||This page has been prepared
for the "UK
Wildlife: First Aid and Care" and "Hedgehogs: Health &
Management" Wildpro volumes, and is designed for the needs of the
following species: Erinaceus europaeus - West European Hedgehog
- Hedgehogs in the UK commonly have two litters; infants (hoglets) may be found any
time from May to September or October.
- Unweaned hoglets may be presented following disturbance of the nest, if the mother has
been killed, or if the hoglet has strayed from the nest and been unable to return.
- Hoglets with fly eggs or maggots on them when they are found have
been without their mother for some time and need to be taken into
- Hoglets which are obviously injured need to be taken into care.
- If the mother is known to have been killed then the hoglets
need to be taken into care. (B337.2.w2)
- A bright, active hoglet, with its eyes open, even if quite small, should be left alone and observed as it
may just be wandering briefly and return to its nest unaided;
- If at the bottom of a slope or steps it may require assistance to return to the nest; handling
should be minimised and gloves worn to reduce the smell of human on
- If a hoglet found at the bottom of a slope or steps is cold it may be warmed on a covered hot water bottle before being
returned to the nest entrance.
- If it is injured, or has fly eggs on it, then it needs to be taken
- A nest found containing hoglets without their mother has not
necessarily been abandoned as the mother may be sleeping separately. If
in doubt, leave a small object near the nest entrance and see if it is
moved (indicating the mother entering) by the following morning. (B337.2.w2)
- If a nest is disturbed (e.g. during construction work or gardening) it should be left
alone and monitored as the mother may return at night although she may
have been sleeping in a separate nest during the day.(P3.1987.w4,
- There is a risk that the mother may not return. (V.w56)
It is important to consider the relative risks of unnecessary taking
of the hoglets for hand-rearing versus the risk of their becoming
excessively chilled and hungry if the mother does not return.
- There is a risk that a mother returning to a disturbed nest may
kill her hoglets when she returns. (B337.2.w2)
- If necessary, transfer the whole family including the mother into a cardboard box and
place this in a suitable alternative location or in a large pen.(P3.1987.w4)
- This is the preferred option if the nest site has been destroyed,
for example by removal of a shed or hedge. (V.w56)
- Moving the family to an escape-proof garden (see: Erinaceus europaeus - West European Hedgehog Long Term Care)
may minimise disturbance while allowing observation in case the
babies are abandoned. Extra food must be provided and the hedgehogs
released at an appropriate time - the mother when the hoglets are
eight weeks old and the hoglets when they are large enough. (B337.4.w4)
- Removal of the hoglets, with or without their mother, is required if
the nest is likely to be disturbed further, for example by dogs or
- Small, low-weight juveniles found in autumn may need to be taken into care for
supplementary feeding and often for
treatment of parasitic infections such as Hedgehog
- Hoglets can sometimes be fostered onto a hedgehog
with her own
similar-sized babies, however there is a risk that the female will kill
and eat the babies. (B284.6.w6)
If a single hoglet is brought to a carer then the finder should be
asked to look and listen in case there are other hoglets from the same
litter which also require assistance. (B337.2.w2)
- On arrival any young mammal should be weighed, warmed, stimulated to
urinate/defecate and given supplementary fluids by an appropriate route to counteract
- Check for any injuries or other serious problems (B337.2.w2)
Particular care should be taken to check for fly eggs or maggots all over
the hoglet but especially in the eyes, ears, mouth, nose, and uro-genital region and to
remove any that are found. See: Myiasis for further details.
- If the hoglet is seriously injured or badly damaged by maggots
then euthanasia is required. (B337.2.w2,
- When hoglets are found, if their mother has been killed or absent
for some time they may be suffering from Dehydration,
and/or Chilling - Hypothermia.
