CHEMICALS SUMMARY PAGE

Calcium:

Summary Information
Classification Chemicals / Metals, Minerals & Simple Molecules / Type:

(This chemicals section is currently predominantly used in Wildpro to link different data types and demonstrate inter-relationships. It does not contain detailed information on the chemical itself.)

Alternative Names Ca (Chemical symbol)
Notes
  • Calcium is an essential element. It is required for bone formation, nervous and muscular system function, cell membrane and capillary permeability and enzyme activation. (B658)
    • In birds: Calcium (Ca) is required for bone formation in growing birds and for eggshell formation in laying females. Calcium is important in the regulation of cellular metabolism and cellular processes, it plays an important role in the excitability of nerves and muscles and in acid-base balance, is essential for blood clotting, and for maintenance of the normal heartbeat and muscle contraction (B32.2.w23, B120).
  • Excessive calcium has been linked to the development of Gout (B32.2.w23).
  • Calcium is absorbed from the small intestine in the ionised form, in the presence of vitamin D and an acidic pH.
  • In calcium deficiency, parathyroid hormone production increases which leads to increased calcium absorption.
  • Calcium absorption may be decreased in the presence of high fibre, phytates, fatty acids, some drugs such as corticosteroids and tetracyclines, some diseases states such as steatorrhoea, uraemia and renal osteodystrophy, and if serum calcitonin is reduced; absorption also decreased in older individuals. (B658)
  • Diets should provide the appropriate amount of calcium.
  • Waterfowl - in diet
    • Recommended calcium levels for ducklings are 0.6-0.8% of the diet and a calcium: phosphorus ratio of 1.5:1 is usually recommended. For Pekin ducks, recommended levels for starting rations are 0.7% calcium, 0.5% phosphorus, and 0.6% calcium/0.4% phosphorus in grower rations, with levels for laying birds suggested as 2.75% calcium / 0.4% phosphorus (Pekin ducks) and even higher levels of calcium (3% or 3.25%) for some other domestic strains of ducks such as Khaki Campbells (J4.157.w1, B13.46.w1, B16.19.w1, P3.1987.w2).
Administration (supplemental)
Information in this page has been entered to support the current volumes of Wildpro and further information will be added as new volumes are completed. This page is not intended to substitute for the manufacturer's data sheet and the information is not yet complete for all species, or for all contra-indications etc.

CAUTION: Before any pharmaceutical product is used, the manufacturer's data sheet, containing information on uses, dosage and administration, contra-indications, warnings etc., should always be consulted. It is important to remember that licensing of pharmaceutical products for use in a particular species/condition, as well as mandatory meat and milk withdrawal times for food-producing animals, varies between countries and changes with time. Withdrawal times also may vary between different pharmaceutical formulations and depending on route of administration. In the EU, the prescription cascade must be followed (see LCofC1.2H and W564.Apr05.w1); note that specific restrictions apply for food-producing animals. In the USA, FARAD may be consulted regarding residues and meat and milk withdrawal times.

Note: Contraindicated in individuals with ventricular fibrillation or hypercalcaemia. (B658)

  • Dogs:
    • For treatment of hypocalcaemia: Calcium gluconate injectable 94 - 104 mg/kg intravenously, slowly, to effect (or can be given by intraperitoneal injection). Monitor respiration and heart rate and rhythm. (B658)
    • For treatment of acute hypoglycaemia: Calcium gluconate 10% injectable, warmed to body temperature, 50 - 150 mg/kg (0.5 - 1.5 mL/kg) intravenously over a period of 20-30 minutes. (B658)
      • Stop administration of bradycardia develops. (B658)
      • Follow by administration of calcium gluconate 10% at 10-15 mL/kg over a period of 24 hours, then increase dietary calcium and give vitamin D. If required, orally supplement with calcium lactate tablets at 0.5 - 2.0 g/day. (B658)
    • For emergency treatment of hypocalcaemic tetany and seizures in hypoparathyroidism: calcium gluconate 10% , 0.5 - 1.5 mL/kg intravenously over a period of 15-30 minutes (maximum 20 mL). Can be repeated at intervals of 6-8 hours, or followed by 10-15 mg/kg/hr as a constant rate infusion. Monitor using ECG: cease administration if the S-T segment elevates, or the Q-T interval shortens, or if arrhythmia develops. (B658)
  • Cattle:
    • For treatment of hypocalcaemia: Calcium gluconate injection, 150-250 mg/kg intravenously slowly, to effect. (B658)
      • The intraperitoneal route can also be used. (B658)
      • Monitor respiration and heart rate and rhythm. (B658)
  • Sheep:
    • For treatment of hypocalcaemia: Calcium gluconate injection, 150-250 mg/kg intravenously slowly, to effect. (B658)
      • The intraperitoneal route can also be used. (B658)
      • Monitor respiration and heart rate and rhythm. (B658)
  • Horses:
    • For treatment of hypocalcaemia: Calcium gluconate injection, 150-250 mg/kg intravenously slowly, to effect. (B658)
      • The intraperitoneal route can also be used. (B658)
      • Monitor respiration and heart rate and rhythm. (B658)

Great Apes

Taxa Groups (hyperlinked if included as Wildpro volumes) containing host species which have been recorded as infected by this organism.
Associated Waterfowl Diseases Calcium / Phosphorus / Vitamin D Imbalance (Rickets, Nutritional Secondary Hyperparathyroidism, Calcium Deficiency, Hypovitaminosis D, Vitamin D3 Deficiency, Calcium - Phosphorus Imbalance, Fibrous Osteodystrophy, Metabolic Bone Disease, Nutritional Bone Disease) Waterfowl Disease Summary Leg-bowing, hock enlargement, bone pliability, folding fractures other bone deformities and muscular atrophy in growing birds; thinning of bone cortices, folding fractures and paralysis in adults.
Waterfowl in which the associated disease has been recorded. "Geese" and "Ducklings" - species not specified.
Egg Binding (Egg Retention, Eggbound, Dystocia) Waterfowl Disease Summary Failure of an egg to pass through the oviduct and be laid.
Waterfowl in which the associated disease has been recorded. Species not specified.
Gout (Visceral gout, Acute toxic nephritis syndrome, Articular gout) Waterfowl Disease Summary Abnormal accumulation and deposition of urates within the body.
Waterfowl in which the associated disease has been recorded.
Mid-incubation Embryonic Death Waterfowl Disease Summary Death of the embryo in the middle period of incubation. 
Waterfowl in which the associated disease has been recorded. Species not specified.
Perosis (Slipped tendon, slipped hock) Waterfowl Disease Summary Leg deformity, particularly luxation of the Achilles (gastrocnemius) tendon, associated with manganese deficiency, choline deficiency, possibly other vitamin deficiencies and excess protein.
Waterfowl in which the associated disease has been recorded.

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