TECHNIQUE

Feeding of Casualty Pigeons & Doves (Wildlife Casualty Management)

Summary Information
Type of technique Health & Management / UK Wildlife Casualty Management / Techniques:
Synonyms and Keywords N.B.  This information should be read in association with Wildlife Casualty & Convalescent Feeding which contains background information together with links to the Electronic Library and Organisations (UK Contacts). The related Species pages contain similar linkages.
Description This page has been prepared for the "UK Wildlife: First Aid and Care" Wildpro module, and is designed for the needs of the following species: Columba livia - Rock pigeon, Columba oenas - Stock pigeon, Columba palumbus - Common wood-pigeon, Streptopelia turtur - European turtle-dove, Streptopelia decaocto - Eurasian collared-dove.

These species are from the families Columbidae.

Fluids (water):

  • Offer a rehydration (electrolyte) solution such as Lectade (Pfizer Limited) to drink on admission.
  • Water should be freely available at all times unless the casualty is unconscious or severely debilitated and unable to hold its head up.
  • Both water and a rehydration (electrolyte) solution, in separate containers, should be made available initially.
  • (V.w5, V.w26)
  • Gavage with rehydration (electrolyte) solution may be required on admission. (B156.15.w15, D24)

Convalescent Diet:

Suggested convalescent diets include:

  • Casualties are often anorexic when presented and have an immediate requirement for energy. (B156.15.w15)
  • High-energy diets e.g. Complan (HJ Heinz Co. Ltd.) or baby foods, mixed as directed on the packet may be useful short term. (B156.15.w15)
  • Proprietary products such as Critical Care Formula (Vetark) have been specifically designed as a short term product for anorectic and sick birds. (V.w26)

Use of convalescent diets:

  • May be given by crop tube (gavage feeding).
  • Give up to 2% of body weight per feed.
  • Assume 1ml of made-up feed equals 1g, therefore maximum 2ml of feed per 100g of bird
  • (B156.15.w15)
  • See: Gavage / Tubing of Birds

Short term Maintenance Diet:

Suggested short term maintenance diets include:

  • Seed mix such as "pigeon mix" or "dove and pheasant" mix. (B118.8.w8, B151, B203, B224)
  • Whole mixed grain (wheat, millet etc.). (D24, B151)
  • Chicken grower pellets or turkey starter pellets may be used together with grain. (B151, B225)
  • Chicken feed (pellets, wheat, cracked maize, other grains). (B224)
  • Dried peas, beans and rice can be offered (B203); wheat and millet can be offered short term.(B118.8.w8)
  • Add a vitamin/mineral supplement such as Nutrobal (Vetark Animal Health) or SA37 (Intervet UK Ltd.) to grain. (D24, B151)
  • Hemp is useful for tempting reluctant feeders.(B203)
  • Also offer green foods such as chickweed and young leaves of dandelion and groundsel (check not infected with orange fungus) at least once weekly. (B118.8.w8, B203).
  • Grit must be offered whenever grain is fed. (D24, B118.8.w8, B151, B203)

In an emergency:

  • Dried peas, beans and rice can be offered. (B203)
  • Wheat and millet can be offered short term. (B118.8.w8).
  • Poultry pellets can be offered.
Appropriate Use (?)
  • Fresh drinking water should always be available in a container of an appropriate size and type for the species concerned.
  • Fluid replacement therapy other than oral fluids may be required for casualties which are extremely dehydrated on admission or are unable to take in and absorb oral fluids.
    • Fluid therapy should continue until the animal is no longer dehydrated, even if it is self feeding.
  • Feeding of convalescents should take into account their requirement for additional nutrients for healing as well as maintenance requirements.
Notes
  • The required fluid intake for maintenance should be considered when designing convalescent diets.
  • Energy requirements for maintenance and healing should be calculated and used to determine the quantity of food required for both convalescence and short-term maintenance diets.
  • Convalescent diets should be easily absorbed/digested.
  • Care should be taken not to under or over supplement with vitamins/minerals.
  • Diets intended for feeding from a syringe or by stomach tube (gavage) must be of a sufficiently fluid consistency to pass through the syringe nozzle or down the tube without it becoming blocked.
  • The natural diet should be considered when deciding on suitable ingredients, including consideration of taste/smell.
  • Fresh food must be provided daily.
  • Regular cleaning of food and drinking water containers (e.g. daily) is important to reduce the risk of disease.
  • Food and water containers should be sited to minimise the risk of contamination with droppings/faeces/urine. 
Complications/ Limitations / Risk
  • Water bowls should not be left in the accommodation of a casualty which is unconscious or is severely debilitated and unable to hold its head up.
  • Dehydrated and malnourished individuals sometimes drink rehydration fluids but refuse plain water initially; others will drink water but not rehydration fluids. Both should be made available.
  • No diet, however well balanced nutritionally, is useful if the animal does not eat it, for example because it is not recognised as food.
  • Ingestion of food should be monitored, not assumed. This may include weighing food before presentation and weighing waste food after removal, and periodic weighing of the animal.
  • Monitoring of weight/body condition is particularly important for group housed/group fed animals, within which some individuals may take more food and others not get the food they require.
  • Diets suggested on this page are intended for short term use for wildlife casualties; they are not necessarily suitable for long-term use or in individuals which are breeding.
  • Diets suggested on this page are not necessarily suitable for feeding chicks; information on appropriate diets for very young individuals are described in the page on hand-rearing.
  • If naturally-available food items are gathered for feeding to casualties it is important to be aware of the possibility of contamination with chemicals such as herbicides and pesticides.
  • Grit must be offered whenever grain is fed. (D24, B118.8.w8, B151, B203)

Equipment / Chemicals required and Suppliers
  • Oral rehydration (electrolyte) solutions are widely available from veterinary suppliers and chemists. 
  • Lectade, Pfizer Limited: from veterinary suppliers and agricultural feed suppliers.
  • A basic oral rehydration (electrolyte) solution may be made by dissolving one tablespoon of sugar and one teaspoon of salt in one litre of water. (B203)
  • A "Dove and Pheasant" food is made by John E. Haith, Park Street, Cleethorps, Lincs, DN35 7NF, UK
  • Grit is available from bird food suppliers.
  • Nutrobal Vetark Animal Health, PO Box 60, Winchester, SO23 9XN
  • SA37 (Intervet UK Ltd, Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0FP)
  • Vitamin/mineral supplements may be bought from pet stores or mail-order bird/pet feed suppliers
Expertise level / Ease of Use
  • No particular expertise required.
Cost/ Availability
  • Generally widely available; diet is not expensive.
Legal and Ethical Considerations
  • Under the Protection of Animals Acts 1911-2000 it is an offence not to provide animals (including captive wild animals) with necessary food and water. (J35.147.w1, B156.21.w21, B223, P19.2.w1)
  • Care should be taken not to let an individual become accustomed to a single food item as this may result in difficulties in feeding the animal if the food item becomes unavailable, and in preparing it for release.
  • Every effort should be made to provide appropriate natural, locally available foods to animals which have been maintained in captivity for prolonged periods before they are released, in order to re-accustom them to a natural diet and reduce the chance of digestive problems following release. (P24.233.w11).
  • The release of animals which, by virtue of an inadequate or inappropriate diet whilst in captivity, are not fit to survive when released may be considered an offence under the Abandonment of Animals Act, 1960.
Author Debra Bourne
Referee Becki Lawson and Suzanne Boardman
References

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