If the hoglet is dehydrated then the skin on its abdomen will look
wrinkled and will stay wrinkled if pinched up gently. (B337.2.w2)
- The hoglet should be toileted (see below for details)
- Do not try to feed a chilled (hypothermic) hoglet (See: Chilling - Hypothermia)
until it has been
- An electric heating pad, 20 W, set at 37°C, has been
found useful for warming hypothermic hoglets. (J180.26.w1)
- The age should be determined if possible.
- The first feed given should be an oral rehydration (electrolyte) solution
(e.g. Lectade, Pfizer
Limited), with a gradual changeover to a milk substitute over
several feeds. (V.w5,
- A basic rehydration solution can be made by adding one
tablespoon of sugar and one teaspoon of milk to a litre of water. (B203,
- Mark each animal with a small amount of coloured nail varnish or
correction fluid on the spines to allow individual identification. See:
Marking Erinaceus europaeus - West European Hedgehog
- Good hygiene is essential at all times. (B338.11.w11)
- See: Hand-rearing
of Orphaned Wildlife for further general information.
General Care (including warmth and hygiene):
- Young mammals have poor ability to maintain body temperature and are prone to
hypothermia, hyperthermia and burns, particularly when unfurred or poorly furred.
- Hypothermic hoglets may be seen wobbling, staggering or rocking. (V.w45)
- Keep out of draughts but ensure ventilation is adequate.
- Provide a temperature range, by heating one end of the container more than the
other, which, while not allowing either overheating or chilling, permits the animal to
chose the position at which it feels most comfortable.
- The container used should be sufficiently large to allow the occupant to move into a
- A high-sided box is required for accommodation to make sure hoglets cannot climb out of
- Hoglets under 100g may be kept in a small plastic tub (with bedding)
after this, as they get more active, a larger crate is required,
allowing a temperature gradient. (B338.11.w11)
- The floor of the container should be covered with layers of newspaper or, for a
heated-floor propagator, with a cloth such as a tea towel. A tea towel, towel, old woollen
hat or similar cloth should be provided for the hoglets to hide
in/under; check there are no loose threads. Paper towel or soft toilet
paper may also be used.
- White bedding is preferred for new arrivals as blood streaks etc. are clearly visible
against this background colour.
- For a single hoglet using a bobble hat with the bobble on the inside
provides something for the hoglet to cuddle into; a soft toy, about
hedgehog-size, in the box, also provides a "mother
substitute" for the hoglet to hide under. (B337.2.w2)
- Suggested temperatures include: up to 35°C for newborns (D25);
keep at 21-25°C (70-77°F) (P3.1987.w4);
no less than 24°C/ 75°F.(D56);
start at 86°F / 30°C (B338.11.w11)
- Heat may be provided by a well-wrapped hot water bottle, a covered heat pad, an infrared
lamp, an electrically heated plant propagator, a red light bulb or a thermostatically
controlled heated box.
- Heat lamps should be hung over one end of the container, allowing the
hoglet(s) to move
to the point with the most comfortable temperature.
- Heat pads and hot water bottles should be placed at one end of the container for the
- Heated plant propagators may be particularly useful for very young hoglets as the heat
which they provide is constant and the hoglets cannot move into an unheated area and
- It must be remembered that hot water bottles cool down rapidly and need frequent
refilling. Also a hoglet may get itself trapped under the bottle and
- Heat may be required until the hoglets are about four to five
weeks old, or older for one hoglet on its own.
- Check hoglets frequently when first taking them off heat, or if
they are just off heat and the ambient temperature drops suddenly,
in case they get chilled.
- Keep each litter in its own container to minimise the risk of cross-contamination of
- Use a separate set of feeding utensils for each litter.
- Clean and then sterilise feeding utensils between feeds using a sterilising solution such as Milton's
(Procter & Gamble, UK) and rinse utensils thoroughly before use.(D52,
- Pens may be disinfected with a suitable solution such as Trigene.
- Wipe spilt milk from each hoglet's mouth and abdomen after each feed.
