TECHNIQUE

Methoxyflurane Anaesthesia in Waterfowl (Disease Investigation & Control - Treatment and Care)

Summary Information
Type of technique Health & Management / Disease Investigation & Control / Treatment & Care / Techniques:
Synonyms and Keywords See also:
Description N.B. Information given in this page is to be used in conjunction with the relevant sections on Anaesthesia and Chemical Restraint within "Treatment and/or Control".

Before using any anaesthetic agent or combination of agents the manufacturer's data sheet on the agent or agents concerned should be consulted, taking particular note of any contra-indications and operator warnings.

  • Induction may be obtained with 3.5-4.0% and takes approximately 8-10 minutes (B14).
  • Maintenance level 1.5-2.0% (B14).
Appropriate Use (?)
  • Moderate to good muscle relaxation.
  • Good analgesia and analgesia may persist after recovery.
  • Potent anaesthetic.
  • Not generally considered a suitable anaesthetic for birds.
Notes
  • Safety margin 3.7.
  • Non-flammable under normal conditions.
Complications/ Limitations / Risk
  • Marked respiratory depression.
  • Depressive effect on myocardium (variably described as 'moderate' (B11.9.w20) and 'marked' (B10.7.w17).
  • Low vapour pressure may cause difficulties in reaching a practical induction concentration (B10.7.w17).
  • Relatively high solubility (blood/gas partition coefficient 12.0): relatively slow induction and recovery.
  • 50% metabolised - 'hang-over' effect and depression may result from high level of metabolites.
  • Contraindicated in individuals with hepatic dysfunction or cardiovascular disease.
  • Overdose may cause apnoea and cardiac arrest simultaneously.
  • Soluble in rubber and some plastics.
  • Renal and hepatic toxicity is of concern for patient and for repeated exposure of operators (B10.7.w17, B13.39.w16.)
  • Contraindicated for concurrent use with tetracyclines and drugs with specific nephrotoxic potential such as aminoglycoside antibiotics (P7.1.w4).
  • Not generally considered a suitable anaesthetic for birds.
Equipment / Chemicals required and Suppliers Methoxyflurane
Expertise level / Ease of Use Procedure should only be undertaken by an individual with appropriate clinical training and practical experience; this would usually be a veterinarian or someone with advanced veterinary technician training.

N.B. Whenever an anaesthetic is undertaken, the anaesthetist must be familiar with emergency protocols. Consideration must be given as to the availability of equipment required to monitor the anaesthetic plane of the animal being anaesthetized and any equipment/drugs required for revival. It is advisable to calculate the doses of any revival agents which may be required in an emergency BEFORE COMMENCING the anaesthetic (V.w6).

Cost/ Availability  
Legal and Ethical Considerations In some countries there may be legislation restricting the use of this type of technique to licensed veterinarians. For example in the UK: "The Veterinary Surgeons Act 1966 (Section 19) provides, subject to a number of exceptions, that only registered members of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons may practice veterinary surgery."(see: LCofC1 - RCVS Guide to Professional Conduct 2000 - Treatment of Animals by Non-Veterinary Surgeons).).

Use of Drugs (Medication):

  • Many drugs are not registered for use in particular bird species and care should be taken in their use, with proper regard for possible toxic effects. Consideration should be give to relevant legislation regarding the use of drugs.
  • In the UK, guidelines regarding the use of drugs are set out in the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons Guide to Professional Conduct 2000: (see: LCofC1 - RCVS Guide to Professional Conduct 2000 - Choice of Medicinal Products).

Before using any anaesthetic agent or combination of agents the manufacturer's data sheet on the agent or agents concerned should be consulted, taking particular note of any contra-indications and operator warnings.

Author Debra Bourne
Referee  
References B11.9.w20, B10.7.w17, B13.39.w13, B14, P7.1.w4, V.w6

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