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Click here to return to Wildlife: Oil Spill Response CONTENTS

Introduction and General Information

Many general wildlife rehabilitation centres are able to deal with a single oiled bird or mammal, or a few oiled birds presented at one time. However, in the event of an incident involving large numbers of casualties, then facility requirements become more complex, due to the number of casualties and associated requirements for staff (professional or volunteers), consumables, water, waste disposal etc. Additionally, space requirements for different components of the response change over time: more space required for admission and stabilisation and pre-wash indoor housing initially, versus more space required for post-cleaning housing later.
  • "For example, a facility receiving 50 Canada geese a day needs an area 800 feet square for initial housing of the oiled birds, a second large enclosed area for washing the birds, a third area for housing the cleaned birds, and yet another area for performing physical examinations, administering medical treatments, and maintaining records. Additional needs include a way to produce over 6000 gallons of 103F water at 60psi and provisions for legal disposal of 1000 gallons of oiled waste water." (B23.38.w2)
  • It is also important to ensure that facilities used for cleaning oiled animals are designed with accommodation suitable for the various species which may require care. (D160.6.w6, J311.14.w1)

Additionally, large spills generate public interest and both media enquiries and enquiries of interested individuals need to be dealt with.

Depending on the location and the number and type of animals to be cared for, a permanent facility, a temporary facility set up in local fixed structures, or a temporary facility set up in mobile units brought to the site of a spill may be used. (D159.III.w3, D160.6.w6)

For maximum effectiveness a facility should be set up and operational for intake, holding and isolation of oiled animals within 24 hours of the activation of an oiled wildlife response. Bird cleaning and post-washing rehabilitation facilities should be set up and operational within 48 hours. (D160.6.w6)

  • Delay in beginning treatment of oiled wildlife casualties decreases their chance of survival. (D159.III.w3)
  • Cleaning and rehabilitation of oiled animals is demanding in terms of time and money. Adequate facilities, manpower and supplies are very important for successful cleaning and rehabilitation. (D60.7.w7)
  • For maximum effectiveness it is important not to exceed the maximum capability of a cleaning centre. (D214.2.w2)
  • Facilities which have to be improvised when large numbers of oiled casualties need treating may be less than ideal. (D214.4.w4)
  • Preferably, centres capable of holding and rehabilitating large numbers of oiled casualties should be identified in advance of a spill occurring and the facilities being required. (D220)

Visitor control:

  • All visits by news media should be coordinated and facilitated via the Joint Information Centre within the Incident Command System. (D160.6.w6)
  • Visits should be limited to two per day, and the number of people allowed per visit should be limited, in order to minimise stress to the oiled animals. (D160.6.w6)
  • There should be reasonable site security. (D183.w6)
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General Requirements

Overall facility layout

  • Sufficient space is required for all the areas (reception, pre-wash housing, cleaning area, post-wash housing area etc.) required. (D60.7.w7, D214.2.w2)
  • Areas which will be required for oiled animals include an admission (intake) area, pre-wash holding, washing and rinsing, drying, post-wash outdoor caging and pools, as well as a hospital/isolation area. (D160.6.w6 D183.w6)
    • As a general guide, space requirements for the holding area (including aisles and human walking space) are six square feet per average 1 kg bird; larger birds may need more space. (D160.6.w6)
  • Additional smaller rooms are required for food preparation, necropsy/dead animal storage and general storage areas. (D160.6.w6, D183.w6)
  • Rooms are required for staff (rest/break room, office, area for briefings etc.) (B363.7.w7, D160.6.w6, J311.14.w1)
  • Areas are also needed for storing equipment, and for parking vehicles. (D183.w6)
  • The layout of the facility should separate oil-contaminated from uncontaminated areas, with a de-contamination area built in. This minimises cross-contamination from oil or disease. (D160.6.w6)
  • The layout of the facility should minimise auditory and visual disturbance (such as human movement and voices) to the animals in order to reduce stress. (D160.6.w6, J311.14.w1)
  • The layout of the facility should facilitate movement (flow) of animals from admission through all the stages of cleaning and rehabilitation to release, but minimise the potential for spread of infectious disease. (D133.5.w5, D159.III.w3, D160.6.w6, J29.8.w1, J312.16.w1, P24.335.w12)
    • The intake area should be by the entrance, so animals can be moved from transport vehicles into this area, with the pre-wash accommodation next to this, followed by the wash and rinse areas, then the post-wash holding areas leading to outdoor holding areas/pools. (D159.III.w3)
    • The animal food preparation area should be located centrally for access from the indoor and outdoor animal holding areas. (D159.III.w3)
    • The intensive care, isolation and laboratory areas should be easily accessible from the indoor holding areas, but with separate ventilation systems to minimise pathogen spread. (D133.5.w5, D159.III.w3)
    • The necropsy area/morgue should be placed peripherally or separately from the main rehabilitation facility, in order to minimise the risk of pathogen spread. (D133.5.w5, D159.III.w3)
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Water, Waste & Energy

"It is necessary to locate facilities that are capable of handling the water, sewage, and solid waste requirements of the operation." (D216.5.w5)


When large numbers of animals must be cleaned, large amounts of clean, hot, soft (2.0 to 3.0 grains hardness i.e. 30-50 mg calcium carbonate per litre) water are required. (D159.III.w3)