- Milk should be fed warm; a container of milk may be kept warm during feeding sessions by
being kept in a dish of warm water or in an electric baby bottle
B337.2.w2, V.w5, V.w56)
- Check the temperature of each bottle or syringe of milk before use to
make sure it is not either too hot or too cold. (B337.2.w2)
- The first feed given should be an oral rehydration (electrolyte) solution
(e.g. Lectade, Pfizer Limited), with a gradual changeover to a milk substitute over
several feeds (100% rehydration fluid, then 75% rehydration fluid and
25% milk replacer, then 50% of each, then 25% rehydration fluid, 75%
milk replacer, then 100% milk replacer). (V.w5,
Hedgehog milk composition:
- Solids 21.6%, of which fat 46.3%, protein 33.3%, carbohydrate 9.3%. (B151)
- Solids 20.6%, of which fat 47%, protein 33%, carbohydrate 9%, ash 10%. Kcal/ml 1.42.(B156.12.w12)
- 79% water, 10% fat, 7% protein, 2% carbohydrates, 2% ash.(B22.27.w3)
- 45.2% (mean) dry matter (DM). Protein 16.6%,
fat 25.5%, lactose 0.07%. Gross energy 1353 kJ/100 g milk. There
was a tendency for both the fat and the protein levels to increase
during lactation. (J191.80.w1)
Suggested milk replacers include:
- Artificial bitch milk (e.g. Esbilac, Pet-Ag).(J15.21.w1,
- Goat's milk, Esbilac (Pet-Ag),
Cimicat ( Petlife, UK)
(particularly for very young hoglets) or ewe's milk, with goat colostrum
added if available for at least the first three weeks and preferably to
six weeks old.(D52,
- Use of ready-mixed liquid milk replacer reduces the risks of changes
of concentration and/or problems due to lumps of powder in the mix. (B338.11.w11)
- Liquid milk replacers can be frozen in an ice-cube tray and defrosted
one cube at a time as required to reduce wastage after a tin has been
- Goat's colostrum.(J15.21.w1,
- 2 parts goat's milk to 1 part goat's colostrum, plus vitamin/mineral supplement such as
one drop of Abidec (Parke-Davis & Co. Ltd.).(B156.7.w7,
- Feed a ratio of 50/50 goat's colostrum/goat's milk for the first two days, then 25/75
colostrum/milk to 21 days, then 100% goats' milk.(B151)
- Esbilac ( Petlife, UK) or KMR
( Petlife, UK, Illinois) with small amount of lactase enzyme (Lactaid,
Lactaid Inc.) added.(B150.w1)
- Cimicat ( Petlife, UK), particularly for very young hoglets (hand-rearing starting at
less than four days old). (N6.29.w1)
- Milk must be fed warm. (P3.1987.w1)
- Goats milk one pint, one raw egg, half pint water, half teaspoon castor oil (as an
alternative to the goat's milk/colostrum mix if colostrum unavailable; decrease castor oil
if diarrhoea occurs).(D25)
- Goat's milk diluted two parts milk to one part water, or goat's
- A mixture of cream and fennel tea, in a 50:50 mixture,
with a pinch of calcium carbonate powder, or bitch milk replacer such as
Esbilac or cat milk replacer have been suggested. (B291.12.w12)
- Proposed home-made milk replacer: per 100g fresh
matter: 15g raw egg yolk, 30g scrambled egg cooked together with 8g soya
or corn oil, 30g low-fat curd, 0.7g vitamin/mineral supplement, 0.5g
calcium carbonate, 15.8g water. This was based on studies of the
composition of hedgehog milk. It was noted that it was necessary to cook
the egg due to the presence of avidin and trypsin inhibitors. It was
suggested this should be fed at 20-25% of the body weight of the
hedgehog per day and has been tested at least in older suckling hoglets.
