WATERFOWL TECHNIQUE SUMMARY PAGE
Pond Construction (Synthetic Liner) (Managing
Wetlands for Wildlife - Implementing Management Plan)
& Management / Managing
Wetlands for Wildlife / Implementing
Management Plan / Techniques:
||Synthetic pond liners have become
popular as an alternative to either premoulded ponds or concrete for constructing ponds in
recent years. Liners vary from polythene sheeting to butyl rubber matting.
- The area for the pond must be excavated, allowing for the depth of underlay and
protective capping material to be used.
- A layer of sand or matting should be laid down: 15cm deep recommended (B93).
- The liner is put in place.
- Should be capped with minimum 15cm protective material/soil and at least 40cm to
allow for growth of roots of wetland plants (B93).
- Edges should be covered e.g. with a surround of paving stones or similar,
|Appropriate Use (?)
- Liners are flexible and will follow contours; they may be used to construct ponds
of any shape or size.
- Laying a liner takes less time than construction with concrete.
- Polythene liners may least 10 years, butyl rubber liners may last 20-25 years.
- Stronger more durable liners such as thick butyl rubber are preferred; they are
less likely to develop leaks.
- Overhanging edging slabs are aesthetically pleasing as well as protecting the
- The length of liner required may be calculated as the longest length of the pond
plus twice its greatest depth.
|Complications / Limitations / Risk
- Polythene liners are suitable only for small ponds .
- Polythene liners perish where exposed to sunlight.
- Shallow slopes (maximum gradient one in three) are essential if the liner is to
be adequately covered with soil and this is to remain stable.
- Liners are vulnerable to puncture.
- Exposed liners are vulnerable to damage by waterfowl.
|Equipment / Chemicals required and Suppliers
- Sand or matting as underlay.
- Soil for capping.
- Excavation machinery for large areas (spades for small ponds)
|Expertise level / Ease of Use
||Depends on pond size - expertise
required for handling very large liners and for large-scale excavation.
|Cost / Availability
||Cost of liners is variable.
Polythene or PVC sheeting is inexpensive but more durable materials such as butyl rubber
are expensive, particularly for use on large areas.
|Legal and Ethical Considerations
||B93, B94, B96, B108
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