ENVIRONMENTS SUMMARY PAGE

"Artificial Container and Tree-Hole" North American Mosquito Habitats:

 Click image for full page view Click image for full page view Click image for full page view Click image for full page view Click image for full page view

Summary Information
Classification Environments / North American Mosquito Habitats:

(This environment section is currently predominantly used in Wildpro to link different data types and demonstrate inter-relationships. It does not contain detailed information on the habitat itself.)

Alternative Names
  • --
General Description "For practical purposes, the numerous species of mosquitoes can be grouped on the basis of similarities in their larval habitat preferences which generally reflect other important aspects of their bionomics and ecology, e.g. oviposition habits, developmental patterns, brood patterns, seasonal density and dispersal." (D70)

There may be overlap between habitat types, and sometimes is a gradation: consequently small numbers of species may occur that would be usually found in a different habitat.

  • Habitat - artificial containers and tree-holes.

(D70)

Notes General Information:
  • Typical habitats include artificial containers of all types, particularly those rich in organic matter (heavy sediment, decaying leaves etc.). They also include natural settings such as treeholes, plants in which water pools (such as pitcher plants, bromeliads and bamboo), crabholes and decaying fruit. (D70, W254.Dec03.WNV7, J300.10.w1)
  • Treehole sites tend to have tannin-enriched water. This is characteristically clear with rotting wood at the bottom. Many treehole breeders now tend to use artificial containers (e.g. Tyres) which tend to be numerous and may provide insulation against the weather. (W254.Dec03.WNV7, J300.10.w1)
  • Typical mosquito genera are mostly Aedes (Genus) and Toxorhynchites (Genus) and Orthopodomyia (Genus) (neither of which are troublesome to man) - particularly Aedes aegypti - Yellow fever mosquito, Aedes triseriatus - Eastern treehole mosquito and Aedes sierrensis.(D70)
  • Mosquito eggs are laid singly on the inside wall of the container, at or above the waterline, and hatch when flooded with water after a period of desiccation.(D70)
  • Overwintering of mosquitoes is in the egg stage.(D70)
  • There are multiple broods of mosquitoes in one season.(D70)
  • Aedes aegypti - Yellow fever mosquito and Aedes albopictus - Asian tiger mosquito normally lay their eggs in artificial containers, whereas Aedes triseriatus and Aedes sierrensis females usually oviposit in natural cavities containing water, such as tree holes, but their larvae are frequently found in artificial containers with heavy sediment or decaying leaves.(D70)
  • Although not included in the group on the basis of ecology and bionomics, the females of Culex pipiens complex - Northern and Southern house mosquitoes - [classified within "Transient Water" mosquitoes] often oviposit in artificial containers of all types, particularly those rich in organic matter. (D70)
  • Aedes albopictus - Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes aegypti - Yellow fever mosquito and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus are important targets of urban mosquito control campaigns because of their disease implications and their association with artificial containers and therefore with human habitations. (D70)
  • Artificial containers such as tyres are an easy way in which mosquito larvae may be transported beyond their natural range. (W254.Dec03.WNV7, J300.10.w1)

Species Specific Information:

  • Anopheles barberi: The larvae of this species are reported to be found in and around woodlands: in rot cavities in trees of many kinds, in stumpholes, and occasionally in artificial containers (e.g. wooden tubs and tin cans). Adults have occasionally been found resting underneath bridges, in culverts, during the daytime, and in buildings that are in/near wooded areas. (B505)
  • Anopheles punctipennis  - Larvae of this species are found in a variety of aquatic habitats including ponds, temporary pools, springs, pools in intermittent streams, borrow pits, roadside puddles, wheel ruts in muddy roads, hog wallows, eddies along the margins of flowing streams, and in rainwater barrels and other artificial containers. This species seems to prefer cool, clear water particularly in hill streams (B505).
  • Orthopodomyia signifera - The larvae of this species occur in water-filled rot cavities in trees of many types and occasionally in artificial, particularly wooden, containers. They favour treeholes with very putrid water. (B505, W254.Dec03.WNV7, J300.10.w1)
  • Orthopodomyia alba - The larvae of this species favour treeholes with very putrid water. (B505, W254.Dec03.WNV7, J300.10.w1)
  • Aedes triseriatus - Eastern treehole mosquito - The larvae develop in holes in many kinds of deciduous tress and occasionally in artificial containers such as wooden tubs, barrels and watering troughs. (B505)
  • Aedes aegypti - Yellow fever mosquito - This species is semi-domesticated and larval habitats are almost exclusively in artificial containers in and around human habitations. Typical artificial containers are flower vases, tin cans, jars, discarded automobile tires, unused water closets, cisterns, rain barrels, sagging roof gutters and tree holes. Larvae have been noted in rot cavities of shade trees near residence, and in Africa the larvae are found in rot cavities of trees in the jungle far from human habitations. (B505, D70)
  • Aedes albopictus - Asian tiger mosquito - The larvae are typically found in water-holding containers, particularly use tires. (D70)
Taxa Groups for which information on this Environment has been collated
Mosquito species listed for this habitat that were included for WNV information

Management Techniques

ORGANISATIONS
(USA Contacts)

ELECTRONIC LIBRARY
(Further Reading)Click image for full contents list of ELECTRONIC LIBRARY

Return to top of page

Authors & Referees

Authors Debra Bourne (V.w5)
Referee Suzanne I. Boardman (V.w6); Becki Lawson (V.w26)

Return to top of page