Suggested supplements include:
- Multivitamins (Abidec,
Parke-Davis & Co. Ltd.),
one drop per hoglet per day.(D52,
- This is important if frozen milk is used or powdered milk is used
after the "use-by" date. (B337.2.w2)
- Fennel or chamomile (herbal teas) may be added to the milk to aid
digestion, or used in place of water to make up powdered milk
- Suggested utensils include:
- Syringe (1 ml for very small hoglets changing to
2 ml then 5 ml for older animals) with an
- Appropriate teats include a small Catac teat or a teat made from a 16G needle with the
point removed and the needle covered with small-bore rubber tubing, the tubing overhanging
the end of needle.
- Examples of small-bore rubber tubing are a bicycle valve rubber, vacutainer rubber, or
home-made tubing made by dipping one end of a paperclip into latex several times, allowing
each layer of latex to dry between dippings.
- A kitten feeding bottle (Catac bottle) and small teat.
- An eyedropper/ medicine dropper.
- A small plastic pipette.
- Note that the plungers of syringes start sticking when re-sterilised
several times. These must be discarded.(V.w5)
- A 1 ml syringe may be used without the plunger, with a thumb
partly over the
end to control the rate at which milk drips out under gravity. (B337.2.w2,
Suggested rearing protocols include:
- Very frequent feeds (every half hour or hour) may be required for
neonates and while stabilising new arrivals. (B337.2.w2,
- Feed every 2-4 hours (J15.21.w1);
every 3-4 hours (B156.7.w7,
every three hours.(P3.1987.w4)
- Every 2-4 hours (depending on age), from 06.00hrs (6am) to 24.00hrs (midnight).(D24)
- Feed every two hours if just arrived or newborn, then every three
hours from a few days old and settled in care, and every four hours once
the eyes are open. (V.w56)
- Continue night feeds until weight gain is steady.(J15.21.w1)
- Note: Very young hoglets, those which have just arrived, and those which
are not strong and healthy, are most in need of feeding at night as
well as during the day. (B337.2.w2)
- Feed four to five times daily, overnight feeding is not required.(B151)
- Feed every 3 hours to 120 g body weight then every 5 hours to
150 g body weight.(B22.27.w3)
- Feed every 2-3 hours between 7am to11pm initially, later every 3-4 hours. Feed during
night if very young (umbilicus still attached).(D25)
- Feed 7am to 11pm, possibly with one feed in the middle of the night for the first week
after arrival: 20 g body weight (1-3 day old) hoglet feed every 1.5- two hours,
50 g body
weight hoglet feed every 2-3 hours, 80 g body weight hoglet feed every 3-4 hours, 120 g
hoglet feed every 4 hours.(D52,
- Expect individual variation between hoglets.(D52,
- Feed every 2-3 hours at one week old, feed every 3-4 hours from two weeks old.(D56)
- Feed every 3-4 hours to 100 g bodyweight. (B291.12.w12)
- Ensure both the hoglet and the milk are kept warm during feeding.(D52).
- Chilled hoglets will not feed well. (J180.26.w1)
- Keep on a well-wrapped heat pad during feeding. Holding the hoglet
in the carer's hand rather than on a heat pad may risk the hoglet
getting too cold.(V.w56)
- While feeding a litter keep the rest of the litter warm.
- Fed hoglets may be transferred to a spare woolen hat. (B337.2.w2)
- Hold the hoglet on a surface and allow it to push forward against
the hand during feeding, simulating the way it would press with its
front feed against its mother normally. (B338.11.w11)
- Suggested technique:
- Hold the hoglet approximately upright with the body tilted slightly forwards.
- Push teat gently between lips, between tongue and roof of mouth.
- If rolled up, feel for mouth and introduce couple of drops of milk to encourage
- Express a small amount of milk into the mouth and watch for swallowing.
- If the hoglet is not swallowing, gently agitate its tongue with the teat.
- Milk will need to be fed into the mouth: hoglets generally do not suck milk from the
- Allow to swallow each drop before giving next drop.
