< > LUK2 - Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981

General Information

The information provided within these pages provides a background to the legislation issues.
THE FULL RECENT OFFICIAL GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS SHOULD ALWAYS BE CONSULTED FOR DETAILED INFORMATION.

Date 1981
Wildpro "Organisations & Website" Reference
Text Availability (e.g. HMSO / Copyright / Public Domain etc.) HMSO: Crown Copyright. The authoritative versions of Acts are usually the "Queen's Printer" copies (often published by The Stationery Office Limited). Details of how to obtain the authoritative versions are available through Website Ref - W65 - Her Majesty's Stationary Office (HMSO)
Brief Overview / Significance
  • The Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 implements the Wild Birds Directive (79/409/EEC see: Website Ref - W19 - Europa - The European Union On-line).
  • The Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 is one of the major pieces of legislation under which UK wildlife is protected.
  • The Act gives broad protection to all wild birds, except for exceptions as set out within the Act, and also gives varying degrees of protection to other species of animals and plants. Certain species of birds are given special protection.
  • Schedules to the Act list species for which particular sections of the Act are applicable.
    • Schedule 1: Birds protected by special penalties.
      • Part I - Birds protected by special penalties at all times
      • Part II - Birds and their eggs protected by special penalties during the close season, 1 February to 31 August (21 February to 31 August below high water mark) but which may be killed or taken at other times.
    • Schedule 2: Birds which may be killed or taken outside the close season, 1 February to 31 August except where indicated otherwise.
      • Part I (NOTE: The close season for ducks and geese when below high water mark is 21 February to 31 August);
      • Part II Birds which may be killed or taken by authorised persons: This section has been replaced by General Licences with the same effect.
    • Schedule 3: Birds which may be sold alive at all times if ringed and bred in captivity.
      • Part I (NB: Certain birds on Schedule 4 may also be sold under licence provided they are registered with the DETR);
      • Part II Birds which may be sold dead at all times;
      • Part III Birds which may be sold dead from 1 September to 28 February (NB: It is illegal to offer for sale at any time of the year any wild goose, moorhen, gadwall or goldeneye, although they are legitimate quarry species outside the close season).
    • Schedule 4: Birds which must be registered and ringed if kept in captivity. Any bird, one of whose parents or other lineal ancestor was a bird of a kind specified in the above list.
    • Schedule 5: Protected animals. (Note: Where a species is annotated with * protection is only afforded against the actions referred to.)
    • Schedule 6: Animals which may not be killed or taken by certain methods
    • Schedule 8: Protected plants.
    • Schedule 9: Animals and plants to which Section 14 applies (ie. may not be released into or grown in the wild)
      • Part I : birds and other animals;
      • Part 2: plants
  • Under the Act the killing of most birds and some other animals is prohibited. Nevertheless if an animal is seriously injured or otherwise incapacitated a decision must be made whether to kill an animal on humanitarian grounds. (J35.147.w1)
    • There is provision within the law for a person to kill an otherwise protected species if it is not likely to recover from its injuries, as long as the animal's injuries were not the consequence of the illegal action of that person.
    • In all cases it is important to ensure that the animal is killed humanely and quickly.
    • Reasons for killing may include e.g.: required limb amputation, pelvic injuries in a female animal, requirement for sterilisation (J35.147.w1).
    • (J35.147.w1, B142.4.w4, B156.21.w21, B223, P19.2.w1).
    • N.B. (1) The list of items (Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 section 11.2(a)-(e)) which may not be used to kill Schedule 5 and Schedule 6 species holds true for mercy killing: they may not be used for killing injured animals (J35.147.w1).
  • The Act includes provision for otherwise prohibited activities (e.g. taking from the wild, or killing, wild animals) when undertaken for the prevention of suffering, i.e. for casualty animals being "taken" for treatment or euthanased due to severe injuries.
  • The Act (Section 14) also prohibits the release of any animal which (a) "is of a kind which is not ordinarily resident in and is not a regular visitor to Great Britain in a wild state; or (b) is included in Part I of Schedule 9".

    However, no offence is committed if the person can show that:

    • he took all reasonable steps and exercised due diligence to avoid committing the offence; or
    • a licence has been issued under section 16 of the Act and all the conditions have been complied with."
  • The muntjac deer (Muntiacus reevesi - Chinese muntjac) was added to Schedule 9 in The Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 (Variation of Schedule 9) Order 1997. Licences may be issued for the release of muntjac within the 12 "Core counties" defined by JNCC (Bedfordshire, Berkshire, Buckinghamshire, Cambridgeshire, Essex, Hertfordshire, Leicestershire, Norfolk, Northamptonshire, Oxfordshire, Suffolk and Warwickshire). Licences are normally valid for a period of two years and a condition of the licence is that the individual muntjac are released within 1km of their point of origin. Additionally, the licence holder is required to complete a six-monthly return detailing muntjac which have been passed through the facilities. Licences may be applied for from Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) by writing to:

    Dr Andrew Wakeham-Dawson, 
    Licensing under the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 Section 14
    Biotechnology Safety Unit, Chemicals and Biotechnology Division
    Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs
    (DEFRA)
    Floor 3 / H11
    Ashdown House
    123 Victoria Street
    London
    SW1 6DE

    (V.w29)

  • The following information is quoted from the section on Wildlife Crime in the website of the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions (W5.Jan01):
    • "The Barn owl has now been included in Part I of Schedule 9 to the WCA [Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 ] and section 14(1)(b) of the Act applies. Subject to the provisions of this part if any person releases or allows to escape into the wild any animal which is included in Part I of Schedule 9 he shall be guilty of an offence. Barn owls, however, can still be released as long as a licence under section 16 has been issued authorising a person to do so. This licence is obtainable from the DETR.
    • The Barn owl is also a species of bird that is included in Schedule 1 and is, therefore, protected by a special penalty."

    A general licence (DETR general licence number WLF 100100, which came into force 7th January 1997) allows the release of wild barn owls which have been taken into care temporarily for the purposes of rehabilitation. A special licence must be obtained from Wildlife and Countryside Directorate, Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions (DETR) (now Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA)) in order to release captive bred barn owls. (J15.20.w3, D53)

  • Section 9 makes it an offence to intentionally kill, injure or take any animal listed in Schedule 5.
  • Section11 imposes restrictions on the use of certain methods of killing or taking wild animals.

(J35.147.w1, J15.20.w3, B156.21.w21, B223, P19.2.w10, D31, B142.4.w4, W5.Jan01)

  • Bats (Horseshoe) and Bats (Typical) are included on both Schedule 5 and Schedule 6 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 . (W5.Jan01). Under this legislation the killing, injury or "taking" (capture) of bats is prohibited. It is also prohibited to deliberately disturb bats, whether or not they are in a roost, damage or destroy a bat roost or obstruct access by bats to a bat roost, to possess or transport a bat or part of a bat (unless this was acquired legally) and to sell, barter or exchange bats or parts of bats (B168.1.w1).
  • A licence from the relevant Statutory Nature Conservation Organisation (English Nature, Scottish National Heritage, Countryside Council for Wales, Environment and Heritage Service (Northern Ireland) is required for catching and handling bats, ringing and marking etc. A licence is required if a known bat roost (including a bat box which is or has been used by bats) is to be entered.

(B168.1.w1).