  • It is important not to underestimate the quantities of water required: 300 to 500 litres of hot running water may be needed to clean one bird of medium size. (B363.7.w7); 100 to 300 gallons may be required for a 1 kg bird. (D159.III.w3); 80-100 gallons on water at 103-105F are required over 20 minutes to wash one duck. (D32.1.w1)
  • Water pressure: For rinsing birds, water at 280-420 KPa (40-60 PSI) is required; water in washing and rinsing areas should be provided at this pressure while adequate pressure is also maintained to other areas needing water. (B363.7.w7, D159.III.w3) Water at 60-80 psi. (D183.w6)
  • Water quantity: Water pipes should be sufficient to provide continuous flow of four gallons per minute to all indoor outlets, plus an additional supply for outdoor pools, simultaneously, allowing for washing birds, doing laundry etc. (D160.6.w6)
    • Sufficient water is required to allow constant pool overflow/surface skimming (for surface cleaning), without disrupting water supply to other sections of the facilities. (D28, D159.III.w3)
    • A supply of 1,500 gallons per hour is suggested, noting that 150 gallons is required to wash and rinse one bird. (D60.7.w7)
    • Effectively "unlimited" water is required. (D183.w6)
  • Water temperature: Water for both washing and rinsing birds should be at 39-41C. (B363.7.w7, D183.w6); 104 to 106F (D159.III.w3)
    • On-demand water heaters are preferable for the quantities of hot water that are required. (D159.III.w3)
    • This can be provided using bottled gas for heating and a thermostat to maintain water at the correct temperature. (B363.7.w7)
    • The water supply for cleaning oiled animals may need to be totally separate from water used for other purposes, in order to ensure that the required temperature and pressure are maintained. (D28)
  • Water hardness: Water for washing and rinsing, and for pools (at least for the first several days after washing), should not be too hard: 30 to 50 mg calcium carbonate per liter (2.0 to 3.0 grains) is recommended. (B363.7.w7, B363.10.w10, D159.III.w3); two to five grains per gallon. (D160.6.w6)
    • If available water is harder, then water softeners may be used on taps. (B363.7.w7); water softening tablets may be used to soften water. (D214.2.w2)
  • Additionally, potable water must be available for humans. (D160.6.w6)
  • Note: The local water authority should be contacted to ensure that the proposed water use is acceptable. (D28)


Various wastes need to be disposed of including: (B363.7.w7, D183.w6, D183.w7)

  • Oily waste water;
  • Rinse water;
  • Pool water;
  • Oil-contaminated towels, rags, newspapers, transport boxes etc.;
  • Used syringes, gloves, Tyvek coveralls etc.;
  • Carcasses (unless these need to be kept);
  • Plastics, food scraps and other wastes from human activities and maintenance.

For all these there will generally be requirements for temporary storage on site, followed by arrangements for appropriate transport and disposal. (B363.7.w7, D159.III.w3 D160.6.w6, D183.w6)

  • Water may be able to be disposed of into sewers, or storage tanks may be required prior to disposal. (D183.w6)
  • For oily waste water, sufficient storage for three days worth of used water is recommended, plus a secondary container outside the main container, in case of any overflow. (D159.III.w3)
  • A foul drain capable of taking oily waste water is required. The local environmental health department should be consulted. (D60.7.w7)
    • If contaminated wash water cannot be released into the public waste water system, then temporary storage and transport to an appropriate waste site is required. (D214.2.w2)
  • Water runoff, including storm water, must be controlled to prevent it mixing with oily wastewater or with "grey water" from rinsing and pools. (D160.6.w6)
  • Relevant regulations/legislation must be followed regarding biological waste and carcass disposal, hazardous waste, general solid waste etc. (B375.2.w2, D159.III.w3, D160.6.w6, D183.w7)
  • Note: The local water authority should be contacted to ensure that the proposed waste water disposal is acceptable. (D28)
    • It may be possible to integrate disposal of wastes from oiled wildlife response together with those from other aspects of oil spill response. (D183.w7)
    • In the UK, the Environment Agency (SEPA in Scotland) and relevant Local Authority Environmental Health Department should be consulted regarding regulations for waste disposal, as well as information on waste minimisation and temporary waste storage and treatment areas. (D60.7.w7, D134)

Efforts should be made to minimise waste. (D183.w7) General information on oil spill waste minimisation is provided in Guidelines for Oil Spill Waste Minimization and Management- IPIECA Report Series Volume 12 (available in full).


  • Energy is required for heating water; electrical or gas energy may be used for this. (B363.7.w7, D159.III.w3, P62.1.w1)
    • On-demand gas powered water heaters are recommended. (D28, D214.2.w2)
    • Water needs to be heated to 42 C for washing. (D28)
  • Electricity is required for various equipment including refrigerators, freezers, water heaters, heat lamps, pet driers, miscellaneous veterinary equipment, washing machines, commercial pet dryers, pool pumps/filters, ventilation/air conditioning systems, lighting, computers and fax machines. (B363.7.w7, D159.III.w3, D160.6.w6, P62.1.w1)
  • Either mains or generator power is required. (D60.7.w7)
  • Since electricity will be used in areas with high water use, appropriate safety switches should installed in all areas where electrical circuits might be exposed to water. (B363.7.w7, D159.III.w3, D160.6.w6)
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Transportation & Communication

Adequate transportation and communication links are very important for effective response.


  • The facility should be close to transport routes, which may include good roads accessible in all weathers, an airport (if required for transport of oiled wildlife and/or staff), and/or boat access for delivery of rescued animals. (B363.7.w7, D214.4.w4)
  • The facility should be easily accessible for vehicles such as vans. (D60.7.w7)


  • The facility should have fixed telephone and fax lines. (B363.7.w7)
    • As a minimum there needs to be one telephone line or other means of communication, away from the wildlife housing and cleaning areas. (D183.w6)
  • There should be adequate telephone access, and a dedicated fax line. (D60.8.w8, D160.6.w6)
    • Separate telephone lines may be required, e.g. a switchboard number with several lines for dealing with general enquiries, and a restricted access number. (D60.8.w8)
  • There should be computers with internet access, to which rehabilitation personnel should have access. (D160.6.w6)
  • Communication should be maintained with all field capture teams and field stabilisation units, by mobile phone and/or radio, as appropriate. (D160.6.w6)
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Lighting, Temperature and Ventilation

Provision of light, ventilation and appropriate heating is always important in wildlife rehabilitation. In oiled wildlife response it is particularly important to ensure that the facility can provide adequate ventilation to avoid respiratory problems from petroleum fumes, and airborne diseases, while at the same time providing appropriate temperatures for casualties with impaired thermoregulatory abilities.


  • Consider lighting requirements, including what artificial lighting will be required in addition to available natural light. (J311.14.w1)


  • It is important to house oiled animals in an environment in which they can maintain their normal body temperature despite their reduced ability to thermoregulate. (B23.38.w2, D208.3.w3)
  • It should be possible to increase or decrease the temperature of individual enclosures and rooms as required. (D160.6.w6, J311.14.w1)
    • Note: More exact environmental control may be required for areas holding individuals which are recently arrived, neonates, and those with greater secondary effects of oiling, or other disease problems in addition to oiling. (D208.3.w3)
    • Great care is required to ensure that severely debilitated animals can access heat sources, but can also move away from heat sources to prevent overheating or thermal burns. (D208.3.w3)
  • All areas used for oiled birds up to and including washing should be held at 65 to 85F, with the temperature adjustable in 2F increments. This includes the intake, pre-wash housing and hospital areas. (D159.III.w3, D160.6.w6)
    • Maintenance at 24-29C/75-85F is recommended. (D183.w6)
  • Areas not used for casualties should be maintained at a temperature which meets human comfort requirements. (D160.6.w6)


Adequate ventilation is always important in animal housing. It is particularly important for oiled wildlife response, in order to:

  • Reduce inhalation of petroleum fumes by animals and personnel;
  • Reduce the risk of aspergillosis;
  • Reduce transmission of other air borne diseases;
  • Reduce humidity;
  • Reduce odours.

