; 3-Phenoxybenzyl
3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate; Spartan; Stomoxin; 3-phenoxy
benzyl (1RS)-cis,trans-3-(2,2 dichlorovinyl)-2,2 dimethyl-cyclopropane
- Permethrine; 3-phenoxybenzyl
||Permethrin is available in dusts, emulsifiable
concentrates, smokes, ULV
(ultra-low volume), and wettable powder formulations. (W180.Feb02.WNV6;
- Odourless, colourless crystalline solid or a pale
brown viscous liquid. (W180.Feb02.WNV6);
crystals to a viscious liquid. Colour, water white to pale yellow.
point: 34 35°C (W324.Oct01.WNV1);
35°C (analytical grade). (W325.May01.WNV1)
point: 200°C at 0.05 mm Hg (W324.Oct01.WNV1);
at 0.05 mm Hg. (W325.May01.WNV1)
- Density: 1.19 (W324.Oct01.WNV1);
gravity 1.190-1.272 at 20°C. (W325.May01.WNV1)
0.00002 g/100 ml (W324.Oct01.WNV1);
less than1 ppm.
solubility: Soluble, miscible with most organic solvents except ethylene glycol.
Soluble in acetone, ethanol, ether, and xylene. (W325.May01.WNV1)
pressure: <10 Torr. at 50°C. (W325.May01.WNV1)
are contact poisons which rapidly penetrate the nervous system of an insect.
They produce a quick "knock down" and are highly toxic to insects at very
low rates of application. They are more effective against insects and less toxic to
mammals than are the natural pyrethrins. (B250,
||Permethrin is a broad spectrum synthetic
insecticide, used against a variety of pests, on nut, fruit,
vegetable, cotton, ornamental, mushroom, potato, and cereal crops. It is used in
greenhouses, home gardens, and for termite control. It also controls animal ectoparasites,
biting flies, and cockroaches. It may cause a build up of mites by reducing mite predator
For mosquito (Culicidae
- Mosquitoes (Family)) control: pyrethroids are applied in an Ultra-Low-Volume
Spray formulation, typically mixed with a synergist compound, piperonyl butoxide,
which enhances the effectiveness of the active ingredient. The product is applied at rates
of between 0.003 and 0.007 pounds of active ingredient per acre (equivalent to 2 to 3.5
fluid ounces of the mixed formulation per acre). (W179.Nov01.WNV13)
||Permethrin is a moderately to practically non-toxic pesticide in EPA
toxicity class II or III, depending on the formulation. Formulations are placed in class
II due to their potential to cause eye and skin irritation.
are considered to pose slight risks of acute toxicity to humans (Homo
sapiens - Human), but at high doses, pyrethroids can affect the nervous
(Rat) (Laboratory rat (Rattus
norvegicus - Brown rat)):
mg/kg. Value varies depending upon factors such as carrier, test species, etc. Dermal
mg/kg. Inhalation LC50
>685 mg/m3 of air. (Rabbit) (Oryctolagus
cuniculus - European rabbit (Domestic rabbit)):
- Acute toxicity:
- Comparatively non-toxic in many mammals
including humans. (P32.1.w8)
- Permethrin is moderately to practically non-toxic
via the oral route, with a reported LD50
for technical permethrin in rats of 430 to 4000 mg/kg.
- Via the dermal route permethrin is slightly toxic,
with a reported dermal LD50
in rats of over 4000 mg/kg, and in rabbits of greater 2000 mg/kg.
- Permethrin caused mild irritation of both the
intact and abraded skin of rabbits.
- Permethrin caused conjunctivitis when it was
applied to the eyes.
- The 4-hour inhalation LC50
for rats was greater than 23.5 mg/L, indicating practically no inhalation toxicity.
- The toxicity of permethrin is dependent on the
ratio of the isomers present; the cis-isomer being more toxic.
- Following very high exposure to pyrethroids (e.g. workers involved
in mixing or applying pyrethroids), abnormal facial sensation,
dizziness, salivation, headache, fatigue, vomiting, diarrhoea and
irritability to sound/touch may occur. In severe cases there may be
pulmonary oedema, seizures, paraesthesias and fasciculations. (W214.Nov01.WNV6)
- Chronic toxicity:
- Reproductive effects:
- The fertility of female rats was affected when
they received very high oral doses of 250 mg/kg/day of permethrin during the 6th to 15th
day of pregnancy.
- It is not likely that reproductive effects will be
seen in humans under normal circumstances.
- Teratogenic effects:
- Permethrin is reported to show no teratogenic
- Mutagenic effects:
- Permethrin is reported to show no mutagenic
- Carcinogenic effects:
- The evidence regarding the carcinogenicity of
permethrin is inconclusive. (W180.Feb02.WNV6)
- Organ toxicity:
- Permethrin is suspected of causing liver
enlargement and nerve damage.
- Effects on the immune system have been noted in
- Fate in humans and animals:
- Permethrin is efficiently metabolized by mammalian
- Breakdown products, or "metabolites",
of permethrin are quickly excreted and do not persist significantly in body tissues.
- When permethrin is administered orally to
rats, it is rapidly metabolized and almost completely eliminated from the body in a few
days. Only 3 to 6% of the original dose was excreted unchanged in the feces of
- Permethrin may persist in fatty tissues, with
half-lives of 4 to 5 days in brain and body fat.
- Permethrin does not block, or inhibit,
"PROTECTIVE CLOTHING: Hat or other suitable head covering,
long-sleeved shirt, long-legged trousers or coverall type garment (all of closely woven
fabric covering the body, including the arms and legs), shoes, and socks."
"HANDLING AND STORAGE CAUTIONS: Keep out of lakes, streams,
or ponds. Do not apply when weather conditions favor drift from treated areas. Do not
contaminate water by cleaning of equipment, or disposal of wastes near a body of water.
Avoid contact with eyes, skin, or clothing. Avoid breathing vapor or spray mist. Wash
thoroughly after handling. Do not store near food, feed, heat, or open flame."
- Breakdown in soil and groundwater:
- Permethrin is of low to moderate persistence in
the soil environment, with reported half-lives of 30 to 38 days.
- Permethrin is readily broken down, or degraded, in
most soils except organic types.
- Soil microorganisms play a large role in the
degradation of permethrin in the soil. The addition of nutrients to soil may increase the
degradation of permethrin.
- It has been observed that the availability of
sodium and phosphorous decreases when permethrin is added to the soil.
- Permethrin is tightly bound by soils, especially
by organic matter. Very little leaching of permethrin has been reported. It is not very
mobile in a wide range of soil types.
- Because permethrin binds very strongly to soil
particles and is nearly insoluble in water, it is not expected to leach or to contaminate
- Breakdown in water:
- The results of one study near estuarine areas
showed that permethrin had a half-life of less than 2.5 days.
- When exposed to sunlight, the half-life was 4.6
- Permethrin degrades rapidly in water, although it
can persist in sediments.
- There was a gradual loss of toxicity after
permethrin aged for 48 hours in sunlight at 0.05 mg/L in water.
- Breakdown in vegetation:
- Permethrin is not phytotoxic, or poisonous, to
most plants when it is used as directed.
- Some injury has occurred on certain ornamental
- No incompatibility has been observed with
permethrin on cultivated plants.
- Treated apples, grapes, and cereal grains contain
less than one mg/kg of permethrin at harvest time.
on Non-target Species
(USA Contacts for Managing WNV Disease)
||Debra Bourne (V.w5)
||Suzanne I. Boardman (V.w6);
Becki Lawson (V.w26)