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Reference Values

(Please note that the references are given in the units in the original publication and that "SD+" represents "Standard Deviation" Reference ranges are only as good as the data entered, and as consistent as the laboratory standards allow. Users should use their professional judgement in viewing these values

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Parameter

Units

Ref 1.
Mean+/-SD
         
Total Protein g/dl            
Albumin g/dl 2.9 +/- 0.4          
Globulin g/dl 5.5 +/- 0.8          
Albumin/Globulin ratio   0.58 +/- 0.1          
Calcium mg/dl 10.0 +/- 0.55          
mmol/l            
Magnesium mg/dl 29.3 +/- 3.2          
Phosphorus mg/dl 5.3 +/- 0.9          
mmol/l            
Sodium mEq/L 128 +/- 4.1          
mmol/l            
Potassium mEq/L 4.5 +/- 0.4          
mmol/l            
Chloride mEq/dl 86.3 +/- 5.3        
Copper μg/mL            
Magnesium μg/mL 29.3 +/- 3.2          
Zinc μg/mL 1.9 +/- 0.3          
Iron μg/mL            
Creatinine mg/dl            
μmol/l            
Urea nitrogen (BUN) mg/dl 9.0 +/- 4.0        
mmol/l            
Uric acid mg/dl            
Cholesterol mg/dl 63 +/- 14.7          
mmol/l            
Glucose mg/dl 70.1 +/- 18.1          
mmol/l            
Alpha-tocopherol μg/mL 0.32 +/- 0.16          
Retinol μg/mL 0.055 +/- 0.03          
AST iu/l 28.4 +/- 18.6          
ALT iu/l 10.2 +/- 6.1        
LDH iu/l 621 +/- 393          
CPK (CK) iu/L            
Amylase SU            
iu/l            
Alkaline phosphatase iu/l 150.6 +/- 85.4          
GGT iu/l          
Lipase iu/l            
Total bilirubin mg/dl 0.17 +/- 0.1          
μmol/l            
Direct bilirubin mg/dl            
Indirect bilirubin mg/dl            
Triglycerides mg/dl            
Bicarbonate mEq/dl            
mmol/l            
Carbon dioxide mEq/dl            
mmol/l            

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Reference 1.

Wildpro Data Source P1.1997.w8
Ref Title Elephants, buffalo, kob, and rhinoceros: immobilization, telemetry and health evaluations
Ref Author(s) Karesh, W.B., Smith, K.H., Smith, F., Atalia M., Morkel, P., Torres, A., House, C., Braselton, W.E. & Dierenfeld, E.S.
Animal Details
  • Thirty-seven elephants, including four calves aged four to six years old, from Garamba National Prk, north-eastern Zaire, sampled while immobilized with carfentanil hydrochloride. Data for each value is from 14 or 15 elephants.
  • Note: This reference identifies the elephants as Loxodonta africana - African Elephant however, a recent study placed elephants from Garamba National Park in Loxodonta cyclotis - Forest Elephant , although one sampled elephant from this area may have been a hybrid between the two species. (J22.293.w1)
Laboratory Techniques --
Comments --

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Other Major Databases with Reference Values

Some database systems generate normal values on an on-going basis, and some organisations publish information within animal management guidelines. As the normal values do vary as more information is added, the links to these databases are provided, rather than incorporating the actual data.

Some of these databases do charge for access, or may have restricted access and enquiries should be made directly to the database providers.

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