(B23.38.w2, B363.7.w7, D183.w6, D208.3.w3)

  • N.B. Oiled birds are often immune compromised due to both oil exposure and stress, therefore they are more prone to developing infectious diseases. (J29.8.w1)
  • A minimum of 10 to 15 air exchanges per hour (i.e. a complete air change about every five minutes) is optimal for all areas used for animals, to minimise disease risks as well as odours. (B32.38.w2, B363.7.w7, D133.5.w5, D159.III.w3, D160.6.w6, D208.3.w3, J29.8.w1, J311.14.w1)
    • Fixed or portable exhaust fans may be required to provide this. (B363.7.w7)
    • Doorways and windows left open but covered with fly-screen wire may assist in providing the required ventilation. (B363.7.w7)
  • All rooms should also be free from draughts. (B23.38.w2)
  • For areas used by humans only, at least eight air changes per hour is optimum. (D160.6.w6)
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Cleaning and Disinfection

Effective cleaning, disinfection and sterilisation of all objects used for treatment is key in preventing disease transmission. (B375.2.w2, , D160.5.w5)
  • Consistent cleaning technique and cleaning frequency assists in maintenance of optimal cleanliness throughout the facility. (B375.2.w2, D160.5.w5)
  • Floors and walls of rooms used for housing oiled animals, both pre- and post-washing, should be easily cleanable and washable. (D28, J311.14.w1)
    • Floors should have inbuilt drains. (J311.14.w1)
  • Papers placed under net-bottom pens should be changed at least twice daily. (D160.5.w5)
  • In pools, the whole water volume should turnover at least once every four hours. (D160.5.w5)
  • Transport cages, holding pens and equipment used for restraint of animals should be cleaned (e.g. with steam cleaning outdoors) after use. (D160.5.w5)
  • Note: Training personnel in cleaning procedures helps to make the use of these procedures routine. (D160.5.w5)


  • Disinfectants need to be used in conjunction with, not instead of, thorough cleaning. (P4.1998.w1)
  • Thorough cleaning, followed by use of the lowest concentration of the least aggressive disinfectant effective for destruction of residual target organisms, is recommended for minimising health effects on personnel and animals, and environmental effects. (P4.1998.w1)
  • It is important to remember that there is no ideal disinfectant. (P4.1998.w1)
    • Disinfectants used should be chosen based on the pathogens which are likely to occur. (D160.5.w5)
    • Consideration should be given, in choosing a disinfectant, to the possibilities of disinfectants causing harm to animals or damaging the materials they are used on. (P4.1998.w1)
    • Choice of disinfectant also depends on the time it is practical to leave the disinfectant to work. (P4.1998.w1)


  • To minimise the risk of spreading disease, effective quarantine protocols must be used. These include (D208.3.w3):
    • Foot baths between housing areas;
    • Changing gloves between animals;
    • Designating equipment (e.g. feeding equipment, cleaning equipment) for particular areas;
    • Minimising movement of animals between housing areas/pens;
    • Minimising movement of personnel between housing areas/pens. 


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Pest and Predator Control

Potential pests and predators should be considered and measures put in place to control these.
  • Plans should be developed and implemented for control of both rodent and insect pests. (D160.6.w6)
  • A plan should be developed and implemented to ensure that predators are kept out of the facilities. (D160.6.w6)
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Areas/Facilities Required

Areas for Staff 

It is important to ensure that the facility contains appropriate areas to accommodate personnel and their needs. (J311.14.w1)

Areas will need to be available for:

  • Registration of staff and volunteers;
  • Induction and training;
  • Briefing and reporting meetings;
  • Media liaison;
  • Record keeping;
  • Staff lunch/dinner/break times;
  • First aid;

Additionally there will need to be toilets, rest areas and an area for human food preparation and storage

(B363.7.w7, D160.6.w6)

Note: Arrangements will be required for feeding of volunteers and for accommodation of personnel brought in from outside the immediate areas. (D60.7.w7)

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Admission Area

The admission area should be located at the entrance to the facility, allowing animals to be moved directly from transport vehicles into the admission area. (B363.7.w7, D133.5.w5, D159.III.w3)
  • Sufficient space is required to hold several people as well as a number of birds. (B363.7.w7)
  • This area should be well ventilated, and should be maintained at approximately 25C. (B363.7.w7)
  • One intake station (for intake and initial stabilisation) requires 40 square feet of space and can evaluate about 40 birds per day. (D159.III.w3)
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Initial Treatment & Veterinary Area

Ideally, this area should be located between the admission area and rehabilitation areas, so that it is easily accessible from both.
  • This area must provide a comfortable working area for the veterinary team or teams: four or five veterinary teams may be used in a large response. (B363.7.w7)
  • Each veterinary team, made up of an experienced avian/wildlife veterinary surgeon plus an experienced veterinary nurse/technician or wildlife rehabilitator, may be able to process up to about 50 or 60 birds per day. This will depend on the condition of the casualties and on other demands on veterinary time, such as ongoing needs of casualties which are already in the facility. (B363.7.w7, D159.III.w3)

Each veterinary team requires:

  • Treatment table
  • Shelving for drugs and equipment.
  • (B363.7.w7)

Additionally, a small room is required which has sufficient space to act as a field laboratory. It must be able to hold microscopes and centrifuges, with enough room for personnel to work at these. (B363.7.w7)

The veterinary and laboratory areas ideally should be easily accessible from the animal housing areas but have separate ventilation systems to minimise the risks of pathogen transmission. (D133.5.w5)

