Bill Repair in Waterfowl(Disease Investigation & Control - Treatment and Care)
|Type of technique||Health & Management / Disease Investigation & Control / Treatment & Care / Techniques:|
|Synonyms and Keywords||Bill Prosthesis|
description outlines the procedure as described by Bush (B10.20.w16), Altman, R.B. (B12.44B.w8),
Martin, H. & Ritchie, B.W. (B13.42.w15),Olsen,
J.H. (B13.46.w1), Coles (B14).
Examples of use in waterfowl:
Duck (Anas crecca - Common teal ) missing half of distal bill. A prosthesis was made from approximately 1/3 of circumference of 10ml plastic (polypropamide) syringe barrel, overlapped onto remaining bill and attached with wire sutures (stainless steel) (B14).
Duck (Anas platyrhynchos - Mallard) with deformed upper bill. A prosthesis was formed from temporary dental bridge acrylic, moulded to the deformed bill and to the opposing bill surface while still soft and shaped after hardening, then attached to the bill stump (B12.44B.w8).
Canada goose (Branta canadensis - Canada goose): Pins (fully threaded Kirshner wires) were places one in each margin of the maxilla. A mould in two (dorsal and ventral) halves was made from a Canada goose model. The nares and oral cavity of the goose were plugged with cotton wool, the dorsal half of the mould was fitted over the maxillary stump and the wires, held in position and filled with dental acrylic. The ventral half of the mould was then pushed down over the acrylic and the mould held until the acrylic hardened, then removed. A fine brush was used to apply extra acrylic to strengthen thin areas and "feather out" the caudal edges of the prosthesis over onto the remaining bill, carefully avoiding the external nares. Final shaping and smoothing was carried out using a high-speed hand-held drill, and lamellae were created using a grinding disk. The prosthesis was still stale after six months (B13.46.w1).
|Appropriate Use (?)|
|Complications/ Limitations / Risk||
|Equipment / Chemicals required and Suppliers||
|Expertise level / Ease of Use||Procedure should only be undertaken by an individual with appropriate clinical training and practical experience; this would usually be a veterinarian.|
|Legal and Ethical Considerations||It is important to differentiate
between a requirement for bill prosthesis to produce a functional bill and the use of a
prosthesis for aesthetic reasons. In many cases the remainder of a bill is sufficiently
functional for the bird. Addition of a prosthesis simply for aesthetic reasons should be
avoided due to the risk of causing further damage to the bill (V.w6).
In some countries there may be legislation restricting the use of this type of technique to licensed veterinarians. For example in the UK: "The Veterinary Surgeons Act 1966 (Section 19) provides, subject to a number of exceptions, that only registered members of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons may practice veterinary surgery."(see: LCofC1 - RCVS Guide to Professional Conduct 2000 - Treatment of Animals by Non-Veterinary Surgeons).).
|References||B10.20.w16, B12.44B.w8, B13.42.w15, B13.46.w1, B14, V.w6|
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