& Management / Disease
Investigation & Control / Environmental and
Population Management / Techniques:
Helicopters, model aircraft
- Use of
fixed-wing aircraft, helicopters or model aircraft, flying over animals to disturb them
and "flush" them from an area.
- Provides a combination of a loud noise and rapid
- May involve repeated
flights over an area, or "herding" birds away from an area.
- Helicopters should be flown low and preferably lower
than the flock of birds being pushed out of an area. (D211.AppIIIc.w12)
- Can be used in conjunction with other hazing methods
such as gas-operated exploders or shell crackers. (D135.3.w3,
- Radio-controlled model aircraft can be used also. (D211.AppIIIc.w12)
|Appropriate Use (?)
- To move animals
from an area where they may be at risk from a disease problem area
(including e.g. oil spills). (B36.4.w4)
- Can be used to make waterfowl fly off the water.
- Can be effective over a large area. (D135.3.w3,
- Particularly useful in the early stages of hazing operations. (D135.3.w3,
- Useful particularly for initiation of hazing then periodically to
reinforce other methods of hazing. (D211.AppIIIc.w12)
- May be particularly appropriate for dispersing a large concentration of
birds (thousands) from a large but relatively narrow (less than 50 km
wide) area, with alternative unoiled sites available within a few tens
of kilometres. (D10)
- May be used over a wide variety of terrain, including at sea.
- Can rapidly reach remote areas not easily accessible by surface
- Can be used offshore to deter birds from offshore oil slicks.
- Very efficient for hazing geese. (D10,
- Limited manpower required. (D10,
- Model aircraft may be useful over small areas. (D211.AppIIIc.w12)
- May be most effective if used at low levels, e.g. geese flush at greater
distances from the aircraft if it is flying at under 1000 feet. (D10)
- Helicopters may be more effective than fixed-wing
aircraft due to their noise and manouverability. (D135.3.w3,
- More effective if used in combination with other hazing
methods, such as gas-operated exploders or shell crackers. (D135.3.w3,
- Has been used successfully to move whooping cranes Grus americana
(an endangered species) away from a major Avian Cholera
|Complications/ Limitations / Risk
- Less effective against waterfowl species other than geese.
- Not very effective against moulting waterfowl. (D10,
- Helicopters can be used to herd flightless birds such as those
which have not yet fledged, or are moulting. (D135.3.w3,
- Not effective against waterbirds such as loons and alcids which dive
when approached by aircraft, rather than flying. (D160.App3.w11)
- Birds on water may dive and re-surface to avoid aircraft, rather than
leaving the area, particularly if very close approach (50m) is used. (D10)
- Birds may flush away but circle back around or fly under the aircraft and
return to their original site. (D10)
- Less effective used at sites highly attractive to the birds (e.g. feeding
areas, nesting grounds). (D10,
- May require precision low-level flying for maximum effect.
- Increased risk of collisions with birds when used at low levels.
- Not suitable for use in conditions of reduced visibility/bad weather/at
- Time-consuming if required to cover a large area. (D10,
- May not be available when required. (D10)
- Fixed-wing aircraft are generally less effective than helicopters,
since they are less manoeuverable. (D211.AppIIIc.w12)
- Model aircraft:
- Not useful over large areas;
- Limited to sites with a nearby landing area;
- Not useable in high wind or rain;
- Labour intensive - use of skilled operators (volunteers from model
plane clubs) is required.
|Equipment / Chemicals required and Suppliers
- Aircraft, fuel
|Expertise level / Ease of Use
experienced pilot for low-level flying. (D10)
- Expensive. Cost of hiring aircraft, fuel and operators.
- Required aircraft may not be readily available. (D10,
- For model aircraft, regular availability of skilled volunteers over a
period of several days may be limited. (D211.AppIIIc.w12)
|Legal and Ethical Considerations
collision between birds and aircraft. (D10,
||Dr Debra Bourne MA VetMB PhD MRCVS