  • The Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 makes it an offence (Section 9(2)) for a person to have in their possession or control any live or dead Schedule 5 animal. If such an animal is being kept it must be proved that it was permitted to take it from the wild, e.g. as a casualty animal which is being cared for (B142.4.w4, B223).
  • Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 Section 8 makes it an offence to keep any bird in a cage or other receptacle which is not large enough to allow it to stretch its wings freely in all directions. Exemptions are made for poultry and for birds during transportation, while being exhibited (for a maximum aggregate of 72 hours) and while a bird is undergoing examination or treatment by a veterinary surgeon.(B156.21.w21, D31).
  • Licences for ringing or marking may be applied for from English Nature, Scottish National Heritage, Countryside Council for Wales. (D31)
  • In Britain bird ringing must be undertaken by someone with a BTO (British Trust for Ornithology) ringing licence. (B118.20.w20)
  • All birds listed on Schedule 4 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 and being held in captivity, including sick and injured birds being held for the purpose of rehabilitation, must be registered with the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions (DETR) (now Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA)), under the Wildlife and Countryside (Registration and Ringing of Certain Captive Birds) Regulations 1982. Birds of prey and some other species must also be ringed with a uniquely numbered band supplied by the DETR (now Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA)).  (W5.Jan01, B223, P19.2.w1, D31).
    • Sick and injured birds listed on Schedule 4 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 and being held in captivity, even for the purpose of rehabilitation, must be registered with the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions (DETR) (now Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA)) P19.2.w1, D31.
    • There is a General Licence (presently valid in England for the period from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2001) allowing Veterinary Surgeons and Veterinary Practitioners to hold a Schedule 4 bird under their care for up to 6 weeks without a licence and without the bird being registered with the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions (DETR) (now Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA)), so long as records are kept of each bird kept and the bird is receiving professional veterinary treatment.
    • The "Licensed Rehabilitation Keeper" status under which certain persons were able to keep Schedule 4 bird species for up to six weeks without registering the bird is no longer applicable.
    • However, there is a General Licence, presently valid from 1 January 2001 to 31 December 2001, which allows certain people to keep a disabled wild-bred Schedule 4 bird "solely for the purpose of tending it and releasing it when no longer disabled.... for the period of 15 days commencing with the day on which the licensed person takes into his possession or control the disabled wild-bred Schedule 4 bird". The terms and conditions include a requirement for the licensed person, to notify the Secretary of State for the Environment (DETR) (now Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA)) within four days, and to keep records.
    • It is necessary for anyone not covered by either of the two General Licences mentioned above who is keeping a bird listed on Schedule 4 to inform the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions (DETR) (now Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA)), and be given a temporary licence to keep the bird. A cable tie will be issued to be fitted to the bird for temporary identification and the situation reviewed after six weeks. There is a fee for issuing a licence. (W5.Jan01)
    • Schedule 4 raptors which, due to permanent disability, cannot be released, have to be ringed with a numbered cable tie. Additionally, if used for breeding and display a microchip transponder must be implanted (J15.20.w3).
    • If a registered Schedule 4 bird is moved to a new address, sold or otherwise disposed of, dies, escapes into the wild, is released into the wild or is exported, DOE (now Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA)) must be notified. If the bird is transferred to a new owner, or if a ring is removed, lost or becomes unreadable, the bird must be re-registered (B223).
NOTES - Amendments / Relation to other legislation

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Specific Section References

Wildpro Reference Chapter/Paragraph Title Content Page nos.

The schedules to the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981

THE SCHEDULES

Any species of bird not mentioned in Schedule 1 or Schedule 2 is fully protected throughout the year. See also checklist of legal status of selected British birds, Appendix B.

N.B. Scientific names have been added systematically for only those species with links contained with the Wildpro module "UK Wildlife: First Aid and Care". They have been added in [square brackets] following the common names. Some of the common names are non-specific and have been presumed to be those species that are commonly recognised to be found in or associated with the UK.

If there is any question regarding the legalities or identification of any of these species, the appropriate UK Government Department must be contacted (currently Website Ref - W66 - Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs (October 2001)).

Schedule 1 (Information taken from W5.Jan01 - Published 26 February 1998)

Part I - Birds protected by special penalties at all times

Avocet [presumed Recurvirostra avosetta] Owl, Barn [Tyto alba]
Bee-eater Owl, Snowy
Bittern [Botaurus stellaris] Peregrine [Falco peregrinus]
Bittern, Little Petrel, Leach's [Oceanodroma leucorhoa]
Bluethroat Phalarope, Red-necked [Phalaropus lobatus]
Brambling [Fringilla montifringilla] Plover, Kentish
Bunting, Cirl [Emberiza cirlus] Plover, Little Ringed [Charadrius dubius]
Bunting, Lapland [Calcarius lapponicus] Quail, Common [Coturnix coturnix]
Bunting, Snow [Plectrophenax nivalis] Redstart, Black [Phoenicurus ochruros]
Buzzard, Honey [Pernis apivorus] Redwing [Turdus iliacus]
Chough [Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax] Rosefinch, Scarlet
Corncrake [Crex crex] Ruff [Philomachus pugnax]
Crake, Spotted [Porzana porzana] Sandpiper, Green [Tringa ochropus]
Crossbill (all species) [Loxia curvirostra; Loxia scotica] Sandpiper, Purple [Calidris maritima]
Divers (all species) [Gavia arctica; Gavia immer; Gavia stellata] Sandpiper, Wood [Tringa glareola]
Dotterel [Eudromias morinellus] Scaup [Aythya marila]
Duck, Long-tailed [Clangula hyemalis] Scoter, Common [Melanitta nigra]
Eagle, Golden [Aquila chrysaetos] Scoter, Velvet [Melanitta fusca]
Eagle, White-tailed [Haliaeetus albicilla] Serin
Falcon, Gyr Shorelark
Fieldfare [Turdus pilaris] Shrike, Red-backed [Lanius collurio]
Firecrest [Regulus ignicapillus] Spoonbill [Platalea leucorodia]
Garganey [Anas querquedula] Stilt, Black-winged
Godwit, Black-tailed [Limosa limosa] Stint, Temminck's [Calidris temminckii]
Goshawk [Accipiter gentilis] Stone-curlew [Burhinus oedicnemus]
Grebe, Black-necked [Podiceps nigricollis] Swan, Bewick's [Cygnus columbianus]
Grebe, Slavonian [Podiceps auritus] Swan, Whooper [Cygnus cygnus]
Greenshank [Tringa nebularia] Tern, Black [Childonais niger]
Gull, Little [Larus minutus] Tern, Little [Sterna albifrons]
Gull, Mediterranean [Larus melanocephalus] Tern, Roseate [Sterna dougallii]
Gyrfalcon Tit, Bearded [Panurus biarmicus]
Harriers (all species) [Circus pygargus; Circus cyaneus; Circus aeruginosus] Tit, Crested [Parus cristatus]
Heron, Purple Treecreeper, Short-toed [Certhia familiaris]
Hobby [Falco subbuteo] Warbler, Cetti's
Hoopoe Warbler, Dartford [Sylvia undata]
Kingfisher [Alcedo atthis] Warbler, Marsh [Acrocephalus palustris]
Kite, Red [Milvus milvus] Warbler, Savi's []
Merlin [Falco columbarius] Whimbrel [Numenius phaeropus]
Oriole, Golden Woodlark [Lullula arborea]
Osprey [Pandion haliaetus] Wryneck [Jynx torquilla]
 
Part II - Birds and their eggs protected by special penalties during the close season, 1 February to 31 August (21 February to 31 August below high water mark) but which may be killed or taken at other times.  
Schedule 2 (Information taken from W5.Jan01 - Published 26 February 1998)

Birds which may be killed or taken outside the close season, 1 February to 31 August except where indicated otherwise.

