Nebulisation of Birds (Disease Investigation &
Control - Treatment and Care)
& Management / Disease
Investigation & Control / Treatment & Care
||Nebulisation is effectively topical
application of medication to the upper respiratory passages, and with small-diameter
particles also the caudal thoracic and abdominal airsacs and about 20% of lung tissue.
The following description outlines the procedure as described by
- Prepare medication, usually in saline.
- Place bird in a nebulisation chamber (this may be a solid-sided cage with the
door covered with a towel or sheet of perspex).
- Place medication in the administration chamber.
- Place administration chamber upright within the cage.
Protocol: nebulise for 10 to 30 minutes, two to four times
30 minutes, three to four times daily (B14); 15-20
minutes four to five times daily (B11.18.w9).
|Appropriate Use (?)
- No handling required during administration.
- Local application of medication to the upper respiratory tract.
- Allows use of drugs which may be toxic if given
- Low stress levels from repeated medication.
- Humidification effect on the respiratory system may be of use.
- Vehicles such as tyloxapol may provide better dispersal than saline (B14).
- Usually used in combination with systemic therapy.
|Complications/ Limitations / Risk
- Drugs do not reach lower respiratory tract or blood.
- May lead to environmental contamination - possible risk to staff.
- Aerosolised particles 3-7 micrometres diameter are likely to be deposited
on the mucosal surface of the nasal cavity and trachea (B11.5.w18).
- Drops/particles 1-3 micrometers diameter are required to establish local
drug levels in the lungs and air sacs.
- Require electrical supply (e.g. mains or car battery).
- As little as 20% of the respiratory tract may be reached by
|Equipment / Chemicals required and Suppliers
- Nebulisation chamber.
- Appropriate medication.
|Expertise level / Ease of Use
||Simple to use.
- Nebulisers may be obtained from human hospitals or from hospital
- Cost in the UK in the region of £100.
|Legal and Ethical Considerations
||In some countries there may be
legislation restricting the diagnosis and treatment of disease in animals to licensed
veterinarians. For example in the UK: "The Veterinary Surgeons Act 1966 (Section
19) provides, subject to a number of exceptions, that only registered members of the Royal
College of Veterinary Surgeons may practice veterinary surgery."(see: LCofC1
- RCVS Guide to Professional Conduct 2000 - Treatment of
Animals by Non-Veterinary Surgeons).).
Use of Drugs
- Many drugs are not registered for use in particular bird species and care should
be taken in their use, with proper regard for possible toxic effects. Consideration should
be give to relevant legislation regarding the use of drugs.
- In the UK, guidelines regarding the use of drugs are set out in the Royal College
of Veterinary Surgeons Guide to Professional Conduct 2000: (see: LCofC1
- RCVS Guide to Professional Conduct 2000 - Choice of Medicinal Products).
||B11.5.w18, B11.18.w9, B13.15.w10, B13.17.w16, B14
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