CHEMICALS SUMMARY PAGE

Vitamin E

Summary Information
Classification Chemicals / Gross Nutrients, Vitamins, Fatty Acid & Enzymes / Type:

(This chemicals section is currently predominantly used in Wildpro to link different data types and demonstrate inter-relationships. It does not contain detailed information on the chemical itself.)

Alternative Names Alpha tocopherol. Also other tocopherols and tocotrienols.
Notes
  • Fat-soluble vitamin.
  • Important sources include whole grains, dried alfalfa meal, germ oils of many seeds, fresh green foods (B10.14.w19)
  • Close interaction with Selenium and other antioxidants nutrients. The alcoholic form of vitamin E is a very effective antioxidant, protecting essential fatty acids, other highly-unsaturated fatty acids, vitamin A, vitamin D3, carotenes and xanthophylls in feeds. Prevents lipid peroxidation of unsaturated fatty acids. Important for the prevention of muscular dystrophy, also for normal reproduction and embryo development (B32.2.w23, B120).
  • Vitamin E in fish is destroyed as polyunsaturated fish oils undergo peroxidation, therefore animals fed thawed frozen fish are very susceptible to vitamin E deficiency and 100 IU of vitamin E should be given per kg (wet weight) of fish. (D313)

Waterfowl

  • Published recommended levels are contradictory (recommend using the higher level as a minimum requirement Vw.16): 
    • Minimum 50 IU/kg vitamin E in diet suggested for birds (B16.19.w1)
    • for Pekin ducks recommended levels of 25 IU/kg for starter feed, 20 IU/kg for grower/finisher feed and 40 IU/kg for breeder feed (B13.46.w1). 

Cranes

  • Vitamin E/Selenium (Vitamin E 50 mg/mL, selenium 1 mg/mL) 0.05 - 0.10 mg/kg of selenium intramuscularly once every 14 days (B115.8.w4)

Elephants

  • Elephant diets should be supplemented with a minimum of 1 IU vitamin E/kg, however ideally the recommended supplementation is 2.0-2.5 IU vitamin E/kg. (J54.7.w1)
  • Note: The Nutrition Advisory Group guidance on elephants does not give specific recommendations on quantities of dietary supplements for vitamin E in elephants, but gives data from studies indicating that supplementation with TPGS (d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 100 succinate) results in higher serum tocopherol levels than does supplementation with D, L, alpha tocopheryl acetate, D-alpha tocopherol or D-alpha-tocopheryl acetate. (D297 - full text provided)
  • D- α-tocopheryl polythylene glycol succinate (TPGS) (a water-soluble form of vitamin E) is well absorbed in elephants and may be the preferred form of vitamin E for supplementation. (J2.22.w1, P36.1994.w2)
    • A study found that elephants absorbed water-soluble TPGS (d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 100 succinate) efficiently, as indicated by blood levels, but that even very high levels of d- and dl-α-tocopheryl acetate, and d-α-tocopherol, resulted in only very small increases in the circulating blood levels of d-α-tocopherol. (P1.1990.w4)
  • Liquid micellized alpha-tocopherol provided at 2.5 IU vitamin E per kilogram body weight daily over a period of eight months also was effective in increasing serum tocopherol levels in elephants, to values similar to those reported in free-ranging elephants. (P20.1992.w5)
  • A further study on both Loxodonta africana - African Elephant and Elephas maximus - Asian Elephant found that serum alpha-tocopherol levels were higher when elephants were given TPGS (d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 100 succinate) than when they were given D, L, alpha tocopheryl acetate. (D297 - full text provided)

Bears:

  • Vitamin E supplementation should be given when bears are fed fish. Vitamin E in fish is destroyed as polyunsaturated fish oils undergo peroxidation, therefore animals fed thawed frozen fish are very susceptible to vitamin E deficiency and the Nutrition Advisory Group recommends that 100 IU of vitamin E should be given per kg (wet weight) of fish. (D313)

Lagomorphs:

  • Does on a vitamin E-deficient diet were successfully treated with dl-alpha-tocopherol, 25-60 mg orally three times per week for eight weeks. (J4.157.w5)
  • Vitamin E (Vital-E-300, Schering Plough) 60 mg daily every other day for 14 days. (J501.43.w1)

Great Apes

Taxa Groups (hyperlinked if included as Wildpro volumes) containing host species which have been recorded as affected by this chemical BIRDS

MAMMALS

Associated Waterfowl Diseases Vitamin E - Selenium Deficiency (with special reference to Waterfowl and Elephants) (White muscle disease) Waterfowl Disease Summary White muscle disease: muscular dystrophy, progressive paralysis, death. May also see reduced hatchability of eggs.
Waterfowl in which the associated disease has been recorded.
Angel Wing (Slipped wing, Flip wing, Dropped wing, Carpal deformity, Carpometacarpal deformity, Valgus carpal deformity, Heeled-over wing, Rotating wing, Tilt wing, Sword wing, Spear wing, Straw wing, Reversed wing, Aeroplane wing, Drooped wing, Dropped wing, Crooked wing) Waterfowl Disease Summary Deformity developing during growth, resulting in one or both wings sticking out from the body.
Waterfowl in which the associated disease has been recorded.
Capture Myopathy (with special reference to Waterfowl and notes on Elephants) (Exertional Myopathy, Stress Myopathy, Exertional Rhabdomyolysis, Overstraining Disease, Polymyopathy, White Muscle Disease, Transport Myopathy, Spastic Paresis, Muscle Necrosis, Leg Paralysis, Muscular Dystrophy, Degenerative Myopathy, Ideopathic Muscle Necrosis, White Muscle Stress Syndrome) Waterfowl Disease Summary Usually acute, signs vary from muscle stiffness to paralysis, sometimes with cardiac and/or respiratory signs, and death; may develop following capture or other physical stress.
Waterfowl in which the associated disease has been recorded.
Dead-in-Shell Waterfowl Disease Summary Embryos are die before the hatching process begins.
Waterfowl in which the associated disease has been recorded. Species not specified.
Early Embryonic Death (Early Embryonic mortalitity) Waterfowl Disease Summary
  • Death early in incubation, usually considered to be within the first week of incubation or the first third of incubation.
  • Eggs may appear to be "clear" i.e. no development detected, or may show a "blood ring". If incubated for some time they may be addled.

(J23.29.w1, B42, B106, B116.11.w2)

Waterfowl in which the associated disease has been recorded. Species not specified.
Egg Binding (Egg Retention, Eggbound, Dystocia) Waterfowl Disease Summary Failure of an egg to pass through the oviduct and be laid.
Waterfowl in which the associated disease has been recorded. Species not specified.
Splay Leg (Sprawls, Spraddle leg, Splayed legs) Waterfowl Disease Summary One or both legs splayed out from the hip
Waterfowl in which the associated disease has been recorded.
  • Species not specified.

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