Part I

NOTE: The close season for ducks and geese when below high water mark is 21 February to 31 August.

Capercaillie [Tetrao urogallus]
(close season 1 Feb-30 Sep)
Moorhen [Gallinula chloropus]
Coot [Fulica atra] Pintail [Anas acuta]
Duck, Tufted [Aythya fuligula] Plover, Golden [Pluvialis apricaria]
Gadwall [Anas strepera] Pochard [Aythya ferina]
Goldeneye [Bucephala clangula] Shoveler [Anas clypeata]
Goose, Canada [Branta canadensis] Snipe, Common [Gallinago gallinago]
(close season 1 Feb-11 Aug)
Goose, Greylag [Anser anser] Teal [Anas crecca]
Goose, Pink-footed [Anser brachyrhynchus] Wigeon [Anas penelope]
Goose, White-fronted [Anser albifrons]
(fully protected in Scotland)
Woodcock [Scolopax rusticola]
(close season 1 Feb-30 Sep, except in Scotland where 1 Feb-31 Aug).
Mallard [Anas platyrhynchos]
 
Part II

Birds which may be killed or taken by authorised persons:

This section has been replaced by General Licences with the same effect:

Crow, Carrion [Corvus corone] Magpie [Pica pica]
Dove, Collared [Streptopelia decaocto] Pigeon, Feral [Columba livia]
Gull, Great Black-Backed [Larus marinus] Rook [Corvus frugilegus]
Gull, Herring [Larus argentatus] Sparrow, House [Passer domesticus]
Gull, Lesser Black-Backed [Larus fuscus] Starling [Sturnus vulgaris]
Jackdaw [Corvus monedula] Wood Pigeon [Columba palumbas]
Jay [Garrulus glandarius]
Schedule 3 (Information taken from W5.Jan01 - Published 26 February 1998)

Birds which may be sold alive at all times if ringed and bred in captivity.

Part I

NB: Certain birds on Schedule 4 may also be sold under licence provided they are registered with the DETR; for details see Legal status checklist (Appendix B).

Blackbird [Turdus merula] Linnet [Carduelis cannabina]
Brambling [Fringilla montifringilla] Magpie [Pica pica]
Bullfinch [Pyrrhula pyrrhula] Owl, Barn [Tyto alba]
Bunting, Reed [Emberiza schoeniclus] Redpoll [Carduelis flammea]
Chaffinch [Fringilla coelebs] Siskin [Carduelis spinus]
Dunnock [Prunella modularis] Starling [Sturnus vulgaris]
Goldfinch [Carduelis cardualis] Thrush, Song [Turdus philomelos]
Greenfinch [Carduelis chloris] Twite [Carduelis flavirostris]
Jackdaw [Corvus monedula] Yellowhammer [Emberiza citrinella]
Jay [Garrulus glandarius]
 
Part II

Birds which may be sold dead at all times.

Woodpigeon [Columba palumbas]
Part III

Birds which may be sold dead from 1 September to 28 February.

NB: It is illegal to offer for sale at any time of the year any wild goose, moorhen, gadwall or goldeneye, although they are legitimate quarry species outside the close season.

Capercaillie [Tetrao urogallus] Pochard [Aythya ferina]
Coot [Fulica atra] Shoveler [Anas clypeata]
Duck, Tufted [Aythya fuligula] Snipe, Common [Gallinago gallinago]
Mallard [Anas platyrhynchos] Teal [Anas crecca]
Pintail [Anas acuta] Wigeon [Anas penelope]
Plover, Golden [Pluvialis apricaria] Woodcock [Scolopax rusticola]
Schedule 4 (Information taken from W5.Jan01 - Published 26 February 1998)

Birds which must be registered and ringed if kept in captivity.

Any bird, one of whose parents or other lineal ancestor was a bird of a kind specified in the above list.

[Editor's note: Birds listed in this Schedule must, if kept in captivity, be registered with DEFRA in accordance with the Wildlife and Countryside (Registration and Ringing of Certain Captive Birds) Regulations 1982; most of these species must be ringed.]

Bunting, Cirl [Emberiza cirlus] Honey-Buzzard, Black
Bunting, Lapland [Calcarius lapponicus] Kestrel, Lesser
Bunting, Snow [Plectrophenax nivalis] Kestrel, Mauritius
Buzzard, Honey [] Kite, Red [Milvus milvus]
Eagle, Adalbert's Merlin [Falco columbarius]
Eagle, Golden [Aquila chrysaetos] Oriole, Golden
Eagle, Great Phillipine Osprey [Pandion haliaetus]
Eagle, Imperial Redstart, Black [Phoenicurus ochruros]
Eagle, New Guinea Redwing [Turdus iliacus]
Eagle, White-tailed [Haliaeetus albicilla] Sea-Eagle, Pallas'
Chough [Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax] Sea-Eagle, Steller's []
Crossbills (all species) [Loxia curvirostra; Loxia scotica] Serin
Falcon, Barbary Serpent-Eagle, Andaman
Falcon, Gyr Serpent-Eagle, Madagascar
Falcon, Peregrine [Falco peregrinus] Serpent-Eagle, Mountain
Fieldfare [Turdus pilaris] Shorelark []
Firecrest [Regulus ignicapillus] Shrike, Red-backed [Lanius collurio]
Fish-Eagle, Madagascar Sparrowhawk, New Britain
Forest-Falcon, Plumbeous Sparrowhawk, Gundlach's
Goshawk [Accipiter gentilis] Sparrowhawk, Imitator
Harrier, Hen [Circus cyaneus] Sparrowhawk, Small
Harrier, Marsh [Circus aeruginosus] Tit, Bearded [Panurus biarmicus]
Harrier, Montagu's [Circus pygargus] Tit, Crested [Parus cristatus]
Hawk, Galapagos Warbler, Cetti's
Hawk, Grey-backed Warbler, Dartford [Sylvia undata]
Hawk, Hawaiian Warbler, Marsh [Acrocephalus palustris]
Hawk, Ridgway's Warbler, Svi's []
Hawk, White-necked Woodlark [Lullula arborea]
Hawk-Eagle, Wallace's Wryneck [Jynx torquilla]
Hobby [Falco subbuteo]
 
Schedule 5 (Information taken from W5.Jan01 - Published 26 February 1998)

Protected animals.

Note: Where a species is annotated with * protection is only afforded against the actions referred to.

