< > Haem3 - Normal Haematology Values for Loxodonta africana - African elephant

Reference Values

(Please note that the references are given in the units in the original publication and that "SD+" represents "Standard Deviation" Reference ranges are only as good as the data entered, and as consistent as the laboratory standards allow. Users should use their professional judgement in viewing these values

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Parameter

Units

Ref 1.
Mean +/- SD
Ref 2.
Mean
Ref 2.
Range
Ref 3.
Mean +/- SD
Ref 3.
Range
Ref 4.
Mean +/- SEM
Ref 5.
Mean +/- SEM
Ref 6.
Mean +/- SD
Ref 6.
Range
Ref7.
Mean
Ref7.
Range

Units

Parameter
Haemoglobin g/litre                       g/litre Haemoglobin
g/dl 13.8 +/- 1.5 16.2 +/- 4.6 5.6-25.9 7.08 +/- 0.44 5.2-9.1   13.1 +/- 1.1 11.8 +/- 2.0 9.1-16.9 14.3 10.5-17.2 g/dl
RBC
(Erythrocyte)
count
x1012/l                   3.64 2.96-5.02 x1012/l RBC
(Erythrocyte)
count
x106/mm3       3.77 +/- 0.25 1.92-6.74     3.0 +/- 6.0 2.1-4.2     x106/mm3
x106/μl 3.18 +/- 0.38 3.9 +/- 1.3 1.4-6.0                 x106/μl
PCV (Haematocrit) l/l                       l/l PCV (Haematocrit)
% 39.9 +/- 4.5 49.0 +/- 13.9 18.0-80.0     36 +/- 0.74 36.5 +/- 1 35.1 +/- 5.7 26.8-47.0 44.1 38.2-49.0 %
MCV fl (or μm3)   130.7 +/- 26.7  83.0-196.0         114.3 +/- 4.1 106-122 124.6 97-140.7 fl (or μm3) MCV
MCH pg/cell   42.3 +/- 12.4 19.4-78.9           40.2 27.9-50.7   pg/cell MCH
mg/dl                       mg/dl
MCHC g/dl   33.7% +/- 8.0% 18.9-59.7%         34.7 +/- 2.1 31-39 33.4 30-35.6 g/dl MCHC
Tot. WBC
(Leukocytes)
x109/l                   10.2 9.0-11.0 x109/l Tot. WBC
(Leukocytes)
x103/μl 10.55 +/- 2.60 10.4 +/- 6.4 1.75-38.0 11.00 +/- 9.75 5.7-21.2     13.6 +/- 3.6 7.2-22.4     x103/μl
Neutrophils x109/l                       x109/l Neutrophils
%   21.0 +/- 9.0 6.5-46.0 20.17 +/- 0.61 (segmented)
1.17 +/- 0.03 (bands)
7-33 (segmented)
0-5 (bands)
        32.2 21-50 %
x103/μl 3.02 +/- 1.70 (segmented);
0.86 +/- 0.74 (bands)
            2.9 +/- 1.1 0-5.2     x103/μl
Lymphocytes x109/l                       x109/l Lymphocytes
%   76.0 +/- 9.0 46.0-93.0 69.1 +/- 1.89 56-85         54.6 31-76 %
x103/μl 5.09 +/- 3.15             5.8 +/- 2.0 2.5-8.9     x103/μl
Monocytes x109/l                       x109/l Monocytes
%   0.4 +/- 0.8 0-4.5 8.17 +/- 0.03 2-17         5.0 0.1-13.5 %
x103/μl 1.39 +/- 1.62             2.8 +/- 1.6
bilobed: 1.6 +/- 0.8
0.1-6.7
bilobed: 0.3-3.6
    x103/μl
Eosinophils x109/l                       x109/l Eosinophils
%   1.9 +/- 1.6 0-6.0 1.33 +/- 0.25 0-4         1.7 0-2.5 %
x103/μl 0.24 +/- 0.31             0.05 +/- 0.02 0-0.97     x103/μl
Basophils x109/l                       x109/l Basophils
%   0.1 +/- 0.3 0-1.5 0.11 +/- 0.08 0-1         0.03 0-0.1 %
x103/μl 0.04 +/- 0.08             0.1 +/- 0.2 0-0.7     x103/μl
Platelets x109/l                   400 294-455 x109/l Platelets
x103/μl 423 +/- 2.5                     x103/μl
Plasma protein g/L 77 +/- 6         86.9 +/- 1.4  79.6 +/- 1.3 70 +/- 8.0 57-83 87   g/L Plasma protein
Plasma fibrinogen mg/dl 226 +/- 164             345.1 +/- 150.1 100-600 640 630-660 mg/dl Plasma fibrinogen

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Reference 1.