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Indoor Holding Areas

Indoor holding areas are required to house casualties before they are washed, and after washing before they reach a suitable state for outdoor housing. Additionally, an intensive care area is required. (B363.7.w7)
  • Housing needs to be escape-proof, maximise safety for the species being held, and minimise visual stress. (D133.5.w5, D208.3.w3)
  • Indoor holding areas should be away from other areas where human activity is taking place, in order to minimise disturbance from human activity. (B363.7.w7, D133.5.w5, D208.3.w3)
  • Indoor holding areas need to be dividable, to provide housing for different species, avoiding mixing species, and to allow separation of birds in different states of health. (D28, B363.7.w7)
  • Approximately one square metre of space will be required per housed bird. (B363.7.w7)
  • For 20 birds a pen of 4 ft by 8 ft by 4 ft is required; together with workspace about 96 square feet is required per pen. (D159.III.w3)
  • A pen 2.5 m by 2.5 m (8ft by 8ft) will hold about eight to ten medium-sized gregarious birds. (D214.2.w2)


Correct substrates are essential to avoid the development of secondary problems such as bumblefoot in oiled birds, as well as to prevent traumatic injuries to humans due to slipping and falling on slippery floors. (B363.7.w7)

Suitable substrates include: (B363.7.w7)

  • Suspended cotton matting
  • Soft rubber matting
  • Clean, dry sand
  • Turf
  • Newspaper (for very short-term use only)

Unsuitable substrates include: (B363.7.w7)

  • Tiles
  • Concrete (very smooth concrete may be used for a short time only)
  • Nylon carpet
  • Straw, hay (due to harbouring Aspergillus spores)
  • Permanently wet or soiled floor of any type.

Pre-wash holding area

This area is used for housing birds between admission and washing.

  • The area/room should be well ventilated, able to be maintained at a constant warm temperature, and preferably adaptable for housing different species. The floor and walls should be washable. (D28)
  • An ambient temperature of about 25 C is appropriate. (B363.7.w7) About 27 C (J312.16.w1)
  • Note: Oiled birds will preen less, and therefore ingest less oil, if they are kept at a warm ambient temperature. (B363.7.w7)

Appropriate pens are required. 

  • Pens must: (B363.7.w7, D159.III.w3)
    • Be sufficiently large to allow the bird to stand up and to freely stretch its wings and neck
    • Not have any sharp protrusions on the inside or the outside
    • Give adequate ventilation
    • Give adequate light
    • Provide protection from draughts
    • Provide protection from predators.
  • Children's play pens may be useful when pens are needed in an emergency: they are quick to put up and easy to wash after use. (D214.2.w2)
  • Net-bottom cages are most appropriate for pelagic birds and for other birds which normally have very limited mobility on land (e.g. grebes)(D133.5.w5, D135.7.w7, D159.III.w3 , J29.8.w1, J312.16.w1)
    • A clean foam floor may be used if net bottom cages are not available. (D135.7.w7, D214.2.w2) and for individuals with severe weakness or foot/leg injury causing very limited mobility on land. (B363.9.w9)
  • Appropriate perches should be provided for perching birds. (P24.335.w12)

Housing may be individual or group, depending on the species and the state of health of the birds:

  • Note that for social species, if the birds are alert and stable they may be housed in groups. (B363.7.w7)
  • Weak and debilitated birds must be housed individually to prevent additional stress from aggressive behaviour, and to reduce risk of transmission of pathogens from ill to healthy individuals. (B363.7.w7)
  • Individuals of solitary and predatory species must always be housed individually. (B363.7.w7)

Intensive care area

  • This area is used for housing weak, debilitated and ill birds. (B363.7.w7)
Isolation/Quarantine area
  • This area, for holding birds which have or are suspected of having an infectious disease, needs separate air ventilation to the rest of the treatment facility. (D133.5.w5)

Post-washing indoor holding area

Following washing, housing indoors will be required until the casualties are sufficiently stable to be moved to outside holding areas. (B363.7.w7)

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Cleaning Facilities

Areas are required for washing, rinsing and drying oiled animals. (B363.7.w7, D28, D159.III.w3, D160.6.w6)
  • If possible, separate washing and rinsing areas should be provided, to minimise the risk of cleaned birds becoming recontaminated with oil. (B363.7.w7)
  • The size of the wash and rinse areas needed depends on the expected daily throughput of birds. (B363.7.w7)
  • As a guide, about 300 square metres will be required to allow washing of about 80 birds per day. (B363.7.w7)
    • One wash station plus one rinse station, to wash 16 birds per day, requires about 100 square feet. (D159.III.w3)
  • The floor covering should be non-slip in wet conditions. (B363.7.w7)
    • Appropriate matting, such as that used behind bars in pubs, or in other wet working areas, may be obtained from hospitality suppliers. (B363.7.w7)

This area will need to be able to contain:

  • Several large sinks
  • Large tables for washing (at least three)
  • Several rinsing stations.
(B363.7.w7, D28)

Storage will be required for:

  • Buckets
  • Detergent
  • Gloves
  • Thermometers
  • etc.
  • (B363.7.w7)

Drying room:

  • A separate room is needed for drying birds, with washable walls and floor, and able to be maintained at a warm temperature while providing good ventilation. (D28)
    • For drying, a 4 ft by 8 ft by 4 ft pen will hold about eight birds and each pen will require about 96 square feet, including workspace. (D159.III.w3)
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Post-washing Outdoor Rehabilitation Facilities

Post-wash areas are required for animals which have been washed and successfully treated for any other problems, and need to regain condition, waterproofing and muscle tone ready for release. (B363.7.w7)
  • Housing for cleaned birds should be separate from that for oiled birds, to prevent recontamination. (D214.2.w2)
  • There should be a restricted-access perimeter around outdoor areas. (D160.6.w6)
  • Housing should be escape-proof, safe for the species and minimise visual stress for the occupants. (D133.5.w5, D208.3.w3)
  • Double door security entrances are recommended for aviaries holding flighted birds, to minimise the risk of escapes. (B363.7.w7, D133.5.w5)


  • The outdoor area required is likely to be at least the size of all the indoor areas combined, and possibly larger. (D160.6.w6)
  • More space allows more exercise. (B363.7.w7)
  • For most species, sufficient space should be provided for flight. (B363.7.w7)
    • This will not be possible for large birds such as gannets (B363.7.w7), geese or swans. 
    • Flight space is required to show that birds can fly before they are released. (D160.6.w6)
  • As a guide, an aviary about 5 by 10 metres will be adequate for up to 25 medium sized birds. (B363.7.w7); a deep pool 12 ft by 4 ft will hold about 15 birds; about 200 square feet are required for each such pool. (D159.III.w3)


  • Water should be provided for wading and/or swimming, as appropriate. (B363.7.w7)
  • It is important to remember that many water birds will not preen on land. (B363.7.w7)
  • Children's paddling pools may provide sufficient water for species such as ducks, gulls and terns. (B363.7.w7)
  • For testing waterproofing, large above-ground swimming pools are required. (B363.7.w7)
  • The size of pools required will vary depending on the species and their waterproof testing criteria. (D160.6.w6)
  • Extra deep pools are needed for diving species. (B363.7.w7)
  • As a minimum, for medium-sized aquatic birds (e.g. guillemots), a testing pool of two to three metres square and 0.4 m deep, with surface skimming, walls, and netted over, will be required. (D28)


  • Different perches are suitable for different species.
  • High perches are required for herons and similar species, and for birds of prey.
  • Half-submerged logs/branches are useful for cormorants and some ducks. 
  • Rocks emerging from the water will be used by cormorants, gulls and terns and auks. 