Common Name
Scientific Name
Adder
Vipera berus [Vipera berus]

(Sections 9(1) "killing & injuring" and 9(5) "sale" only)
Anemone Ivell's Sea Edwardsia ivelli

Starlet Sea Nematosella vectensis
Apus Tadpole Shrimp Triops cancriformis
Bats Horseshoe Rhinolophidae [Rhinolophus ferrumequinum; Rhinolophus hipposideros], all species

Typical Vespertilionidae [Vespertilionidae], all species
Beetle
Graphoderus zonatus


Hypebaeus flavipes


Paracymus aeneus

Lesser Silver Water Hydrochara caraboides

Mire Pill Curimopsis nigrita

(C. nigrita - section 9(4)(a) "damaging etc. a place used for shelter" only)

Rainbow Leaf Chrysolina cerealis

Stag Lucanus cervus

(section 9(5)"sale" only)

Violet Click Limoniscus violaceus
Burbot
Lota lota
Butterfly Adonis Blue Lysandra bellargus*

Black Hairsteak Strymondia pruni*

Brown Hairstreak Thecla betulae*

Chalkhill Blue Lysandra coridon*

Chequered Skipper Carterocephalus palaemon*

Duke of Burgundy Hamearis lucina*
Fritillary Glanville Fritillary Melitaea cinxia*

Heath Fritillary Mellicta athalia

High Brown Fritillary Argynnis adippe

Large Blue Maculinea arion

Large Copper Lycaena dispar

Large Heath Coenonympha tullia*

Large Tortoiseshell Nymphalis polychlorus*

Lulworth Skipper Thymelicus acteon*

Marsh Fritillary Eurodryas aurinia

Mountain Ringlet Erebia epiphron*

Northern Brown Argus Aricia artaxerxes*

Pearl-Bordered Boloria euphrosyne*

Purple Emperor Apatura iris*

Silver Spotted Skipper Hesperia comma*

Silver Studded Blue Plebejus argus*

Small Blue Cupido minimus*

Swallowtail Papilio machaon

White Letter Hairstreak Stymondia w-album

Wood White Leptidea sinapis*


(* denotes Section 9(5) "sale" only)
Cat Wild Felis silvestris [Felis silvestris]
Cicada New Forest Cicadetta montana
Crayfish Atlantic Stream Austropotamobius pallipes

(Section 9(1) "taking" and 9(5) "sale" only)
Cricket Field Gryllus campestris

Mole Gryllotalpa gryllotalpa
Damselfly Southern Coenagrion mercuriale
Dolphins
Cetacea [Lagenorhynchus acutus; Tursiops truncatus; Delphinus delphis; Globicephala melas; Grampus griseus; Stenella coeruleoalba; Lagenorhynchus albirostris]
Dormouse
Muscardinus avellanarius [Muscardinus avellanarius]
Dragonfly Norfolk Aeshna Aeshna isosceles
Frog Common Rana temporaria [Rana temporaria]

(Section 9(5) "sale" only)
Goby Couch's Gobius couchii

Giant Gobius cobitis
Grasshopper Wart-biter Decticus verrucivorus
Hatchet Shell Northern Thyasira gouldi
Hydroid Marine Clavopsella navis
Lagoon Snail
Paludinella littorina

De Folin's Caecum armoricum
Lagoon Worm Tentacled Alkmaria romijni
Leech Medicinal Hirudo medicinalis
Lizard Sand Lacerta agilis [Lacerta agilis]

Viviparous Lacerta vivipara [Lacerta vivipara]

(L. vivipara - Section 9(1) "killing and injuring" and 9(5) "sale" only)
Marten Pine Martes martes [Martes martes]
Moth Barberry Carpet Pareulype berberata

Black-veined Siona lineata (or Iaea lineata)

Essex Emerald Theitdia smaragdaria

Fiery Clearwing Bembecia chrysidiformis

Fisher's Estuarine Gortyna borelii

New Forest Burnet Zygaena viciae

Reddish Buff Acosmetia caliginosa

Sussex Emerald Thalera fimbrialis
Mussel Fan Atrina fragilis

(Section 9(1)(2) and (5) "killing and injuring", "possession etc" and "sale" only)

Freshwater Pearl Margaritifera margaritifera
Newt Great Crested (or Warty) Triturus cristatus [Triturus cristatus]

Palmate Triturus helveticus [Triturus helveticus]

Smooth Triturus vulgaris [Triturus vulgaris]

(T. helveticus and T. vulgaris - section 9(5) "sale" only)
Otter Common Lutra lutra [Lutra lutra]
Porpoises
Cetacea [Phocoena phocoena]
Sandworm Lagoon Armandia cirrhosa
Sea Fan Pink Eunicella verrucosa

(Section 9(1) "killing, injuring and taking", 9(2) "possession" and 9(5) "sale" only)
Sea Mat Trembling Victorella pavida
Sea Slug Lagoon Tenellia adspersa
Shad Allis Alosa alosa

(Section 9(1) "killing, injuring and taking", 9(4)(a) "damaging etc. a place used for shelter" only)

Twaite Alosa fallax

(Section 9(4)(a) "damaging etc. a place used for shelter" only)
Shark Basking Cetorhinus maximus
Shrimp Fairy Chirocephalus diaphanus

Lagoon Sand Gammarus insensiblis
Slow Worm
Anguis fragilis [Anguis fragilis]

(Section 9(1)"killing and injuring" and 9(5) "sale" only)
Snail Glutinous Myxas glutinosa

Sandbowl Catinella arenaria
Snake Grass Natrix natrix [Natrix natrix] (Natrix helvetica)

(N. natrix - Section 9(1) "killing and injuring" and 9(5) "sale" only)

Smooth Coronella austriaca [Coronella austriaca]
Spider Fen Raft Dolomedes plantarius

Ladybird Eresus niger
Squirrel Red Sciurus vulgaris [Sciurus vulgaris]
Sturgeon
Acipenser sturio
Toad Common Bufo bufo [Bufo bufo]

Natterjack Bufo calamita [Bufo calamita]

(B. bufo - 9(5) "sale" only)
Turtles Marine Dermochelyidae and Cheloniidae all species [Dermochelys coriacea; Chelonia mydas; Lepidochelys kempii; Caretta caretta]
Vendace
Coregonus albula
Vole Water Arvicola terrestris [Arvicola terrestris]

(Section - 9(4)(a) and (b) "damaging etc. a place used for shelter" and disturbing an animal while occupying a structure or place of shelter" only)
Walrus
Odobenus rosmarus
Whales
Cetacea [Orcinus orca; Balaenoptera acutorostrata; Physeter macrocephalus]
Whitefish
Coregonus lavaretus
 
Schedule 6 (Information taken from W5.Jan01 - Published 26 February 1998)

Animals which may not be killed or taken by certain methods

Badger [Meles meles] Marten, Pine [Martes martes]
Bats, Horseshoe (all species) [Rhinolophidae] Otter, Common [Lutra lutra]
Bats, Typical (all species) [Vespertilionidae] Polecat [Mustela putorius]
Cat, Wild [Felis silvestris] Porpoise, Harbour (otherwise known as Common porpoise) [Phocoena phocoena]
Dolphin, Bottle-nosed [Tursiops truncatus] Shrews (all species) [Soricidae;]
Dormice (all species) [Muscardinus avellanarius; Myoxus glis] Squirrel, Red [Sciurus vulgaris]
Hedgehog [Erinaceus europaeus]
Schedule 8 (Information taken from W5.Jan01 - Published 26 February 1998)

Protected plants.

