Feeding of Casualty Lutra lutra - European otter (Wildlife Casualty Management)

Summary Information
Type of technique Health & Management / UK Wildlife Casualty Management / Techniques:
Synonyms and Keywords N.B.  This information should be read in association with Wildlife Casualty & Convalescent Feeding which contains background information together with links to the Electronic Library and Organisations (UK Contacts). The related Species pages contain similar linkages.
Description This page has been prepared for the "UK Wildlife: First Aid and Care" Wildpro module, and is designed for the needs of the following species: Lutra lutra - European otter

Fluids (water):

  • Offer a rehydration (electrolyte) solution such as Lectade (Pfizer Limited) to drink on admission.
  • Water should be freely available at all times unless the casualty is unconscious or severely debilitated and unable to hold its head up.
  • Both water and a rehydration (electrolyte) solution, in separate containers, should be made available initially.
  • (V.w5, V.w26)

Convalescent Diet:

Suggested convalescent diets include:

  • Mixture of a convalescent cat/dog food such as A/D (Hill’s Pet Nutrition Ltd) and a rehydration (electrolyte) solution. (V.w26)
  • Liquidised mixture of white fish and a rehydration (electrolyte) solution. (V.w26)

Short term Maintenance Diet:

Suggested short term maintenance diets include:

  • Fish (white not oily), e.g. trout. (D24, B151)
  • Sea fish such as whiting (Merlangius merlangus, coley (saithe) Pollachius virens, witch (Glyptocephalus cynoglossus and dabs Limanda limanda) 1kg/day, cut into chunks plus tinned small carnivore diet (ZF6, Spratts) 0.5kg (Described for use as a long-term diet).(B157.w12)
  • N.B. Fish should be supplemented with fish-eater tablets containing thiamine, particularly if frozen fish is used. (e.g. Fish Eater Tablets, Mazuri Zoo Foods).(D24, B151)


  • Daily intake of 20-24% of body weight.(J23.12.w1)
  • 15-20% of body weight per day; about 2lb/1kg fish per day for an adult. (D24)
Appropriate Use (?)
  • Fresh drinking water should always be available in a container of an appropriate size and type for the species concerned.
  • Fluid replacement therapy other than oral fluids may be required for casualties which are extremely dehydrated on admission or are unable to take in and absorb oral fluids.
    • Fluid therapy should continue until the animal is no longer dehydrated, even if it is self feeding.
  • Feeding of convalescents should take into account their requirement for additional nutrients for healing as well as maintenance requirements.
  • The required fluid intake for maintenance should be considered when designing convalescent diets.
  • Energy requirements for maintenance and healing should be calculated and used to determine the quantity of food required for both convalescence and short-term maintenance diets.
  • Convalescent diets should be easily absorbed/digested.
  • Care should be taken not to under or over supplement with vitamins/minerals.
  • Diets intended for feeding from a syringe or by stomach tube (gavage) must be of a sufficiently fluid consistency to pass through the syringe nozzle or down the tube without it becoming blocked.
  • The natural diet should be considered when deciding on suitable ingredients, including consideration of taste/smell.
  • Fresh food must be provided daily.
  • Regular cleaning of food and drinking water containers (e.g. daily) is important to reduce the risk of disease.
  • Food and water containers should be sited to minimise the risk of contamination with droppings/faeces/urine. 
  • Thaw frozen fish slowly in a refrigerator before use and discard unused fish after 24 hours.
Complications/ Limitations / Risk
  • Fish, particularly frozen fish must be supplemented with thiamine to avoid the risk of thiamine deficiency.
  • Water bowls should not be left in the accommodation of a casualty which is unconscious or is severely debilitated and unable to hold its head up.
  • Dehydrated and malnourished individuals sometimes drink rehydration fluids but refuse plain water initially; others will drink water but not rehydration fluids. Both should be made available.
  • No diet, however well balanced nutritionally, is useful if the animal does not eat it, for example because it is not recognised as food.
  • Ingestion of food should be monitored, not assumed. This may include weighing food before presentation and weighing waste food after removal, and periodic weighing of the animal.
  • Monitoring of weight/body condition is particularly important for group housed/group fed animals, within which some individuals may take more food and others not get the food they require.
  • Diets suggested on this page are intended for short term use for wildlife casualties; they are not necessarily suitable for long-term use or in individuals which are breeding.
  • Diets suggested on this page are not necessarily suitable for feeding infants; information on appropriate diets for very young individuals are described in the page on hand-rearing.
Equipment / Chemicals required and Suppliers
  • Oral rehydration (electrolyte) solutions are widely available from veterinary suppliers and chemists. 
  • A basic oral rehydration (electrolyte) solution may be made by dissolving one tablespoon of sugar and one teaspoon of salt in one litre of water.(B203)
  • Fish: from fishmongers or specialist animal feed suppliers.
  • Fish Eater Tablets, Mazuri Zoo Foods, Special Diets Services, POBox 705, Witham, Essex, England, CM8 3AD
  • ZF6, Spratts:
Expertise level / Ease of Use
  • Care of otters should carried out by experienced personnel.
  • Great care must be taken if syringe-feeding is required to avoid choking the animal.
Cost/ Availability
  • Appropriate fish may not always be immediately available. Rehabilitators and vets who expect to need to feed otters should keep a stock of frozen fish.
  • The cost of feeding whole fish may be considerable over time. 
Legal and Ethical Considerations
  • Under the Protection of Animals Acts 1911-2000 it is an offence not to provide animals (including captive wild animals) with necessary food and water. (J35.147.w1, B156.21.w21, B223, P19.2.w1)
  • Care should be taken not to let an individual become accustomed to a single food item as this may result in difficulties in feeding the animal if the food item becomes unavailable, and in preparing it for release.
  • Every effort should be made to provide appropriate natural, locally available foods to animals which have been maintained in captivity for prolonged periods before they are released, in order to re-accustom them to a natural diet and reduce the chance of digestive problems following release.(P24.233.w11)
  • The release of animals which, by virtue of an inadequate or inappropriate diet whilst in captivity, are not fit to survive when released may be considered an offence under the Abandonment of Animals Act, 1960.
Author Debra Bourne
Referee Becki Lawson and Suzanne Boardman

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