"Permanent Pool" North American Mosquito Habitats:

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Summary Information
Classification Environments / North American Mosquito Habitats:

(This environment section is currently predominantly used in Wildpro to link different data types and demonstrate inter-relationships. It does not contain detailed information on the habitat itself.)

Alternative Names
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General Description "For practical purposes, the numerous species of mosquitoes can be grouped on the basis of similarities in their larval habitat preferences which generally reflect other important aspects of their bionomics and ecology, e.g. oviposition habits, developmental patterns, brood patterns, seasonal density and dispersal." (D70)

There may be overlap between habitat types, and sometimes is a gradation: consequently small numbers of species may occur that would be usually found in a different habitat.

  • Habitat - fresh bodies of quiet water exposed to sunlight and containing an abundance of surface vegetation and flotage at air-water-plant interface.


Notes General Information:
  • Typical habitats - shallow margins of lakes, ponds and smaller impoundments - the main characteristic is that they should have a degree of permanency. (D70)
  • These water are also known as Semi-permanent and there is a seasonal change in the vegetation, water quality and mosquito species present. (W254.Dec03.WNV7, J300.10.w1)
  • Typical genera - Anopheles, Culiseta, Coquillettidia, Mansonia, Uranotaenia- also Culex (Melanoconion) spp., Culex salinarius, Culex territans. These species usually continually produce larvae throughout the year. Their eggs are generally not desiccant resistant and must be laid directly on the water (D70, W254.Dec03.WNV7, J300.10.w1)
  • Generally sheltered from wave action and have characteristic vegetation suitable for larval attachment or protection.(D70)
  • Typical freshwater plants include cattail, rushes and sedges. (W254.Dec03.WNV7, J300.10.w1)
  • Most of Anopheles and Culex over winter as females, but some e.g. Anopheles walkeri , may overwinter in the egg stage, and Mansonia and Coquillettidia overwinter as larvae attached to the roots of plants.(D70)
  • Except for Coquillettidia and Mansonia, the effective flight ranges of permanent pool species are relatively short, usually within a mile or so of the breeding area.(D70)
  • Aedes adults will also oviposit near the edge of the swamp, but require later flooding to trigger hatching. (W254.Dec03.WNV7, J300.10.w1)

Species Specific Information:

  • Anopheles atropos - This species has larval development in permanent salt-water pools or in marshes with 1% to 12% salt content, and are often found in shallow pools. (B505).
  • Anopheles crucians - Larvae of this species are found in freshwater ponds, lakes, swamps, and semi-permanent and permanent pools, generally where there is aquatic vegetation (surface or emergent types); they seems to prefer acid water in the larval habitat (B505).
  • Anopheles bradleyi - The larvae of this species are found in pools of brackish water near the coast; tending to favour pools containing Chara and other aquatic grasses. Larvae have been found in a variety of salinity levels, but generally where emergent vegetation is present; except during Spring and Fall when larvae may also be found in exposed water surfaces(B505).
  • Anopheles punctipennis  - Larvae of this species are found in a variety of aquatic habitats including ponds, temporary pools, springs, pools in intermittent streams, borrow pits, roadside puddles, wheel ruts in muddy roads, hog wallows, eddies along the margins of flowing streams, and in rainwater barrels and other artificial containers. This species seems to prefer cool, clear water particularly in hill streams (B505).
  • Anopheles quadrimaculatus - Common malaria mosquito - Larvae of this species are found in permanent fresh water in sluggish streams, canals, ponds, and lakes containing surface-growing or emergent vegetation or floating debris (only occasionally are the deposited in pools of temporary natures) (B505).
  • Anopheles walkeri - The larvae of this species occur in fresh-water marshes containing emergent or floating vegetation (B505).
  • Uranotaenia sapphirina - The larvae of this species commonly occur in permanent pools and ponds and lakes that contain emergent or floating vegetation exposed to sunlight (B505)
  • Culiseta melanura  - The larvae are found more frequently in small permanent bodies of water, particularly in swamps. This species is seen in acid water (white cedar) swamps. It has a subterranean lifestyle and is found in pockets of water in surrounding tree roots (crypts). (B505, W254.Dec03.WNV7, J300.10.w1)
  • Coquillettidia perturbans - Irritating mosquito - Eggs are laid on the surface of the water, particularly shallow lakes, in heavy emergent vegetation, and is seen in cattail swamps. (B505, W254.Dec03.WNV7, J300.10.w1)
  • Culex erythrothorax - The larvae of this species are found in large shallow ponds (recorded in California), containing heavy growths of vegetation. (B505)
  • Culex erraticus The larvae are found in the grassy shallow margins of ponds, lakes, marshes, and streams where they are frequently associated with the larvae of Anopheles. (B505)
  • Culex territans - The larvae are found in semi-permanent and permanent pools in streams, swamps and ponds. They do not seem to favour foul water. (B505)
Taxa Groups for which information on this Environment has been collated
Mosquito species listed for this habitat that were included for WNV information

Management Techniques

(USA Contacts)

(Further Reading)Click image for full contents list of ELECTRONIC LIBRARY

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Authors & Referees

Authors Debra Bourne (V.w5)
Referee Suzanne I. Boardman (V.w6); Becki Lawson (V.w26)

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