Common Name
Scientific Name
Adder's Tongue Least Ophioglossum lusitanicum
Alison Small Alyssum alyssoides
Blackwort
Southbya nigrella
Bluebell
Hyacinthoides non-scripta

(Sections 13(2) - "sale" only)
Broomrape Bedstraw Orobanche caryophyllacea

Oxtongue Orobanche loricata

Thistle Orobanche reticulata
Cabbage Lundy Rhynchosinapis wrightii
Calamint Wood Calamintha sylvatica
Caloplaca Snow Caloplaca nivalis
Catapyrenium Tree Catapyrenium psoromoides
Catchfly Alpine Lychnis alpina
Catillaria Laurer's Catellaria laureri
Centaury Slender Centaurium tenuiflorum
Cinquefoil Rock Potentilla rupestris
Clary Meadow Salvia pratensis
Club-rush Triangular Scirpus triquetrus
Colt's-foot Purple Homogyne alpina
Cotoneaster Wild Cotoneaster integerrimus
Cottongrass Slender Eriophorum gracile
Cow-wheat Field Melampyrum arvense
Crocus Sand Romulea columnae
Crystalwort Lizard Riccia bifurca
Cudweed Broad-leaved Filago pyramidata

Jersey Gnaphalium luteoalbum

Red-tipped Filago lutescens
Cut-grass
Leersia oryzoides
Diapensia
Diapensia lapponica
Dock Shore Rumex rupestris
Earwort Marsh Jamesoniella undulifolia
Eryngo Field Eryngium campestre
Fern Dickie's Bladder Cystopteris dickieana

Killarney Trichomanes speciosum
Flapwort Norfolk Leiocolea rutheana
Fleabane Alpine Erigeron borealis

Small Pulicaria vulgaris
Fleawort South Stack Tephroseris integrifolia (ssp maritima)
Frostwort Pointed Gymnomitrion apiculatum
Fungi Hedgehog Fungus Hericium erinaceum

Oak Polypore Buglossoporus pulvinus

Royal Bolete Boletus regius

Sandy Stilt Puffball Battarraea phalloides
Galingale Brown Cyperus fuscus
Gentian Alpine Gentiana nivalis

Dune Gentianella uliginosa

Early Gentianella anglica

Fringed Gentianella ciliata

Spring Gentiana verna
Germander Cut-leaved Teucrium botrys

Water Teucrium scordium
Gladiolus Wild Gladiolus illyricus
Goosefoot Stinking Chenopodium vulvaria
Grass-poly
Lythrum hyssopifolia
Grimmia Blunt-leaved Grimmia unicolor
Gyalecta Elm Gyalecta ulmi
Hare's-ear Sickle-leaved Bupleurum falcatum

Small Bupleurum baldense
Hawk's-beard Stinking Crepis foetida
Hawkweed Northroe Hieracium northroense

Shetland Hieracium zetlandicum

Weak-leaved Hieracium attenuatifolium
Heath Blue Phyllodoce caerulea
Helleborine Red Cephalanthera rubra

Young's Epipactis youngiana
Horsetail Branched Equisetum ramosissimum
Hound's-tongue Green Cynoglossum germanicum
Knawel Perennial Scleranthus perennis
Knotgrass Sea Polygonum maritimum
Lady's-slipper
Cypripedium calceolus
Lecanactis Churchyard Lecanactis hemisphaerica
Lecanora Tarn Lecanora archariana
Lecidea Copper Lecidea inops
Leek Round-headed Allium sphaerocephalon
Lettuce Least Lactuca saligna
Lichen Alpine Sulphur-tresses Alectoria ochroleuca

Arctic Kidney Nephroma arcticum

Ciliate Strap Heterodermia leucomelos

Convoluted Cladonia Cladonia convoluta

Upright Mountain Cladonia Cladonia stricta

Coralloid Rosette Heterodermia propagulifera

Ear-loped Dog Peltigera lepidophora

Forked Hair Bryoria furcellata

Goblin Lights Catolechia wahlenbergii

Golden Hair Teloschistes flavicans

New Forest Beech-lichen Enterographa elaborata

Orange Fruited Elm Caloplaca luteoalba

River Jelly Collema dichotomum

Scaly Breck Squamarina lentigera

Stary Breck Buellia asterella
Lily Snowdon Lloydia serotina
Liverwort Lindenberg's Adelanthus lindenbergianus

Leafy Petallophyllum ralfsi
Marsh-mallow Rough Althaea hirsuta
Marshwort Creeping Apium repens
Milk-parsley Cambridge Selinum carvifolia
Moss Moss Drepanocladius vernicosus

Alpine Copper Mielichoferia mielichoferi

Anomodon, Long-leaved Anomodon longifolius

Baltic Bog Sphagnum balticum

Blue Dew Saelania glaucescens

Blunt-leaved Bristle Orthotrichum obtusifolium

Bright Green Cave Cyclodictyon laetevirens

Cordate Beard Barbula cordata

Cornish Path Ditrichum cornubicum

Derbyshire Feather Thamnobryum angustifolium

Dune Thread Bryum mamillatum

Flamingo Desmatodon cernuus

Glaucous Beard Barbula glauca

Green Shield Buxbaumia viridis

Hair Silk Plagiothecium piliferum

Knothole Zygodon forsteri

Large Yellow Feather Scorpidium turgescens

Millimetre Micromitrium tenerum

Multifruited River Cryphaea lamyana

Nowell's Limestone Zygodon gracilis

Polar Feather-moss Hygrohypnum polare

Rigid Apple Bartramia stricta

Round-leaved Feather Rhyncostegium rotundifolium

Scleicher's Thread Bryum schleicheri

Threadmoss, Long-leaved Bryum neodamense

Triangular Pygmy Acaulon triquetum

Vaucher's Feather Hypnum vaucheri
Mudwort Welsh Limosella austeralis
Naiad Holly-leaved Najas marina

Slender Najas flexilis
Orache Stalked Halimione pedunculata
Orchid Early Spider Ophrys sphegodes

Fen Liparis loeselii

Ghost Epipogium aphyllum

Lapland Marsh Dactylorhiza lapponica

Late Spider Ophrys fuciflora

Lizard Himantoglossum hircinum

Military Orchis militaris

Monkey Orchis simia
Panneria Caledonia Panneria ignobilis
Parmelia New Forest Parmelia minarum
Parmentaria Oil Stain Parmentaria chilensis
Pear Plymouth Pyrus cordata
Penny-cress Perfoliate Thlapsi perfoliatum
Pennyroyal
Mentha pulegium
Pertusaria Alpine Moss Pertusaria bryontha
Physcia Southern Grey Physcia tribacioides
Pigmyweed
Crassula aquatica
Pine Ground Ajuga chamaepitys
Pink Cheddar Dianthus gratianopolitanus

Childing Petroraghia nanteuilii

Deptford Dianthus armeria

(In England and Wales only)
Plantain Floating Water Luronium natans
Pseudo Cyphellaria Ragged Pseudocyphellaria lacerata
Psora Rusty Alpine Psora rubiformis
Ragwort Fen Senecio paludosus
Rampingfumitory Martin's Fumaria martinii
Rampion Spiked Phyteuma spicatum
Restharrow Small Ononis reclinata
Rock-cress Alpine Arabis alpina

Bristol Arabis stricta
Rustwort Western Marsupella profunda
Sandwort Norwegian Arenaria norvegica

Teesdale Minuartia stricta
Saxifrage Drooping Saxifraga cernua

Marsh Saxifraga hirulus

Tufted Saxifraga cespitosa
Solenopsora Serpentine Solenopsora liparina
Soloman's-seal Whorled Polygonatum verticillatum
Sow-thistle Alpine Cicerbita alpina
Spearwort Adder's-tongue Ranunculus ophioglossifolius
Speedwell Fingered Veronica triphyllos

Spiked Veronica spicata
Spike Rush Dwarf Eleocharis parvula
Star-of-Bethlehem Early Gagea bohemica
Starfruit
Damasonium alisma
Stonewort Foxtail Lamprothamnium papulosum

Bearded Chara canescens
Strapwort
Corrigiola litoralis
Turpswort
Geocalyx graveolens
Violet Fen Viola persicifolia
Viper's-grass
Scorzonera humilis
Water-plantain Ribbon-leaved Alisma gramineum
Wood-sedge Starved Carex depauperata
Woodsia Alpine Woodsia alpina

Oblong Woodsia ilvenis
Wormwood Field Artemisia campestris
Woundwort Downy Stachys germanica