(B197.15.w15, B363.7.w7, D135.9.w9, D137, D160.App4.w12)


  • Bunches of leafy branches, suspended just above the water, will provide shelter which is particularly appreciated by e.g. small waders/shorebirds and ducks. (B363.7.w7, P24.327.w4, P24.335.w12)
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Large Pools

These are used for testing the state of waterproofing of rehabilitated oiled birds. (B363.7.w7)
  • Pools of about four metres to a side, or five meters in diameter, are recommended. (B363.7.w7)
  • Constant surface skimming should be used to skim off any oil (including oils from fish fed to the birds). (B363.7.w7)
  • A constant flow out of the pool and/or pumps will be required. (B363.7.w7)
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Wildlife Food Preparation and Storage Area

In the event of a large spill, hundreds or even thousands of birds may need to be fed, often including many fish eating birds. Shorebirds may require live food. (B363.7.w7)
  • Consideration should be given to storage requirements for several days worth of food, unless daily supplies can be guaranteed. (B363.7.w7)
  • Refrigerators, freezers and airtight containers may be required to prevent food from spoiling or becoming contaminated. (D28, D160.5.w5)
  • The temperature of food handling areas, refrigerators, freezers and tubs used for thawing fish need to be monitored if food quality is to be maintained. D160.5.w5)

An area of approximately 100 to 200 square meters has been suggested. (B363.7.w7); about 300 square feet of space is required, more may be needed in a large spill event. (D159.III.w3)

This area needs to contain:

  • Refrigerators;
  • Freezers;
  • Tables for food preparation;
  • Cold and hot running water;
  • Shelves to store buckets, medications, food dishes.

(B363.7.w7, D60.7.w7)


  • Personnel handling and preparing food should always wash their hands before and after handling food. (D160.5.w5)
  • All utensils and containers used in food preparation need to be thoroughly cleaned and disinfected after each use. (D160.5.w5)


  • A reliable supply of appropriate food, particularly fish, needs to be identified, including allowance for seasonal variation in supply of fish. (D60.7.w7, D214.2.w2)

Storage areas are also required for other supplies including newspapers, mops etc. (D60.7.w7)

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Laundry Facilities & Decontamination

A designated area is required in which contaminated clothing, equipment and medical waste can be stored prior to decontamination or disposal as appropriate. (D135.2.w2, D160.2.w2)

Decontamination area:

  • A decontamination area is required, away from bird holding areas. (D160.6.w6)


  • Towels and rags used for wiping oil from birds, for wrapping around freshly rinsed birds, for safe handling of birds, and for lining small isolation cages, all need to be washed. (B363.7.w7)
    • This may be done on-site, in which case commercial size washing and drying machines will be needed during a large-scale response, or it may be possible to arrange for a local commercial company to undertake this. (B363.7.w7)
  • Separate facilities for washing staff clothing may also be needed, particularly in isolated areas. (B363.7.w7)
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Post mortem Facilities & Storage of Dead Animals

A small room should be set aside for necropsy. (D159.III.w3, B363.7.w7)

This will hold:

  • Table on which post mortem examinations will be carried out.
  • Bench space for equipment
  • Space for storage of samples.
  • (B363.7.w7)

About 250 square feet may be required. (D159.III.w3)

  • Refrigerators (for short term storage prior to necropsy) and freezers should be available nearby. (B363.7.w7)
  • Both dead birds and samples may need to be stored as evidence. (B363.7.w7)
  • Carcasses may be wanted for research. If not, then once no longer needed as evidence, they must be disposed of according to local regulations. (B363.7.w7)
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Personnel and Training

Personnel Required

However good the facilities, for optimal results wild animals affected by an oil spill need to be cared for by an adequate number of people. 
  • For personnel (both staff and volunteers) to be effective, they must be trained as appropriate for their responsibilities, and they must take care of themselves - take adequate breaks and rest days, eat properly and drink enough water. (B363.2.w2, B363.3.w3, D160.2.w2, P14.5.w13)

Personnel involved in oiled wildlife response may include: 

  • Experienced individuals trained to internationally accepted standards of oiled wildlife response, and with appropriate experience in such response;
  • Trained wildlife rehabilitators, who may have more or less experience in treatment of oiled wildlife;
  • Wildlife veterinarians;
  • Volunteers with variable amounts of training and experience.

Personnel involved in oiled wildlife response need to be supervised by staff with appropriate training and experience in:

  • Natural history;
  • Wildlife medicine;
  • Wildlife husbandry;
  • Facility management during a crisis;
  • Counteracting the effects of oil on wild animals;
  • Human health concerns when dealing with petroleum oil products.


Need for experienced personnel:

  • Experienced, trained personnel are required to oversee, conduct and lead search and collection activities, field stabilisation (if required), transportation activities, and all aspects of care, cleaning and rehabilitation. (D159.III.w3, D220)
  • Triage should be carried out by an experienced veterinarian, an experienced veterinary nurse or an experienced wildlife rehabilitator. (P24.327.w4)
  • In addition to the needs for personnel in hands-on care, appropriately trained and adequate personnel are also required to handle other aspects of the oiled wildlife response such as logistics, recruitment and organisation of volunteers, communication with media and the public and liaison with other areas of the general oil spill response.

