< > Haem4 - Normal Haematology Values for Loxodonta cyclotis - Forest elephant

Reference Values

(Please note that the references are given in the units in the original publication and that "SD+" represents "Standard Deviation" Reference ranges are only as good as the data entered, and as consistent as the laboratory standards allow. Users should use their professional judgement in viewing these values

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Parameter

Units

Ref 1.
Mean
Ref 2.
Mean +/- SD
         
Haemoglobin g/litre              
g/dl 11.3            
RBC
(Erythrocyte)
count
x1012/l              
x106/mm3 2.85            
x106/μl              
PCV (Haematocrit) l/l              
% 34.1 42.8 +/- 2.5          
MCV fl (or μm3) 120            
MCH pg/cell              
mg/dl              
MCHC g/dl              
Tot. WBC
(Leukocytes)
x109/l              
x103/μl (x103/mm3) 6.826 12.2 +/- 2.5          
Neutrophils x109/l              
%              
x103/μl   5.0 +/- 2.0          
Lymphocytes x109/l              
%              
x103/μl   4.7 +/- 1.7          
Monocytes x109/l              
%              
x103/μl   0.4 +/- 0.4          
Eosinophils x109/l              
%              
x103/μl   1.2 +/- 1.0          
Basophils x109/l              
%              
x103/μl   5.1 +/- 4.2          
Platelets x109/l              
x103/μl              
Plasma protein g/dl   9.3 +/- 1.0          
Plasma fibrinogen mg/dl              

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Reference 1.

Wildpro Data Source J1.15.w9
Ref Title Blood characteristics of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana cyclotis)
Ref Author(s) Woodford, M.H.
Animal Details Data from five domesticated elephants, aged 27 to 53 years, fed on local vegetation. 
Laboratory Techniques Blood was taken from the ear veins of the unsedated elephants.
Comments  

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Reference 2.

Wildpro Data Source P1.1997.w8
Ref Title Elephants, buffalo, kob, and rhinoceros: immobilization, telemetry and health evaluations
Ref Author(s) Karesh, W.B., Smith, K.H., Smith, F., Atalia M., Morkel, P., Torres, A., House, C., Braselton, W.E. & Dierenfeld, E.S.
Animal Details
  • Thirty-seven elephants including four calves aged four to six years old, sampled while immobilized with carfentanil hydrochloride. Data for each value is from 14 or 15 elephants.
  • Note: This reference identifies the elephants as Loxodonta africana - African Elephant however, a recent study placed elephants from Garamba National Park in Loxodonta cyclotis - Forest Elephant , although one sampled elephant from this area may have been a hybrid between the two species.
Laboratory Techniques  
Comments  

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Other Major Databases with Reference Values

Some database systems generate normal values on an on-going basis, and some organisations publish information within animal management guidelines. As the normal values do vary as more information is added, the links to these databases are provided, rather than incorporating the actual data.

Some of these databases do charge for access, or may have restricted access and enquiries should be made directly to the database providers.

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