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Reference Values

(Please note that the references are given in the units in the original publication and that "SD+" represents "Standard Deviation" Reference ranges are only as good as the data entered, and as consistent as the laboratory standards allow. Users should use their professional judgement in viewing these values

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Parameter

Units

Ref 1.
Mean +/- SD
Ref 2a.
Mean+/-SE
Ref 2a.
Range
Ref 2b.
Mean+/-SE
Ref 2b.
Range
Ref 2c.
Mean+/-SE
Ref 2c.
Range
Ref 2d.
Mean+/-SE
Ref 2d.
Range
Ref 3a Mean+/-SE Ref 3b Mean+/-SE

Units

Parameter
Total Protein g/dl 7.2 +/- 0.7 8.9 +/-0.16 7.1-11.9 8.6 +/- 0.29 5.8 - 14.4 8.6 +/- 0.34 6.2  - 11.2 7.9 +/- 0.15 6.4 - 8.8 9.43 +/- 0.19 8.80 +/- 0.34 g/dl Total Protein
Albumin g/dl 3.4 +/- 0.3                 1.96 +/- 0.06 1.94 +/- 0.07 g/dl Albumin
Globulin g/dl 3.7 +/- 0.7                 7.47 +/- 0.17 6.86 +/- 0.29 g/dl Globulin
Albumin/Globulin ratio                           Albumin/Globulin ratio
Calcium mg/dl 9.0 +/- 0.7                     mg/dl Calcium
mmol/l                       mmol/l
Magnesium mg/dl 3.05 +/- 0.07                     mg/dl Magnesium
Phosphorus mg/dl 4.7 +/- 1.2                     mg/dl Phosphorus
mmol/l                       mmol/l
Sodium mEq/L 146 +/- 4                     mEq/L Sodium
mmol/l                   145.7 +/- 0.82 146.0 +/- 1.63 mmol/l
Potassium mEq/L 4.3 +/- 0.4                     mEq/L Potassium
mmol/l                   4.41 +/- 0.11 4.53 +/- 0.15

 

mmol/l
Chloride mEq/dl 110 +/- 3                   mEq/dl Chloride
Copper μg/mL                       μg/mL Copper
Magnesium μg/mL                       μg/mL Magnesium
Zinc μg/mL                       μg/mL Zinc
Iron μg/mL 146 +/- 29                     μg/mL Iron
Creatinine mg/dl 0.9 +/- 0.2                 0.41 +/- 0.02 0.39 +/- 0.03 mg/dl Creatinine
μmol/l                       μmol/l
Urea nitrogen (BUN) mg/dl 20 +/- 7 17 +/- 0.91 8-36 18 +/- 1.41 5 - 38 22 +/- 1.94 10-35 20 +/- 1.84 9-41 19.0 +/- 1.92 38.8 +/- 5.03 mg/dl Urea nitrogen (BUN)
mmol/l                       mmol/l
Uric acid mg/dl 1.2 +/- 0.5 2.0 +/- 0.03 1.0-2.9 2.0 +/- 0.06 1.0 - 2.5 2.2 +/- 0.15 1.3 - 4.2 2.4 +/- 0.29 1.2-7.3 2.40 +/- 0.10 2.21 +/- 0.14 mg/dl Uric acid
Cholesterol mg/dl 211 +/- 63 245 +/- 8.33 136-382 277 +/- 10.10 178 - 380 275 +/- 15.78 92-464 273 +/-15.45 164-450 185.5 +/- 14.65 270.4 +/- 11.86 mg/dl Cholesterol
mmol/l                       mmol/l
Glucose mg/dl 65 +/- 22 99 +/- 3.60 53-154 106 +/-3.22 75-150 103 +/- 5.52 51-158 104 +/-5.52 65-160 82.3 +/- 6.16 96.0 +/- 9.17 mg/dl Glucose
mmol/l                       mmol/l
Alpha-tocopherol μg/mL                       μg/mL Alpha-tocopherol
Retinol μg/mL                       μg/mL Retinol
AST iu/l 85 +/- 26                     iu/l AST
ALT iu/l 121 +/- 36                   iu/l ALT
LDH iu/l 1299 +/-673                     iu/l LDH
CPK (CK) iu/L 306 +/- 198                     iu/L CPK (CK)
Amylase SU                       SU Amylase
iu/l 3119 +/- 917                     iu/l
Alkaline phosphatase iu/l 60 +/- 31                     iu/l Alkaline phosphatase
GGT iu/l 4 +/- 2                   iu/l GGT
Lipase iu/l 252 +/- 0                     iu/l Lipase
Total bilirubin mg/dl 0.2 +/- 0.1                     mg/dl Total bilirubin
μmol/l                       μmol/l
Direct bilirubin mg/dl 0.0 +/- 0.1                     mg/dl Direct bilirubin
Indirect bilirubin mg/dl 0.1 +/- 0.1                     mg/dl Indirect bilirubin
Triglycerides mg/dl 33 +/- 17                 54.1 +/-6.19 73.1 +/- 17.65 mg/dl Triglycerides
Bicarbonate mEq/dl 21.0 +/- 0.0                     mEq/dl Bicarbonate
mmol/l                       mmol/l
Carbon dioxide mEq/dl 20.8 +/- 4.4                     mEq/dl Carbon dioxide
mmol/l                       mmol/l

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Reference 1.

Wildpro Data Source B336.50.w50
Ref Title Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine Fifth Edition. Chapter 50 - Procyonidae and Viverridae
Ref Author(s) Denver, M.
Animal Details Information not provided in original reference.
Laboratory Techniques --
Comments Referenced to ISIS physiological reference values, 199, CD-ROM

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Reference 2.

Wildpro Data Source J13.35.w1
Ref Title Blood and urinary value of free-ranging raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Florida
Ref Author(s) Hoff, G.L., Bigler, W.J., McEldowny, L.E., Peterson, D.W., Trapp, J.P. & Hudgins, P.C.
Animal Details Wild raccoons from three counties in Florida, USA:

1a) Adult males (45 to 47 individuals sampled per parameter)

1b) Adult females (30 to 34 individuals sampled per parameter)

1c) Juvenile males (19 to 21 individuals sampled per parameter)

1d) Juvenile females (19 to 23 individuals sampled per parameter)

Laboratory Techniques --
Comments --

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Reference 3.

Wildpro Data Source J475.2644.w1
Ref Title The raccoon (Procyon lotor) on St. Catherines Island, Georgia. 1. Biochemical parameters of urine and blood serum
Ref Author(s) Lotze, J.H. & Fleischman, A.I.
Animal Details a) 15 adults; b) nine juveniles.
Laboratory Techniques --
Comments --

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Other Major Databases with Reference Values

Some database systems generate normal values on an on-going basis, and some organisations publish information within animal management guidelines. As the normal values do vary as more information is added, the links to these databases are provided, rather than incorporating the actual data.

Some of these databases do charge for access, or may have restricted access and enquiries should be made directly to the database providers.

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