Limestone Stachys alpina
Yellow-rattle Greater Rhinanthus serotinus
 
Schedule 9 (Information taken from W5.Jan01 - Published 26 February 1998)

Animals and plants to which Section 14 applies (ie. may not be released into or grown in the wild)

Part I : birds and other animals

Bass, Large-mouthed Black Mink, American [Mustela vison]
Bass, Rock Newt, Alpine
Bitterling Newt, Italian Crested
Budgerigar Owl, Barn [Tyto alba]
Capercaillie [Tetrao urogallus] Parakeet, Ring-necked [Psittacula krameri]
Coypu [Myocastor coypus] Partridge, Chukar
Crayfish, Noble Partridge, Rock
Crayfish, Signal Pheasant, Golden [Chrysolophus pictus]
Crayfish, Turkish Pheasant, Lady Amherst's
Deer, Sika [Cervus nippon] Pheasant, Reeves'
Deer, Muntjac [Muntiacus reevesi]
Dormouse, Fat [Myoxus glis] Pheasant, Silver
Duck, Carolina Wood [Aix sponsa] Porcupine, Crested
Duck, Mandarin [Aix galericulata] Porcupine, Himalayan
Duck, Ruddy [Oxyura jamaicensis] Pumpkinseed (otherwise known as Sun-fish or Pond-perch)
Eagle, White-tailed Quail, Bobwhite
Flatworm, New Zealand Rat, Black [Rattus rattus]
Frog, Edible [Rana esculenta] Snake, Aescupapian
Frog, European Tree (otherwise known as Common Tree Frog) Squirrel, Grey [Sciurus carolinensis]
Frog, Marsh [Rana ridibunda] Terrapin, European Pond
Gerbil, Mongolian Toad, African Clawed
Goose, Canada [Branta canadensis] Toad, Midwife
Goose, Egyptian [Alopochen aegyptiacus] Wallaby, Red-necked [Macropus rufogriseus]
Heron, Night Wels
(otherwise known as European catfish)
Lizard, Common Wall Zander
Marmot, Prairie (otherwise known as Prairie dog)
 
Part II : plants
Hogweed, Giant Seaweed, Californian Red
Kelp, Giant Seaweed, Hooked Asparagus
Kelp, Japanese Seaweed, Japanese
Knotweed, Japanese Seaweeds, Laver (except native species)
Seafingers, Green Wakame
 

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Text from the Act

Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981
Part One

[Editor's note: this is the text of the original Act. It does not include any amendments to the Act]

1981 CHAPTER 69

An Act to repeal and re-enact with amendments the Protection of Birds Acts 1954 to 1967 and the Conservation of Wild Creatures and Wild Plants Act 1975; to prohibit certain methods of killing or taking wild animals; to amend the law relating to protection of certain mammals; to restrict the introduction of certain animals and plants; to amend the Endangered Species (Import and Export) Act 1976; to amend the law relating to nature conservation, the countryside and National Parks and to make provision with respect to the Countryside Commission; to amend the law relating to public rights of way; and for connected purposes.

[30th October 1981]

BE IT ENACTED by the Queen's most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons, in this present Parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows:-

Protection of birds

Protection of wild birds, their nests and eggs

1. (1) Subject to the provisions of this Part, if any person intentionally-

(a) kills, injures or takes any wild bird:

(b) takes, damages or destroys the nest of any wild bird while that nest is in use or being built; or

(c) takes or destroys an egg of any wild bird,

he shall be guilty of an offence.

(2) Subject to the provisions of this Part, if any person has in his possession or control-

(a) any live or dead wild bird or any part of, or anything derived from, such a bird; or

(b) an egg of a wild bird or any part or such an egg.

he shall be guilty of an offence.

(3) A person shall not be guilty of an offence under subsection (2) if he shows that-

(a) the bird or egg had not been killed or taken, or had been killed or taken otherwise than in contravention of the relevant provisions; or

(b) the bird, egg or other thing in his possession or control had been sold (whether to him or any other person) otherwise than in contravention of those provisions;

and in this subsection "the relevant provision" means the provisions of this Part and of orders made under it and, in the case of a bird or other thing falling within subsection (2)(a), the provisions of the Protection of Birds Acts 1954 to 1967 and of orders made under those Acts.

(4) Any person convicted of an offence under subsection (1) or (2) in respect of-

(a) a bird included in Schedule 1 or any part of, or anything derived from, such a bird;

(b) the nest of such a bird; or

(c) an egg of such a bird or any part of such an egg,

shall be liable to a special penalty.

(5) Subject to the provisions of this Part, if any person intentionally-

(a) disturbs any wild bird included in Schedule 1 while it is building a nest or is in, on or near a nest containing eggs or young; or

(b) disturbs dependent young of such a bird,

he shall be guilty of an offence and liable to a special penalty.

(6) In this section "wild bird' does not include any bird which is shown to have been bred in captivity.

(7) Any reference in this Part to any bird included in Schedule 1 is a reference to any bird included in Part I and, during the close season for the bird in question, any bird included in Part II of that Schedule.

Exceptions to s 1

2. (1) Subject to the provisions of this section, a person shall not be guilty of an offence under section 1 by reason of the killing or taking of a bird included in Part I of Schedule 2 outside the close season for that bird, or the injuring of such a bird outside that season in the course of an attempt to kill it.

(2) Subject to the provisions of this section, an authorised person shall not be guilty of an offence under section 1 by reason of-

(a) the killing or taking of a bird included in Part II of Schedule 2, or the injuring of such a bird in the course of an attempt to kill it;

(b) the taking, damaging or destruction of a nest or such a bird; or

(c) the taking or destruction of an egg of such a bird.

(3) Subsections (1) and (2) shall not apply in Scotland on Sundays or on Christmas Day; and subsection (1) shall not apply on Sundays in any area of England and Wales which the Secretary of State may by order prescribe for the purposes of that subsection.

(4) In this section and section 1 "close season" means-

(a) in the case of capercaillie and (except in Scotland) woodcock, the period in any year commencing with 1st February and ending with 30th September;

(b) in the case of snipe, the period in any year commencing with 1st February and ending with 11th August;

(c) in the case of wild duck and wild geese in or over any area below high-water mark of ordinary spring tides, the period in any year commencing with 21st February and ending with 31st August;

(d) in any other case, subject to the provisions of this Part, the period in any year commencing with 1st February and ending with 31st August.

(5) The Secretary of State may by order made with respect to the whole or any specified part of Great Britain vary the close season for any wild bird specified in the order.

(6) If it appears to the Secretary of State expedient that any wild birds included in Part II of Schedule 1 or Part I or Schedule 2 should be protected during any period outside the close season for those birds, he may by order made with respect to the whole or any specified part of Great Britain declare any period (which shall not in the case of any order exceed fourteen days) as a period of special protection for those birds; and this section and section 1 shall have effect as if any period of special protection declared under this subsection for any birds formed part of the close season for those birds.

(7) Before making an order under subsection (6) the Secretary of State shall consult a person appearing to him to be a representative of persons interested in the shooting of birds of the kind proposed to be protected by the order.

Areas of special protection

3. - (1) The Secretary of State may by order make provision with respect to any area specified in the order providing for all or any of the following matters, that is to say-

(a) that any person who, within that area or any part of it specified in the order, at any time or during any period so specified, intentionally-

(i) kills, injures or takes any wild bird or any wild bird so specified;

(ii) takes, damages, or destroys the nest of such a bird while that nest is in use or being built;

(iii) takes or destroys an egg of such a bird;

(iv) disturbs such a bird while it is building a nest, or is in, on or near a nest containing eggs or young; or

(v) disturbs dependent young of such a bird,

shall be guilty of an offence under this section;

(b) that any person who, except as may provided in the order, enters into that area or any part of it specified in the order at any time during any period so specified shall be guilty of an offence under this section;

(c) that where any offence under this Part, or any such offence under this Part as may be specified in the order, is committed within that area, the offender shall be liable to a special penalty.