- Suggested technique 2)
- Hold a small hoglet on its back in the palm of the left hand (for right-handed carers)
with the holder's thumb under the hoglet's right leg; for larger hoglets standing on a
non-slip surface may be preferred.
- Push the teat gently into the mouth or drip a drop of milk onto the hoglet's lips to
- Tickling the roof of the hoglet's mouth with the teat may encourage feeding.
- Note that very small hoglets may throw themselves around when held
(an anti-predator strategy) so it is important to hold gently but
firmly. Older individuals may huff and hiss.
- If a hoglet will not feed, check that the milk has not gone cold,
and try toileting it. (D52,
- For individuals which will not swallow try using the syringe to gently
push the jaw open and then let it close, several times. (B337.2.w2)
- When feeding very small neonates it is vital that the feeding technique used provides
milk at a sufficiently slow rate to minimise the risk of milk being inhaled with resultant
- Clean any excess from the infant's nose/chin after each feed.(B194)
- If a bubble of liquid appears at the nose or the infant opens its mouth wide,
immediately stop feeding and tilt the infant head down to allow the excess formula to
drain from its mouth. Give the infant a chance to recover then start again more slowly.(B194)
- Feed a 20 g body weight hoglet 0.5-1.0
ml per feed, a 50 g body weight hoglet
2-3 ml per
feed, an 80 g body weight hoglet 3-4 ml per feed and a
120 g body weight hoglet 5-7 ml per
- Smaller feeds (given more frequently) are preferable initially.(D52,
- Feed 25% of the body weight in ml (1.0 ml per 25 g bodyweight) per
24hours, therefore for a 24 g hoglet feed 6 ml of milk replacer in 24
hours - either six feeds of 1.0 ml or eight feeds of 0.75 ml). (V.w56)
- Newborn hoglet: 2 ml per feed, 50 g body weight hoglet: 4 ml per feed,
100g body weight
hoglet: 6 ml per feed.
- If the hoglet stops swallowing, assume sufficient milk has been taken.(B337.2.w2)
- Hoglets of 50 g body weight: 3 ml per feed; once eyes open 5 ml/feed with feeds every 3-4
- 1-2 ml per feed at one week old (28-56 g /1-2 oz body weight), 3-5 ml per feed by two weeks
old (56-85 g/2-3 oz body weight).(D56)
- If the hoglet stops swallowing, and it has been toileted at that
feed, assume it has taken enough milk for that feed. (V.w56)
- If the hoglet is gaining weight at an acceptable rate then it is
getting enough milk. (B337.2.w2)
- Avoid overfeeding as this may lead to bloat. (B337.2.w2)
- In very small hoglets it is possible to see the milk in the stomach
through the thin skin of the abdomen. (B337.2.w2,
- At 60-80g about 5 ml per feed, increasing to 7-10 ml per feed by
General mammal information: Energy intake (kilocalories per day) = 200-250 x
General rodent/carnivore information: infants may be fed up to 35-40% of body weight per day, and about
25-50 ml/kg per feed. (J34.9.w1)
- Toileting is required by young hoglets until they are about three or
four weeks old to ensure that they pass urine and faeces. Hoglets with
unopened eyes will definitely need toileting, those with teeth may not.
Continue toiletting until you are CERTAIN that the individual is passing
both urine and faeces normally without assistance.(D52,
- Toileting involves gentle stimulation of the ano-genital area
using a cotton bud or soft paper towel to encourage urination and
- The cotton bud or paper towel used to stimulate the hoglet
during toileting should be dampened (B338.11.w11)
or lubricated with baby oil or petroleum jelly.(B337.2.w2,
- Vibrate the cotton bud gently and rapidly over the ano-genital
area. Usually up and down (i.e. towards the head and tail, but
sideways, or general massage of the abdomen and ano-genital area
may be needed. (V.w56)
- Petroleum jelly or bland emollient ointment may be used if the perineal or abdominal skin becomes
- Calendula nappy cream (Weleda) may be applied around the perineal area after
- Take care that hoglets do not lick cream off one another. (B337.2.w2)
- Toileting should be done when the animal is first presented.
