& Management / Disease
Investigation & Control / Treatment & Care
description outlines the procedure as described by: Kenny & Cambre, 1992 (J2.23.w1) and Coles, 1997 (B14).
- Anaesthetise (general anaesthesia) (e.g. induction 4% isoflurane,
maintenance 1.5-2% isoflurane).
- Place in dorsal recumbency.
- Pull legs caudally and tape to table.
- Pluck abdomen from flank to flank and keel to cloaca.
- Prepare site - scrub with povidone iodine followed by alcohol.
- Cover with clear sterile plastic drape.
- Incise skin circumferentially around umbilicus and extend laterally at 3
o'clock and 9 o'clock positions, sufficiently long to allow removal of yolk sac without
rupture (J2.23.w.1); extension of incision may alternatively be longitudinal (B14).
- Incise through body wall along same lines.
- Apply gentle traction on umbilical stump with forceps while manipulating
yolk sac from within the abdomen using a finger or scalpel handle, to exteriorise yolk
sac. or roll bird over, gently encourage yolk sac to fall out (B14).
- Ligate yolk stalk and associated vasculature as close as possible to
- Close body wall with absorbable suture in simple continuous pattern.
- Close skin with absorbable suture in simple continuous pattern.
|Appropriate Use (?)
- Treatment of Yolk
Sac Retention with or without Omphalitis/Yolk-sacculitis.
- Signs: abdominal distension, dyspnoea, exercise
intolerance, anorexia, weight loss, lack of growth, inability to stand/walk.
- Surgery usually successful if undertaken before the bird has become dyspnoic (J2.23.w1, B13.46.w1).
- Subcutaneous fluids (50/50 mixture 5% dextrose in lactated Ringer's and
0.9% saline, 0.016ml/gram body weight) should be given to compensate for surgical blood
- Conservation of body heat is important; a heat pad may be used to reduce risk of
hypothermia. Avoid allowing surgical preparation solution to run down and soak the body;
wring out swabs used in cleaning, to remove excess fluid (J3.120.w1).
- Yolk sac should be sent for bacterial culture and sensitivity testing.
- Antibiotics should be administered postoperatively, broad spectrum
initially, and according to bacterial culture from yolk sac once results known.
- Tube feeding may be required for several days post-operatively, although
some birds will be eating well and gaining weight by one to two days post-operatively.
|Complications/ Limitations / Risk
||Success is less likely if surgery is
|Equipment / Chemicals required and Suppliers
||Equipment and consumables for
general anaesthesia and surgery, including surgical instruments and consumables suitable
for the size of the bird.
|Expertise level / Ease of Use
||Veterinary procedure: should
only be undertaken by a veterinarian.
||May be quite expensive: cost
of general anaesthesia and substantial surgical operation.
|Legal and Ethical Considerations
||In some countries there may be
legislation restricting the use of this type of technique to licensed veterinarians. For
example in the UK: "The Veterinary Surgeons Act 1966 (Section 19) provides,
subject to a number of exceptions, that only registered members of the Royal College of
Veterinary Surgeons may practice veterinary surgery."(see: LCofC1
- RCVS Guide to Professional Conduct 2000 - Treatment of
Animals by Non-Veterinary Surgeons).).
||J2.23.w1, J3.120.w1, B13.46.w1, B14