Role of wildlife rehabilitators:

  • Trained wildlife responders, preferably local experts in the care of oiled wildlife, should undertake the hands-on care and rehabilitation of oiled wildlife. Key personnel should be trained to internationally accepted standards of oiled wildlife response. If there are no suitably trained personnel available locally or nationally, then international experts are required. (D183.w9)
  • Wildlife rehabilitators are committed individuals with experience, gained through regularly working with wild animals, in caring for the variety of species which may be oiled in a spill and identifying and meeting their behavioural, dietary and physical needs, to get each individual animal to a healthy, releasable condition. The importance of their expertise for successful oiled wildlife response should not be underestimated. (P14.4.w9)
  • While most local rehabilitation groups are unlikely to be able to handle a large oiled wildlife response without assistance, they do play a very important role in response efforts. (P14.5.w13)

Role of veterinarians:

  • At least one veterinarian should be available to provide veterinary supervision during all aspects of the oiled wildlife response. (D159.III.w3)
  • The primary responsibility of the veterinarian is the health and welfare of the oiled animals, including ensuring that "all animals are treated humanely and that no unnecessary, unreasonable or unjustifiable pain or suffering is caused to animals." (P24.335.w12)
  • Responsibilities of a veterinarian include:
    • Provision of emergency treatment for casualties, and the diagnosis and treatment of disease and injury. (P24.327.w4, P24.335.w12)
    • Triage, where large numbers of casualties are involved. (B363.8.w8, D159.III.w3, P24.327.w4, P24.335.w12)
      • Triage decisions may be made by the veterinarian and wildlife rehabilitators working together. (D159.III.w3)
    • Performing or supervising euthanasia, when required. (P24.335.w12)
      • The supervising veterinarian will be responsible for use of controlled substances such as euthanasia solution. (D159.III.w3)
    • Performing or supervising necropsy and collection of appropriate samples for pathological and toxicological examinations. (P24.335.w12)
    • Performing or supervising collection of samples for studies on e.g. genetics, pollutants, parasites etc., as requested. (P24.335.w12)
      • Note: the veterinarian has a responsibility to ensure that the welfare and care of each individual animal is put ahead of the interests of researchers or museums wishing for samples/specimens. (P24.335.w12)
    • Provision of advice on nutrition. (P24.335.w12)
    • Provision of advice on potential disease threats and disease prevention, including measures to reduce the risks of disease. (P24.327.w4, P24.335.w12)
    • Advice on, and prevention of, zoonotic disease and animal-associated injuries. (P24.335.w12)
    • Clinical (health) assessment of casualties prior to release. (P24.327.w4, P24.335.w12) 
      • Veterinary assessment occurs alongside assessment by experienced wildlife rehabilitators. (D159.III.w3)
      • The veterinarian should consider the potential for threats to the wild population from released individuals, as well as the health of the individuals being released. (P24.335.w12)
    • Maintaining veterinary medical records. (D159.III.w3, P24.335.w12)
    • N.B. The supervising veterinarian does not necessarily need to be present during all bird treatment and care. (D159.III.w3)
    • While the veterinarian may become involved with and be asked to advise on aspects of general oiled wildlife cleaning and care, at large spills in particular this is not a major veterinary role. Veterinarians involved in oiled wildlife response should endeavour to develop knowledge of oiled wildlife cleaning and rehabilitation, so that they can provide appropriate supervision or advice if requested to do so. (P24.335.w12)
  • Note:
    • Licensing requirements for veterinarians vary between countries and e.g. between states in the USA. It is important to check on the requirements for licensing if veterinarians are assisting at an oiled wildlife response in a state/country in which they do not usually practice. (V.w5)
    • There may be variations between countries in what constitutes a "veterinary procedure" which must be carried out by, or directly supervised by, a veterinarian. (V.w5)

Role of volunteers:

Volunteers can provide critical manpower assistance to oiled wildlife response efforts. (B335.13.w13, D183.w7, P14.5.w5, P14.5.w13)
  • Suitable volunteers are likely to be required in large oiled wildlife response, particularly volunteers who already have experience with oiled wildlife response. (D60.7.w7, D214.2.w2)
  • The roles volunteers may fill will vary greatly between spills, particularly depending on the size of the spill. (B363.3.w3)
  • Volunteers with skills other than those of wildlife rehabilitation (joiners, plumbers, electricians etc.) are useful. (D60.7.w7)
  • Note: Registers should be maintained of experienced volunteers, including details of their areas of expertise, so that they can be contacted if required for assistance at future spills. (D60.9.w9, D214.4.w4)
  • Volunteers should commit to a specified number of work shifts per week during an oiled wildlife response. (D32.2.w2)
  • Activities which volunteers may undertake include: (B363.3.w3, D60.8.w8, D214.4.w4)
    • Collection of oiled wildlife.
    • Transportation of oiled casualties (live and dead) from the spill site to the response centre, and within the response facility.
    • Species identification (for volunteers with special knowledge, e.g. local ornithologists).
    • Assisting with cleaning oiled birds.
    • Data entry and record keeping.
    • Compiling data for media releases and bulletin boards.
    • Maintaining rosters.
    • Food preparation for casualties.
    • Construction of facilities, enclosures, pens etc. 
    • Cleaning of enclosures and pools.
    • Assisting in supervision of birds during swim tests.
    • General maintenance of facilities and equipment ("handy man" jobs).
    • Organising supplies.
    • Answering telephones.
    • Running general errands.

    (B363.3.w3, D60.8.w8, D214.4.w4)

Note: some of these activities require more training/experience than other activities. See section below: Staff and Volunteer Training