- Toileting should be carried out after every feed and may need to be done before feeding
to encourage the hoglet to feed.(D52)
- For those on very frequent feeds, or which become sore, it may
be better to toilet at every second feed. (B337.2.w2)
- Establish a routine for each litter: toilet before, half-way through
or at the end of each feed and stick to the same timing at each feed. (V.w56)
- Faeces should be bright lime green on arrival but may become more pale green-blue on a
diet of e.g. goat's milk.(D56)
- Faeces may be dark green on arrival and become pale green on Esbilac
milk replacer, with dark green or beige then being a signs of problems.
- Faeces should be pale greenish brown and the consistency of
- Faeces will be green while on milk, brown once on solid food. (B337.2.w2)
Hedgehog specific information:
- If more than one animal is being reared in a litter,
mark with a small amount of a safe non-toxic substance such as
correction fluid (e.g. coloured Tippex) or coloured nail varnish to mark
the spines to allow monitoring of individuals.(D52,
See: Marking Erinaceus europaeus - West European Hedgehog
- Weigh at least daily, preferably before the first feed each morning so
that the total amount fed that day can be increased if the hoglet is not
putting on weight. (B337.2.w2,
- It is important to have a routine for weighing. Choose a certain feed
and weigh either before feeding and toileting or after feeding and toileting
at that feed (but stick with either before or after, don't
switch between these. (V.w56)
- The rate of weight gain varies between individuals.
- Average weight gain: double birth weight in first seven days, ten times birth
weight by six weeks old.(D25)
- Expect to gain 4 g body weight per day while hand-feeding and 10 g a
day once weaned. (V.w56)
- Weight gain may be 1.5 g/day for hoglets under 60 g bodyweight and
increase to 6-7 g/day when the hoglet is fully weaned. (B338.11.w11)
- Weight loss may indicate infection (e.g. coccidiosis, salmonellosis).(P3.1987.w4)
- To avoid cross-contamination between litters disinfect the pan of the
scales (and dry it) between litters. (V.w56)
- While weighing successive individuals in a litter, ensure the other
hoglets do not become cold, e.g. by keeping them on a wrapped hot water bottle.(D52)
Suggested weaning protocols include:
- Start weaning from the time the teeth appear (about 21 days old).
- If weight gain levels off on milk feeding alone then an earlier start
to weaning may be useful, so long as the eyes are open. (B337.2.w2)
- Hoglets found at three weeks old or more and already having their
teeth may be started on weaning-type foods immediately although
hand-feeding may be required until the individual accepts the diet you
are offering. (B337.2.w2)
- When first offering milk offer the same milk as has been used for hand
feeding; avoid changing the type of milk at the same time as changing
how the hoglets get their milk. (V.w56)
- From 100 g bodyweight begin to add squashed banana and small amounts of
finely minced beef or chicken, then from 150 g bodyweight slowly wean to
eating independently: boiled egg yolk, minced beef, canned dog and cat
food and small invertebrates such as mealworms are suitable weaning
foods. Supplement the diet with a vitamin and mineral mix at 2-4% of the
- Offer milk in a shallow dish, then add to this tinned diet such as
Hill's A/D (Hill's
Pet Nutrition) and an insectivorous bird food mix, then once they
are eating gradually change to an adult diet. (B338.11.w11)
- Provide very shallow dishes of both water and goats' milk (changed regularly) to
- Offer 'St
Tiggywinkles' Mammal Glop', initially sprinkled with goat's milk; once eating this
(seen by faeces becoming brown), withdraw goat's milk (over about 7 days). (B151)
- Start to offer puppy food or kitten food as the first solid food. (J15.21.w1).