Wildpro Data Source B336.53.w53
Ref Title Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine Fifth Edition. Chapter 53 - Proboscidae
Ref Author(s) Schmitt, D. L
Animal Details Combined data for males and females, all ages. Data mean +/- standard deviation
Laboratory Techniques Information not provided in original reference.
Comments Referenced to ISIS physiological reference values, 1998.

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Reference 2.

Wildpro Data Source J46.185.w1
Ref Title Haematological studies on wild African elephants (Loxodonta africana)
Ref Author(s) White, P.T. & Brown, I.R.F.
Animal Details Blood was taken from ear veins immediately after family groups of 3-12 animals were culled.
Laboratory Techniques RBC and WBC counted visually in an improved Neubauer chamber; differential counts performed on thin blood smears stained with Giemsa, red blood cell diameters measured using a Leitz micrometer eyepiece.
Comments
  • Samples sizes varied from 77 to 173 for the different parameters.
  • Calves (one to five years old) differed from the general population: (J46.185.w1)
    • RBC higher (4.7 x106/μl +/- 1.1, versus 3.9 x106/μl +/- 1.3 for adults (P <0.05); 
    • WBC 16.4 x103/μl +/- 9.7, versus 10.4 x103/μl +/- 6.4 (P <0.02); 
    • MCH lower: 31.00 pg +/- 6.69, versus 42.28 pg +/- 12.36 (P <0.02); 
    • MCV 95.7 μm3 +/- 8.4 versus 130.7 +/- 26.7 μm3 (P <0.001). 
  • Samples taken in the wet season varied from those taken in the dry season: (J46.185.w1)
    • Dry season higher Hb: 17.59 g/dl +/- 4.85, versus wet season 14.54 g/dl +/- 4.16 (P <0.005);
    • Dry season higher MCH: 46.3 pg +/-14.3 versus wet season 38.31 pg +/- 8.42 (P <0.05);
    • Dry season higher MCHC: 36.68 % +/- 9.69 versus wet season 30.23 % +/- 4.37 (P <0.005);
    • Dry season lower MCV: 124.92 μm3 +/- 26.72 versus wet season 136.92 μm3 +/- 25.43 (P <0.05)

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Reference 3.

Wildpro Data Source J1.11.w9
Ref Title Some hematological values of free-ranging elephants
Ref Author(s) Debbie, J.G. & Clausen, B.
Animal Details Twenty three elephants culled in Tanzania. Data for individual values are from seven to 18 individuals ages one to 48 years and including males and females. It was noted that most of the elephants were infected with Grammocephalus spp. bile duct hookworms [see: Liver Nematode Infection in Elephants] and that this parasitic infection may have affected blood values. 
Laboratory Techniques Cell counts were not made until up to six hours after collection.
Comments  

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Reference 4.

Wildpro Data Source J2.24.w3
Ref Title Chemical immobilization of free-ranging African elephants (Loxodonta africana) in Zimbabwe, using etorphine (M99) mixed with hyaluronidase, and evaluation of biological data collected soon after immobilization
Ref Author(s) Kock, M.D., Martin, RB. & Kock, N.
Animal Details Sixteen adult female elephants; data from 15 elephants for individual blood values (14 for PCV) after immobilization with etorphine. Samples collected in July, during the cool winter season
Laboratory Techniques  
Comments --

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Reference 5.

Wildpro Data Source J2.24.w3
Ref Title Chemical immobilization of free-ranging African elephants (Loxodonta africana) in Zimbabwe, using etorphine (M99) mixed with hyaluronidase, and evaluation of biological data collected soon after immobilization
Ref Author(s) Kock, M.D., Martin, RB. & Kock, N.
Animal Details Sixteen adult female elephants; data from 15 elephants for individual blood values (14 for PCV) after immobilization with etorphine. Samples collected in December, during the hot, dry spring season.
Laboratory Techniques  
Comments  

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Reference 6.

Wildpro Data Source J2.16.w3
Ref Title Hematologic and serum chemical values for young African elephants (Loxodonta africana) with variations for sex and age
Ref Author(s) Allen, J.L., Jacobson, E.R., Harvey, J.W. & Boyce, W.
Animal Details Twenty ine female and 10 male elephants ages four to eight years.
Laboratory Techniques  
Comments  

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Reference 7.

Wildpro Data Source J402.65.w1
Ref Title Elephant blood haematology and chemistry
Ref Author(s) Brown, I.R.F. & White, P.T.
Animal Details Data from a variety of studies, given as unweighted means, and the ranges of the means in the separate studies; plasma protein and fibrinogen data from one study each.
Laboratory Techniques  
Comments  

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Other Major Databases with Reference Values

Some database systems generate normal values on an on-going basis, and some organisations publish information within animal management guidelines. As the normal values do vary as more information is added, the links to these databases are provided, rather than incorporating the actual data.

Some of these databases do charge for access, or may have restricted access and enquiries should be made directly to the database providers.

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