- Rapidly forming ice, particularly overnight while
birds are roosting on water, may trap birds. This is most likely to be seen with a sudden
- Where there is a hole in ice but large surface
areas are ice covered, ducks diving may become trapped underneath the ice and drown. This
may be more of a hazard for young inexperienced ducks or those in areas where such icing
over is uncommon.
- Waterfowl forced to stand on ice for prolonged
periods, particularly tropical species, may develop frostbite.
- Formation of ice may make food inaccessible: ice
may cover vegetation, freeze over waterbodies thereby removing aquatic foodstuffs from
reach and mudflats and other ground, preventing foraging within such resources. N.B.
this is likely to occur at the same time that increased food resources are required for
body temperature maintenance due to low ambient temperature.