- Can offer puppy food or kitten food in dish of milk, so eating just
the puppy/kitten food by six weeks.(D25,
- Offer a few mealworms once eating some solid food.(D25)
- Gradually (from about 6-8 weeks old) wean on to (move to) adult dog food.
- Feed Milupa and scrambled egg from three weeks old, minced meat, insectivorous
food and chopped day-old chicks from 4-5 weeks old. (D24)
- Start offering foods other than milk once the eyes open:
- Offer milk for lapping, first in the palm of a hand, then in a shallow dish.
- Offer soft food such as Hills AD (Hill's
Pet Nutrition), Pedigree Concentration Diet (Waltham), pureed cat or dog food or jelly from tinned
foods once the eyes are open, mixed with the milk (an opened paperclip may be used to
clear any blockages in the nozzle of a syringe during feeding).
- Also leave similar mixed food in a shallow dish in the hoglet's pen.
- More solid food such as mashed up pet food may be added gradually.
- Reduce the number of feeds a day gradually.
- Wean off milk by 7-8 weeks old.
- Start offering a shallow dish of milk at three weeks old (eyes open and
- Once lapping, offer mixed liquidised puppy food and milk.
- By four weeks old start reducing the milk in the dish, and offer a separate dish of
water; hand feeding may no longer be required.
- By five weeks old offer mixed mashed puppy food and cereal; other food may be added such
as scrambled egg, chicken, small amounts of grated cheese and banana. Offer twice daily.
- By six to seven weeks old feed one tablespoon of mashed puppy food and cereal twice
daily with vitamin/mineral supplement, plus water in a separate dish.
- By eight weeks old feed adult dog or cat food with weekly vitamin/mineral
- Some litters or individuals may prefer tinned puppy food while others
prefer kitten food and others prefer dry food not tinned. (V.w56)
- Insectivorous bird food mix (e.g. Sluis Universal Insect food or
Prosecto (John E. Haith's)), dry hedgehog food, Hills
Pet Nutrition) or Iams kitten biscuits may be
offered, first ground up and later as-sold. (V.w56)
- Reduced sugar baby rusks may be offered crumbled and mixed into other
soft foods or dry either on their own or mixed with other dry foods. (V.w56)
- For individuals which are reluctant to try solids it may be worth
offering the insides of a mealworm, by cutting off the mealworm's head
and squeezing the contents into the hoglet's mouth. (V.w56)
- If an individual is greedy and overfeeds then leave only small amounts
available at a time and check that weight gain is not excessive. (B337.2.w2)
- Note that at least initially hoglets will walk in the food rather than
eat it, but may lick this off themselves, so getting started on eating.
COMMON DISEASES and problems to watch out for
- Fleas - Flea Infection.
A very mild flea or mite powder (Pyrethrum
based) should be used on hoglets, e.g. Johnson's Rid-mite (Johnson's
Veterinary Products), designed
for birds. (B337.2.w2)
Nutritional diarrhoea, particularly initially and if
milk is changed suddenly, not made up accurately and properly.
Inhalation pneumonia may occur if milk is inhaled
rather than swallowed.
Bacterial infections causing diarrhoea:
- Intestinal worms - Capillaria and fluke
Infection of Hedgehogs
- This is more likely to be a problem in hoglets which were older
when first presented than in those which have been hand-reared
from a very early age.
- Mites, particularly Caparinia Mange in Hedgehogs.
- Fly eggs are commonly present on orphaned hoglets when they are
- Congenital deformities are sometimes seen, particularly umbilical
- NOTE: Self-anointing, with the hoglet producing frothy saliva and
twisting around to lick at its back, possibly falling over while doing
so, is normal behaviour in response to a strange or strong smell. See:
European hedgehog Erinaceus europaeus - Activity Patterns,
Grooming and Navigation Behaviour (Literature Reports) - Grooming