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Reference Values

(Please note that the references are given in the units in the original publication and that "SD+" represents "Standard Deviation" Reference ranges are only as good as the data entered, and as consistent as the laboratory standards allow. Users should use their professional judgement in viewing these values

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Parameter

Units

Ref 1.
Mean +/- SD
Ref 2.
Mean +/ - SEM
Ref 3.
Mean +/- SEM
Ref 4.
Mean +/- SD
Ref 4.
Range
Ref 5.
Range of Means

Units

Parameter
Total Protein g/L 77 +/- 6 86.9 +/- 1.4 79.6 +/- 1.3 7.0 +/- 0.8 5.7-8.3 87 g/L Total Protein
Albumin g/L 36 +/- 4 42.5 +/- 1.4 37.0 +/- 0.85 31 +/- 4 23-3.7   g/L Albumin
Globulin g/L 41 +/- 6 44.3 +/- 1.4 42.5 +/- 1.3 39 +/- 10 27-62   g/L Globulin
Albumin/Globulin         0.8 +/- 0.3 0.3-1.2     Albumin/Globulin
Calcium mg/dl 11.0 +/- 0.6     10.4 +/- 0.8 9.1-120   mg/dl Calcium
mmol/l   2.5 +/- 0.04 2.2 +/- 0.02     2.19-2.91 mmol/l
Magnesium mg/dl 2.33 +/- 0.50           mg/dl Magnesium
mmol/l   1.24 +/- 0.03 1.11 +/- 0.04     1.53-1.84 mmol/l
Phosphorus mg/dl 4.9 +/- 0.8     5.7 +/- 0.6 4.4-7.4   mg/dl Phosphorus
mmol/l   1.18 +/- 0.04 1.45 +/- 0.06     2.28-3.69 mmol/l
Sodium mEq/dl 129 +/- 4     127.5 +/- 5.5 119-143   mEq/dl Sodium
mmol/l   139.5 +/- 2.6 134.0 +/- 0.89     125-137 mmol/l
Potassium mEq/dl 4.8 +/- 0.5     5.3 +/- 0.5 4.6-6.9   mEq/dl Potassium
mmol/l   5.0 +/- 0.13 4.61 +/- 0.20     5.3-6.4 mmol/l
Chloride mEq/dl 88 +/- 3     86.9 +/- 6.7 74-106   mEq/dl Chloride
  mmol/l   83.2 +/- 1.09 88.6 +/- 0.68     82 mmol/l  
Creatinine mg/dl 1.5 +/- 0.4     1.1 +/- 0.2 0.6-1.5   mg/dl Creatinine
μmol/l   145.5 +/- 3.5 104.6 +/- 6.0     131 μmol/l
Urea nitrogen (BUN) mg/dl 10 +/- 3     7.9 +/- 2.1 5-13   mg/dl Urea nitrogen (BUN)
mmol/l   1.34 +/- 0.13 4.3 +/- 0.37     3.4-9.5 mmol/l
Uric acid mg/dl 0.2 +/- 0.4     0.3 +/- 0.1 0.2-0.7   mg/dl Uric acid
mmol/l           0.05 mmol/l  
Cholesterol mg/dl 67 +/- 18     61.5 +/- 8.7 44-82   mg/dl Cholesterol
mmol/l   1.02 +/- 0.05 1.1 +/- 0.13     1.58-2.99 mmol/l
Glucose mg/dl 83 +/- 15     93.5 +/- 11.4 71-116   mg/dl Glucose
mmol/l   3.05 +/- 0.19 3.21 +/- 0.13       mmol/l
Iron μg/dl 81 +/- 35     67.1 +/- 15.6 mg/dl 42-93 mg/dl   μg/dl Iron
μmol/l           20 μmol/l
AST (SGOT) iu/l 24 +/- 9 26.2 +/- 1.7 16.8 +/- 0.73 28.6 +/- 8.1 15-54 20 iu/l AST (SGOT)
ALT (SGPT) iu/l 6 +/- 7 19.5 +/- 1.07 14.75 +/- 1.7 3.1 +/- 2.4 0-12 3 iu/l ALT (SGPT)
LDH iu/l 993 +/- 569 786.2 +/- 77 526 +/- 47 535 +/- 142 358-825 132 (as α-HBD) iu/l LDH
CPK (CK) iu/L 261 +/- 216 285.6 +/- 45 269.5 +/- 29     153 iu/L CPK (CK)
Amylase SU             SU Amylase
iu/l           2650 iu/l
Alkaline phosphatase iu/l 128 +/- 63 147.7 +/- 16.2 108.7 +/- 13.2 210 +/- 91 IU/a 71-478 IU/a 48 iu/l Alkaline phosphatase
GGT iu/l 12 +/- 5 8.6 +/- 0.77 8.25 +/- 0.5       iu/l GGT
Lipase iu/l             iu/l Lipase
Cortisol μg/dL   12.5 +/- 1.5 10.78 +/- 0.76       μg/dL Cortisol
Free T3 pg/mL   1.19 +/- 0.03 1.26 +/- 0.04       pg/mL Free T3
Free T4 ng/dL   0.71 +/- 0.02 0.66 +/- 0.02       ng/dL Free T4
Total bilirubin mg/dl 0.2 +/- 0.1     0.1 +/- 0.3 0.1-0.2 5 mg/dl Total bilirubin
μmol/l             μmol/l
Direct bilirubin mg/dl             mg/dl Direct bilirubin
Indirect bilirubin mg/dl             mg/dl Indirect bilirubin
Triglycerides mg/dl       15.1 +/- 9.0 0-35   mg/dl Triglycerides
mmol/l           0.34-0.59 mmol/l
Bicarbonate mEq/dl 25 +/- 2.9           mEq/dl Bicarbonate
mmol/l             mmol/l
Carbon dioxide mEq/dl       24.4 +/- 2.2 
(no units given)
22-32 
(no units given)
  mEq/dl Carbon dioxide
mmol/l 27.1 +/- 3.0           mmol/l