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Volunteer Management

Management of volunteers is an important component of oiled wildlife response (D9); a volunteer coordinator is useful if volunteers are to be used and provides a central person to whom volunteers can bring questions. (B363.3.w3, D159.III.w3)
  • N.B. It is important that, if euthanasia/triage of oiled wildlife is required, the need for this is explained to volunteers. (D220)
  • Local volunteers may be preferred as they generally have available accommodation and may be available for longer periods than volunteers from further away. Additionally, local volunteers may assist in community liaison. (B363.3.w3)
    • Including local volunteers in oiled wildlife response efforts provides a safe way for members of the local community to participate in the oil spill response. (D183.w5)
  • It is important to recognise that over the time course of the response, volunteer support may decrease; it may become more difficult to activate sufficient personnel and care will be needed not to overwork those volunteers which do still assist. (P14.5.w13)
  • Efforts should be made to manage, care for and appreciate volunteers; this minimises losses of trained workers and maximises response capability. (D183.w6)
Volunteers and health & safety:
  • Volunteers must be made aware of the risks of the work in which they are involved, and should sign a form indicating this awareness. (D183.w7)
  • Volunteers should be instructed regarding human health and safety concerns. (D214.2.w2)
  • All volunteers need to be provided with appropriate training and personal protective equipment. (D183.w5)
  • Volunteers working on beaches need to be fully aware of what to do if weather conditions deteriorate. (D183.w7)
  • Volunteers working on beaches should be informed about the signs of possible health problems in themselves and other individuals. (D183.w7)
  • Volunteers must be given appropriate instruction regarding the potential hazards associated with handling wild animals, including zoonoses. (D27)
  • Volunteers should be neither asked nor permitted to handle any animal which is beyond their known capabilities to handle safely. (D27)
  • Volunteers should always be able to refer to experienced personnel for help and instruction. (D27)
  • A risk assessment needs to be carried out to evaluate the potential involvement of volunteers in any individual oil spill situation. (B363.3.w3)
  • Appropriate insurance for volunteers should be considered, and rehabilitation centres should consider public liability insurance. (D27)
  • As part of induction, volunteers should sign appropriate liability waivers. (D32.2.w2)
  • Volunteers should be made aware of the need for personal responsibility for their actions, including a responsibility to report accidents. (D183.w6)
  • Checks should be made that all volunteers have current tetanus vaccination. (D32.2.w2)
  • Age limits may be set, with e.g. individuals under the age of 16 or 18 not permitted to volunteer [the age limit may vary between countries]. (B363.2.w2, D32.2.w2, D133.1.w1)
General management:
  • Ensure that volunteers sign in and out at the start and end of their shifts. (D32.2.w2) 
    • Daily registers should show when each volunteer started and finished work as well as where they worked. (D183.w7)
  • Volunteers should be directed to appropriate work areas. (D32.2.w2)
  • Volunteers should have the management structure of the response centre explained and know how to identify supervisors and trained personnel. (D159.III.w3)
  • Ensure that all volunteers know who their supervisor is. (P14.6.w2)
  • Volunteers must have well defined responsibilities and duties. (D27)
    • Volunteers should not be allowed to move between jobs without authorisation. (D183.w7)
  • Volunteers should be allocated jobs for which they have appropriate training/experience. (D183.w6)
  • Volunteers must be given appropriate training. (D183.w5) See below: Staff & Volunteer Training
  • Volunteers should be encouraged to ask questions if they are unsure about what they are doing. (P14.6.w2)

  • Sufficient accommodation and catering should be provided; the requirements will vary depending on the size of the response and volunteer involvement. (D183.w7, D159.III.w3)
  • A rest area must be provided and stocked with appropriate meals/snacks. (D32.2.w2)
  • The number of hours for which volunteers may work per day, and the number of days for which volunteers may work before having a break, should be set out in the response plan. (D183.w7)
  • Rest breaks should be arranged for tired individuals. (D32.2.w2)
  • It is important for managers to remember that volunteers may find oiled wildlife response operations very stressful, and to monitor the behaviour of volunteers for signs of such stress. (D183.w7)
    • Stressed volunteers should be sent home and/or have rest days facilitated. (D32.2.w2, P14.6.w2)
    • Consider giving stressed volunteers a change of job to decrease their stress or allow them to feel more effective. (P14.6.w2)
    • See: Human Health and Zoonoses in Oiled Wildlife Response - Psychological Hazards
  • Volunteers should be kept informed about the progress of the response (D159.III.w3, P14.6.w2) and, if possible, included in positive events such as release of rehabilitated animals. (P14.6.w2)

Volunteers and problems: (D133.1.w1)

  • Volunteers should bring to the attention of their supervisor any concerns about feeling inadequately trained for duties requested or if they feel they have been dealt with in an unfair or inappropriate way. (D133.1.w1)
  • If a volunteer has a problem with their supervisor then they should express their concerns to the volunteer coordinator. (D133.1.w1)
Thanking volunteers:
  • Volunteers benefit from knowing, on an ongoing basis, that their efforts are worthwhile, appreciated and are not taken for granted. The volunteer coordinator should ensure that volunteers are appreciated and know that they are appreciated. (V.w5)
  • Volunteers should be thanked for their efforts. Appropriate methods of indicating appreciation include an advert in a local paper, letters of appreciation to all those who donated services (or equipment), and a token of thanks (e.g. a T-shirt). (D60.8.w8)
  • A report, summarising the oiled wildlife response effort, should be produced after the response is completed; this should include thanks to all those who assisted by volunteering or donating, and sent to volunteers and donors, as well as to the media. (D32.2.w2)
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Staff and Volunteer Training

It is important that all personnel involved in oiled wildlife response, both professionals and volunteers, are properly trained for the activities they will undertake.

Training should include: (D32.2.w2)

  • An overview of the effects of oil on wild animals (internal and external effects);
  • The basic components of a major oil spill response;
  • The specific responsibilities of sections of the response such as animal cleaning, post-washing care (rehabilitation) and logistics;
  • Understanding the health and safety aspects of oiled wildlife response.


  • All personnel should have the importance of cleanliness and quarantine explained. (B363.Intro.w21)
  • Personnel should be trained in the proper use and limitations of personal protective equipment. (B335.14.w14, B363.2.w2, V.w5)

See Human Health and Zoonoses in Oiled Wildlife Response for further information on health and safety in oiled wildlife response.

Staff training:

