Hazing - Trained Raptors

Summary Information
Type of technique Health & Management / Disease Investigation & Control / Environmental and Population Management / Techniques:
Synonyms and Keywords Falconry, Kestrels, Hawks
  • Flying of a trained raptor over the area from which bird dispersal is required.

(D10, D135.3.w3, D210.4.w4)

Appropriate Use (?)
  • For immediate dispersal of birds which normally fly to avoid predators (e.g. shorebirds, gulls, terns, some waterfowl. (D210.4.w4)
  • Effective in hazing species such as waterfowl and gulls. (D10)
  • No problem with habituation. (D10)
Notes --
Complications/ Limitations / Risk
  • Only useful in daytime. (D10)
  • Only useful on fair, non-windy days. (D135.3.w3)
  • Requires a highly trained raptor and falconer. (D10, D135.3.w3)
  • May require initial flushing if a bird (e.g. peregrine falcon) is to be used which does not attack stationary targets. (D135.3.w3)
  • Most waterbirds respond to falcons by landing on the water or diving (D135.3.w3). In oil spill situations, use of falcons therefore may increase the risk of birds contacting spilled oil - particularly for species which normally dive to avoid predation. (D10, D210.4.w4)
  • Risk that the raptor could chase or disperse birds into an oiled area. (D160.App3.w11)
Equipment / Chemicals required and Suppliers
  • Requires trained raptor. (D10, D210.4.w4)
Expertise level / Ease of Use
  • Experienced falconer required. (D10, D210.4.w4)
Cost/ Availability
  • Relatively expensive. (D10, D210.4.w4)
Legal and Ethical Considerations
  • Risk of increasing contact of birds with oil as they land or dive to avoid the predator. (D10, D135.3.w3, D210.4.w4)
  • Risk of the trained birds becoming oiled. (D135.3.w3. D160.App3.w11)
  • Permits may be required. (D135.3.w3)
Author Dr Debra Bourne MA VetMB PhD MRCVS (V.w5)
Referee --
References D10, D210.4.w4, D135.3.w3, D160.App3.w11

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