Ketamine/Xylazine Anaesthesia in Waterfowl (Disease Investigation & Control - Treatment and Care)
|Type of technique||Health & Management / Disease Investigation & Control / Treatment & Care / Techniques:|
|Synonyms and Keywords||--|
|Description||Suggested ratios of
xylazine:ketamine vary from 1:5 to 1:10 (P7.1.w4).
Xylazine 1.0-4.0mg/kg, Ketamine 10-20mg/kg, intramuscular (P7.1.w4).
Xylazine 0.25-0.50mg/kg, Ketamine 2.5-5.0mg/kg, intravenous (P7.1.w4).
Xylazine 2.2mg/kg, Ketamine 4.4mg/kg, intravenous (B11.9.w20).
Using 20mg/kg ketamine, 5mg/kg xylazine, intramuscular, induction within five to seven minutes, anaesthesia lasts 10-20 minutes, able to stand and perch by one to two hours (B14).
Xylazine 1.0-4.0mg , ketamine 5.0-30mg/kg, intramuscular (B13.39.w16).
Xylazine 0.25-0.50mg/kg, ketamine 2.5-5.0mg/kg, intravenous (B13.39.w16).
Xylazine 0.28mg/kg (range 0.160.53mg/kg), ketamine 12.5mg/kg (range 7.2-24mg/kg) used in 130 Mute swans CYgnus olor (total 175 anaesthetics): prepared as 90mg (0.9ml) ketamine, 2mg (0.1ml) xulazine in one syring to gve total volume 1ml (P3.1999b.w1, B37.x.w1).
|Appropriate Use (?)|
In mute swans: intravenous, 12.5mg/kg (7.2-24.0mg/kg) ketamine plus 0.28mg/kg (0.16-0.53mg/kg) xylazine. Used less successfully in other waterfowl species (B37.x.w1).
|Complications/ Limitations / Risk||
|Equipment / Chemicals required and Suppliers||Ketamine: e.g.
Ketaset (Fort Dodge Animal Health), Vetalar V (Pharmacia & Upjohn Limited). Both are
colourless solutions containing 100mg/ml ketamine as ketamine hydrochloride, with
benzethonium chloride 0.01% as a preservative (B90).
Xylazine: e.g. Rompun 2% solution (Bayer plc) containing 23.32 mg xylazine hydrochloride per ml (equivalent to 20mg xylazine per ml), plus 1mg/ml methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (E218) as preservative; Rompun Dry Substance (Bayer plc) in vials as a water-soluble white crystalline powder, with each vial containing 583 mg xylazine hydrochloride, equivalent to 500 mg xylazine. Each vial is in a pack containing a vial of 50ml solvent (containing 0.07% w/v methylhydroxybenzoate and 0.03% w/v propylhydroxybenzoate as preservatives) (B90).
|Expertise level / Ease of Use||Procedure should only be
undertaken by an individual with appropriate clinical training and practical experience;
this would usually be a veterinarian or someone with advanced veterinary technician
N.B. Whenever an anaesthetic is undertaken, the anaesthetist must be familiar with emergency protocols. Consideration must be given as to the availability of equipment required to monitor the anaesthetic plane of the animal being anaesthetized and any equipment/drugs required for revival. It is advisable to calculate the doses of any revival agents which may be required in an emergency BEFORE COMMENCING the anaesthetic (V.w6).
|Cost/ Availability||Relatively inexpensive compared to e.g. alphaxalone/alphadalone or propofol (P3.1999b.w1).|
|Legal and Ethical Considerations||In some countries there may be
legislation restricting the use of this type of technique to licensed veterinarians. For
example in the UK: "The Veterinary Surgeons Act 1966 (Section 19) provides,
subject to a number of exceptions, that only registered members of the Royal College of
Veterinary Surgeons may practice veterinary surgery."(see: LCofC1
- RCVS Guide to Professional Conduct 2000 - Treatment of
Animals by Non-Veterinary Surgeons).).
Use of Drugs (Medication):
Before using any anaesthetic agent or combination of agents the manufacturer's data sheet on the agent or agents concerned should be consulted, taking particular note of any contra-indications and operator warnings.
|References||B11.9.w20, B13.39.w16, B14, B37.x.w1, P3.1999b.w1, P7.1.w4, V.w6|
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