  • Named individuals of organisations with statutory obligations towards oiled wildlife response should receive appropriate training to improve the skills they will require to fulfill their role in the response, and should participate in exercises. (D183.w9)
  • Key personnel with responsibility for the hands-on sections of the oiled wildlife response should receive training to internationally accepted standards of oiled wildlife care. (D183.w9)
  • Participation in oil spill training sessions and exercises is recommended for individuals who may have the necessary skills to manage a wildlife emergency, but are unfamiliar with general oil spill response. (D183.w9)
    • Similarly, key experienced wildlife rehabilitators, even those skilled at cleaning and rehabilitating individual oiled wildlife casualties, should be given training by professional oiled wildlife responders, and oil spill management training, since oiled wildlife response in a spill situation involves additional skills. (D183.w9)
  • Personnel in supervisory positions need to have appropriate training for their position, including adequate levels of training in wildlife care and practical experience in oiled wildlife response. (D133.2.w2, D159.III.w3)
    • Training for personnel in supervisory positions needs to include appropriate health and safety training, such as HAZCOM training in the USA. (D133.2.w2)
  • Personnel need to be trained in specific tasks of rescue and rehabilitation. (D160.2.w2)
  • Personnel working in oiled wildlife rehabilitation need training and experience of oiled wildlife rehabilitation and washing, as well as (in the US) HAZCOM training. (D159.III.w3)
  • Before being allowed to participate in activities, all personnel must be trained to recognize, and minimize risk of, injuries/disease from oil-related and physical hazards associated with oiled wildlife response operations. (D160.2.w2)
    • Legal requirements and recommendations regarding courses and number of hours of training will vary geographically and depending on the activities the individual will be involved in. (D160.2.w2)
  • Training is recommended and may be required for:
    • Working in a hazardous site (i.e. in oil spill rescue and rehabilitation operations): HAZWOPER training is required in the USA. (D160.2.w2)
    • Working in an Incident Command Center. (D160.2.w2)
    • Deterrence operations. (D160.2.w2)
      • Specific training is required for personnel using firearms or pyrotechnics. (D160.2.w2)
    • Capture and handling of animals.
      • Search and collection personnel need to have training in animal handling, recognition of normal and oiled wildlife, oiled wildlife rehabilitation and appropriate training for working in a hazardous area (HAZWOPER training in the USA) as well as appropriate safety training for use of boats and all-terrain vehicles. (D159.III.w3)
        • Specific training is required for handling of difficult species. (D183.w5)
        • Specific training is required for e.g. capture of Enhydra lutris - Sea otter using special equipment (D208.2.w2)
        • At least one person in any team working in the field should be certified in human First Aid, including CPR. (D160.2.w2)
        • Appropriate training should be given to personnel involved with search and collection operations to ensure that they can cope safely with potential hazards associated with that section of the response. (D133.2.w2)
    • Field stabilisation of oiled wildlife casualties. (D160.2.w2)
    • Washing of oiled wildlife casualties. (D28, D160.2.w2)
    • Operation of a boat. (D160.2.w2)
    • Driving vehicles, including transport vehicles, ATVs etc. (B363.Intro.w21, D133.3.w3, D159.III.w3)
  • Individuals who will be working in small aircraft (e.g. carrying out surveys) should have completed basic aviation safety training. (D160.2.w2)
  • Individuals in management/supervisor positions should have supervisory and crisis management training in addition to rehabilitation, oiled wildlife cleaning, and First Aid training. (D160.2.w2)
  • Personnel working in wildlife casualty intake and initial care need to have the appropriate veterinary training for conducting physical examinations, carrying out gavage, and make correct decisions regarding euthanasia of animals which are severely debilitated. (D159.III.w3)
  • "All staff and volunteer oiled wildlife volunteers working at the Bird Rehabilitation Center should be OSHA certified, or have equivalent hazardous materials training necessary for working with oiled wildlife within the facility and the ability to interpret a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) on the petroleum product spilled (Tseng, 1999). Rehabilitation Managers should have knowledge of and be trained in the following categories: Incident Command System, Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response (HAZWOPER), oiled wildlife rehabilitation skills, crisis management, supervisory training, first aid/CPR, and media relations (USFWS, 2001). Search and collection personnel should be trained in the following categories: Incident Command System, Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response (HAZWOPER), oiled wildlife rehabilitation skills, and first aid/CPR. Other rehabilitation workers should have knowledge of and have HAZCOM training, basic oiled wildlife rehabilitation and bird washing skills." (D159.III.w3)
Training volunteers:
  • All volunteers need to be given appropriate orientation and safety training appropriate for the task and the location of their work. (D183.w5)
  • Volunteers require training in order to be most useful. In many circumstances this training is not easily provided during an emergency situation (such as an oil spill). (D214.2.w2)
  • Individuals who wish to volunteer should preferably approach their local wildlife rehabilitation organisation and get training and hands-on experience so that, in the event of an emergency, they can assist effectively. (D214.2.w2)
    • Training programmes for volunteers, and yearly refresher courses, "should be an integral part of a rehabilitation facility." (B335.13.w13)
  • If possible, training programmes should be established for volunteers so that, in the event of a spill, trained volunteers will be available. (D32.2.w2, D214.4.w4)
    • Persons presenting themselves for such training have to demonstrate a willingness to make themselves available in the event of a spill. (D214.2.w2)
    • Pre-trained volunteers should have an increased understanding of the importance of all aspects of oiled wildlife care and be more willing therefore to undertake tasks which untrained individuals may see as "menial". (D214.2.w2, D214.4.w4)
  • Each volunteer should be trained in at least two areas of oiled wildlife response and, in the event of a spill, assigned to operations for which they have been specifically trained. (D214.2.w2)
  • During the spill response specific information needed by volunteers includes: (B363.3.w3)
    • What to bring to the site (e.g. whether food and drinks are provided or should be brought with);
    • Where personal belongings can be stored safely;
    • Who the volunteer should report to, and can contact to ask for clarification about specific tasks;
    • How tasks can be carried out safely;
    • Where amenities such as toilets, wash facilities and a lunch or rest room are found;
    • Where the First Aid facilities are;
    • Any conditions which might put a limit on their involvement (see: Human Health and Zoonoses in Oiled Wildlife Response)


On-site training & briefing:

This is particularly important in the first days of the response. (B363.3.w3)
  • An induction pack should be given to all personnel, providing relevant information about the spill together with health and safety information. (B363.3.w3)
  • Briefing should include: (B363.3.w3, P14.6.w2)
    • Information about the spill, including the type of oil and the number and species of wildlife casualties;
    • A summary of the effects of oil on wildlife;
    • Possible toxic effects of oil on people;
    • Safety procedure information;
    • Demonstration of safe handling techniques;
    • An explanation of the command structure being used; (see: Oil Spill Teamwork and Command Structure - Oiled Wildlife Response Command Structure)
    • Explanations, as required, of the duties involved in each job;
    • Where to sign on and off for duty;
    • The location of amenities;
    • The location of First Aid facilities;
    • Catering and accommodation arrangements, as appropriate;
    • The work roster;
    • Whether private photography/video is required;
    • Limits on commenting to local media (see: Oil Spill Teamwork and Command Structure - Communication with the media)

    (B363.3.w3, P14.6.w2)

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Authors & Referees

Authors Debra Bourne MA VetMB PhD MRCVS (V.w5)
Referee Dr Virginia Pierce (V.w73)

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