(2) An authorised person shall not by virtue of any such order be guilty of an offence by reason of-

(a) the killing or taking of a bird included in Part II of Schedule 2, or the injuring of such a bird in the course of an attempt to kill it;

(b) the taking, damaging or destruction of the nest of such a bird;

(c) the taking or destruction of an egg of such a bird; or

(d) the disturbance of such a bird or dependent young of such a bird.

(3) The making of any order under this section with respect to any area shall not affect the exercise by any person of any right vested in him, whether as owner, lessee or occupier of any land in that area or by virtue of a licence or agreement.

(4) Before making any order under this section the Secretary of State shall give particulars of the intended order either by notice in writing to every owner and every occupier of any land included in the area with respect to which the order is to be made or, where the giving of such a notice is in his opinion impracticable, by advertisement in a newspaper circulating in the locality in which that area is situated.

(5) The Secretary of State shall not make an order under this section unless-

(a) all the owners and occupiers aforesaid have consented thereto;

(b) no objections thereto have been made by any of those owners or occupiers before the expiration of a period of three months from the date of the giving of the notice or the publication of the advertisement; or

(c) any such objections so made have been withdrawn.

Exceptions to ss 1 and 3

4. (l) Nothing in section 1 or in any order made under section 3 shall make unlawful-

(a) anything done in pursuance of a requirement by the Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food or the Secretary of State under section 98 of the Agriculture Act 1947, or by the Secretary of State under section 39 of the Agriculture (Scotland) Act 1948;

(b) anything done under, or in pursuance of an order made under, section 21 or 22 of the Animal Health Act 1981; or

(c) except in the case of a wild bird included in Schedule 1 or the nest or egg of such a bird, anything done under, or in pursuance of an order made under, any other provision of the said Act of 1981.

(2) Notwithstanding anything in the provisions of section 1 or any order made under section 3, a person shall not be guilty of an offence by reason of-

(a) the taking of any wild bird if he shows that the bird had been disabled otherwise than by his unlawful act and was taken solely for the purpose of tending it and releasing it when no longer disabled;

(b) the killing of any wild bird if he shows that the bird had been so seriously disabled otherwise than by his unlawful act that there was no reasonable chance of its recovering; or

(c) any act made unlawful by those provisions if he shows that the act was the incidental result of a lawful operation and could not reasonably have been avoided.

(3) Notwithstanding anything in the provisions of section 1 or any order made under section 3, an authorised person shall not be guilty of an offence by reason of the killing or injuring of any wild bird, other than a bird included in Schedule 1, if he shows that his action was necessary for the purpose of-

(a) preserving public health or public or air safety;

(b) preventing the spread of disease; or

(c) preventing serious damage to livestock, foodstuffs for livestock, crops, vegetables, fruit, growing timber, or fisheries.

Prohibition of certain methods of killing or taking wild birds

5. (l) Subject to the provisions of this Part, if any person-

(a) sets in position any of the following articles, being an article which is of such a nature and is so placed as to be calculated to cause bodily injury to any wild bird coming into contact therewith, that is to say, any spring, trap, gin, snare, hook and line, any electrical device for killing, stunning or frightening or any poisonous, poisoned or stupefying substance;

(b) uses for the purpose of killing or taking any wild bird any such article as aforesaid, whether or not of such a nature and so placed as aforesaid, or any net, baited board, bird-lime or substance of a like nature to bird-lime;

(c) uses for the purpose of killing or taking any wild bird-

(i) any bow or crossbow;

(ii) any explosive other than ammunition for a firearm;

(iii) any automatic or semi-automatic weapon;

(iv) any shot-gun of which the barrel has an internal diameter at the muzzle of more than one and three-quarter inches;

(v) any device for illuminating a target or any sighting device for night shooting;

(vi) any form of artificial lighting or any mirror or other dazzling device;

(vii) any gas or smoke not falling within paragraphs (a) and (b); or

(viii) any chemical wetting agent;

(d) uses as a decoy, for the purpose of killing or taking any wild bird, any sound recording or any live bird or other animal whatever which is tethered, or which is secured by means of braces or other similar appliances, or which is blind, maimed or injured;

(e) uses any mechanically propelled vehicle in immediate pursuit of a wild bird for the purpose of killing or taking that bird; or

(f) knowingly causes or permits to be done an act which is mentioned in the foregoing provisions of this subsection and which is not lawful under subsection (5),

he shall be guilty of an offence and be liable to a special penalty.

(2) Subject to subsection (3), the Secretary of State may by order, either generally or in relation to any kind of wild bird specified in the order, amend subsection (1) by adding any method of killing or taking wild birds or by omitting any such method which is mentioned in that subsection.

(3) The power conferred by subsection (2) shall not be exercisable, except for the purpose of complying with an international obligation, in relation to any method of killing or taking wild birds which involves the use of a firearm.

(4) In any proceedings under subsection (1) (a) it shall be a defence to show that the article was set in position for the purpose of killing or taking, in the interests of public health, agriculture, forestry, fisheries or nature conservation, any wild animals which could be lawfully killed or taken by those means and that he took all reasonable precautions to prevent injury thereby to wild birds.

(4A) In any proceedings under subsection (1) (f) relating to an act which is mentioned in subsection (l)(a) it shall be a defence to show that the article was set in position for the purpose of killing or taking, in the interests of public health, agriculture, forestry, fisheries or nature conservation, any wild animals which could be lawfully killed or taken by those means and that he took or caused to be taken all reasonable precautions to prevent injury thereby to wild birds.

(5) Nothing in subsection (1) shall make unlawful-

(a) the use of a cage-trap or net by an authorised person for the purpose of taking a bird included in Part II of Schedule 2;

(b) the use of nets for the purpose of taking wild duck in a duck decoy which is shown to have been in use immediately before the passing of the Protection of Birds Act 1954; or

(c) the use of a cage-trap or net for the purpose of taking any game bird if it is shown that the taking of the bird is solely for the purpose of breeding;

but nothing in this subsection shall make lawful the use of any net for taking birds in flight or the use for taking birds on the ground of any net which is projected or propelled otherwise than by hand.

Sale etc of live or dead wild birds, eggs etc

6. (1) Subject to the provisions of the Part, if any person-

(a) sells, offers or exposes for sale, or has in his possession or transports for the purpose of sale, any live wild bird other than a bird included in Part I of Schedule 3, or an egg of a wild bird or any part of such an egg; or

(b) publishes or causes to be published any advertisement likely to be understood as conveying that he buys or sells, or intends to buy or sell, any of those things,

he shall be guilty of an offence.

(2) Subject to the provisions of this Part, if any person who is not for the time being registered in accordance with regulations made by the Secretary of State-

(a) sells, offers or exposes for sale, or has in his possession or transports for the purpose of sale, any dead wild bird other than a bird included in Part II or III of Schedule 3, any part of, or anything derived from, such a wild bird; or

(b) publishes or causes to be published any advertisement likely to be understood as conveying that he buys or sells, or intends to buy or sell, any of those things,

he shall be guilty of an offence.