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Reference 1.

Wildpro Data Source B336.53.w53
Ref Title Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine Fifth Edition. Chapter 53 - Proboscidae
Ref Author(s) Schmitt, D. L.
Animal Details Combined data for males and females, all ages.
Laboratory Techniques Globulin and albumin, by electrophoresis.
Comments Referenced to ISIS physiological reference values, 1998.

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Reference 2.

Wildpro Data Source J2.24.w3
Ref Title Chemical immobilization of free-ranging African elephants (Loxodonta africana) in Zimbabwe, using etorphine (M99) mixed with hyaluronidase, and evaluation of biological data collected soon after immobilization
Ref Author(s) Kock, M.D., Martin, RB. & Kock, N.
Animal Details Sixteen adult female elephants; data from 15 elephants for individual blood values (14 for PCV) after immobilization with etorphine. Samples collected in July, during the cool winter season.
Laboratory Techniques  
Comments  

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Reference 3.

Wildpro Data Source J2.24.w3
Ref Title Chemical immobilization of free-ranging African elephants (Loxodonta africana) in Zimbabwe, using etorphine (M99) mixed with hyaluronidase, and evaluation of biological data collected soon after immobilization
Ref Author(s) Kock, M.D., Martin, RB. & Kock, N.
Animal Details Sixteen adult female elephants; data from 15 elephants for individual blood values (14 for PCV) after immobilization with etorphine. Samples collected in December, during the hot, dry spring season.
Laboratory Techniques  
Comments
  • Significantly (P <0.002-0.001) lower LDH and AST values during the second set of immobilisations may indicate reduced stress associated with faster immobilisations. (J2.24.w3)

 

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Reference 4.

Wildpro Data Source J2.16.w3
Ref Title Hematologic and serum chemical values for young African elephants (Loxodonta africana) with variations for sex and age
Ref Author(s) Allen, J.L., Jacobson, E.R., Harvey, J.W. & Boyce, W.
Animal Details Twenty ine female and 10 male elephants ages four to eight years.
Laboratory Techniques  
Comments  

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Reference 5.

Wildpro Data Source J402.65.w1
Ref Title Elephant blood haematology and chemistry
Ref Author(s) Brown, I.R.F. & White, P.T.
Animal Details Data from a variety of studies, given as ranges of means from different studies (single values indicate information from onne study only). 
Laboratory Techniques  
Comments
  • Regional variations reported for calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphate and urea. 
  • Seasonal variations reported for calcium, phosphate, amylase, urea, bilirubin and creatinine. 
  • Age variation reported for potassium, alkaline phosphatase and creatinine.

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Other Major Databases with Reference Values

Some database systems generate normal values on an on-going basis, and some organisations publish information within animal management guidelines. As the normal values do vary as more information is added, the links to these databases are provided, rather than incorporating the actual data.

Some of these databases do charge for access, or may have restricted access and enquiries should be made directly to the database providers.

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