& Management / Disease
Investigation & Management / Techniques:
- Provide only water, no food, for 48 hours to try to empty the
proventriculus and ventriculus of food.
- Anaesthetise the crane:
- Isoflurane 4-5% by mask for induction.
- Intubate, inflate the cuff of the tube with 1-2 mL air to
minimise the risk of gastric fluids entering the trachea.
- Maintain at 1-3% isoflurane in oxygen at 2 L/minute.
- Introduce the endoscope (an Olympus 4 channel gastric endoscope,
Olympus America, Melville, New York, USA was used for whooping cranes)
into the gizzard.
- A video monitor can be used for viewing.
- Retrieve foreign objects; grasping forceps or basket forceps may be
- If necessary, roll the crane from side to side to shift the gastric
material and make foreign objects accessible to the forceps.
- If necessary (ingesta still present is obscuring foreign bodies)
flush the proventriculus with warm water to improve visualisation of
foreign bodies to be removed.
- Once all objects have been removed, rinse the bird's mouth out.
- Bring the anaesthesia to an end.
- Give 100-120 mL fluids either half intravenously and half
subcutaneously or all subcutaneously.
- Once the patient is able to stand unaided, place in a hospital pen.
- After several hours or overnight, return the bird to its home pen.
|Appropriate Use (?)
- To remove potentially injurious or toxic objects from the gizzard
after their presence has been confirmed using radiography. (B115.8.w4,
- Removes the need for
- It is preferable to avoid ingestion of foreign objects. Pens should
be checked thoroughly (by sight and using a metal detector) for foreign
objects after construction or repair/maintenance work, particularly if
outside contractors have been used who may not fully understand the
chances of, and risks associated with, foreign body ingestion. (P87.8.w6, V.w5)
|Complications/ Limitations / Risk
- Risks associated with general anaesthesia. (P87.8.w6)
- Risk of gastric fluid leakage into the trachea. (P87.8.w6)
- This can be minimised by gentle inflation of the cuff of
the endotracheal tube. (P87.8.w6)
|Equipment / Chemicals required and Suppliers
|Expertise level / Ease of Use
||This is a veterinary
procedure. This procedure should only be
carried out by an individual with appropriate clinical training and practical
The costs of a surgical operation include those associated with: (J15.30.w1)
- Pre-operative diagnostics (e.g. radiography, ultrasonography, blood
- Perioperative medication (e.g. analgesics, antibiotics, fluids).
- Surgical preparation (of the operating theatre and the patient,
including staff time).
- Consumables and equipment.
- Time of the surgeon and assistant(s).
- Post-operative hospitalisation.
|Legal and Ethical Considerations
||In some countries there may be
legislation restricting the use of this type of technique to licensed veterinarians. For
example in the UK: "The Veterinary Surgeons Act 1966 (Section 19) provides,
subject to a number of exceptions, that only registered members of the Royal College of
Veterinary Surgeons may practice veterinary surgery." (See:
- RCVS Guide to Professional Conduct 2000 - Treatment of
Animals by Non-Veterinary Surgeons).
||Debra Bourne MA VetMB PhD