(3) Subject to the provisions of this Part, if any person shows or causes or permits to be shown for the purposes of any competition or in any premises in which a competition is being held-

(a) any live wild bird other than a bird included in Part I of Schedule 3; or

(b) any live bird one of whose parents was such a wild bird,

he shall be guilty of an offence.

(4) Any person convicted of an offence under this section in respect of-

(a) a bird included in Schedule I or any part of, or anything derived from, such a bird; or

(b) an egg of such bird or any part of such an egg,

shall be liable to a special penalty.

(5) Any reference in this section to any bird included in Part I of Schedule 3 is a reference to any bird included in that Part which was bred in captivity and has been ringed or marked in accordance with regulations made by the Secretary of State; and regulations so made may make different provision for different birds or different provisions of this section.

(6) Any reference in this section to any bird included in Part II or III of Schedule 3 is a reference to any bird included in Part II and, during the period commencing with 1st September in any year and ending with 28th February of the following year, any bird included in Part III of that Schedule.

(7) The power of the Secretary of State to make regulations under subsection (2) shall include power-

(a) to impose requirements as to the carrying out by a person registered in accordance with the regulations of any act which, apart from the registration, would constitute an offence under this section; and

(b) to provide that any contravention of the regulations shall constitute such an offence.

(8) Regulations under subsection (2) shall secure that no person shall become or remain registered-

(a) within five years of his having been convicted of an offence under this Part for which a special penalty is provided; or

(b) within three years of his having been convicted of any other offence under this Part so far as it relates to the protection of birds or other animals or any offence involving their ill-treatment,

no account being taken for this purpose of a conviction which has become spent by virtue of the Rehabilitation of Offenders Act 1974.

(8A) Power of Secretary of State to impose a charge for registration under subsection (2).

(9) Any person authorised in writing by the Secretary of State may, at any reasonable time and (if required to do so) upon producing evidence that he is authorised, enter and inspect any premises where a registered person keeps any wild birds for the purpose of ascertaining whether an offence under this section is being, or has been, committed on those premises.

(10) Any person who intentionally obstructs a person acting in the exercise of the power conferred by subsection (9) shall be guilty of an offence.

Registration etc of certain captive birds

7. (1) If any person keeps or has in his possession or under his control any bird included in Schedule 4 which has not been registered and ringed or marked in accordance with regulations made by the Secretary of State, he shall be guilty of an offence and be liable to a special penalty. (2) The power of the Secretary of State to make regulations under subsection (1) shall include power-

(a) to impose requirements which must be satisfied in relation to a bird included in Schedule 4 before it can be registered in accordance with the regulations; and

(b) to make different provision for different birds or different descriptions of birds.

(2A) Power of Secretary of State to impose a charge for registration under subsection (1).

(3) If any person keeps or has in his possession or under his control any bird included in Schedule 4-

(a) within five years of his having been convicted of an offence under this Part for which a special penalty is provided; or

(b) within three years of his having been convicted of any other offence under this Part so far as it relates to the protection of birds or other animals or any offence involving their ill-treatment,

he shall be guilty of an offence.

(4) If any person knowingly disposes of or offers to dispose of any bird included in Schedule 4 to any person-

(a) within five years of that person's having been convicted of such an offence as is mentioned in paragraph (a) of subsection (3); or

(b) within three years of that person's having been convicted of such an offence as is mentioned in paragraph (b) of that subsection,

(5) No account shall be taken for the purposes of subsections (3) and (4) of any conviction which has become spent for the purpose of the Rehabilitation of Offenders Act 1974.

(6) Any person authorised in writing by the Secretary of State may, at any reasonable time and (if required to do so) upon producing evidence that he is authorised, enter and inspect any premises where any birds included in Schedule 4 are kept for the purpose of ascertaining whether an offence under this section is being, or has been, committed on those premises.

(7) Any person who intentionally obstructs a person acting in the exercise of the power conferred by subsection (6) shall be guilty of an offence.

Protection of captive birds

8. (l) If any person keeps or confines any bird whatever in any cage or other receptacle which is not sufficient in height, length or breadth to permit the bird to stretch its wings freely, he shall be guilty of an offence and be liable to a special penalty.

(2) Subsection (1) does not apply to poultry, or to the keeping or confining of any bird-

(a) while that bird is in the course of conveyance, by whatever means;

(b) while that bird is being shown for the purposes of any public exhibition or competition if the time during which the bird is kept or confined for those purposes does not in the aggregate exceed 72 hours; or

(c) while that bird is undergoing examination or treatment by a veterinary surgeon or veterinary practitioner.

(3) Every person who-

(a) promotes, arranges, conducts, assists in, receives money for, or takes part in, any event whatever at or in the course of which captive birds are liberated by hand or by any other means whatever for the purpose of being shot immediately after their liberation; or

(b) being the owner or occupier of any land, permits that land to be used for the purposes of such an event.

shall be guilty of an offence and be liable to a special penalty.

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Protection of other animals

Protection of certain wild animals

9. (l) Subject to the provisions of this Part, if any person intentionally kills, injures or takes any wild animal included in Schedule 5, he shall be guilty of an offence.

(2) Subject to the provisions of this Part, if any person has in his possession or control any live or dead wild animals included in Schedule 5 or any parts of, or anything derived from such an animal, he shall be guilty of an offence.

(3) A person shall not be guilty of an offence under subsection (2) if he shows that-

(a) the animal had not been killed or taken, or had been killed or taken otherwise than in contravention of the relevant provisions; or

(b) the animal or other thing in his possession or control had been sold (whether to him or to any other person) otherwise than in contravention of those provisions;

and in this subsection "the relevant provisions" means the provisions of this Part of the Conservation of Wild Creatures and Wild Plants Act 1975.

(4) Subject to the provisions of this Part, if any person intentionally-

(a) damages or destroys, or obstructs access to, any structure or place which any wild animal included in Schedule 5 uses for shelter or protection; or

(b) disturbs any such animal while it is occupying a structure or place which it uses for that purpose,

he shall be guilty of an offence.

(5) Subject to the provisions of this Part, if any person-

(a) sells, offers or exposes for sale, or has in his possession or transports for the purpose of sale, any live or dead wild animal included in Schedule 5, or any part of, or anything derived from, such an animal; or

(b) publishes or causes to be published any advertisement likely to be understood as conveying that he buys or sells, or intends to buy or sell, any of those things,

he shall be guilty of an offence.

(6) In any proceedings for an offence under subsection (1), (2) or (5) (a), the animal in question shall be presumed to have been a wild animal unless the contrary is shown.

Exceptions to s 9

10. (l) Nothing in section 9 shall make unlawful-

(a) anything done in pursuance of a requirement by the Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food or the Secretary of State under section 98 of the Agriculture Act 1947, or by the Secretary of State under section 39 of the Agriculture (Scotland) Act 1948; or

(b) anything done under, or in pursuance of an order made under, the Animal Health Act 1981.

(2) Nothing in subsection (4) of section 9 shall make unlawful anything done within a dwelling-house.

(3) Notwithstanding anything in section 9, a person shall not be guilty of an offence by reason of-

(a) the taking of any such animal if he shows that the animal had been disabled otherwise than by his unlawful act and was taken solely for the purpose of tending it and releasing it when no longer disabled;

(b) the killing of any such animal if he shows that the animal had been so seriously disabled otherwise than by his unlawful act that there was no reasonable chance of its recovering; or

(c) any act made unlawful by that section if he shows that the act was the incidental result of a lawful operation and could not reasonably have been avoided.

(4) Notwithstanding anything in section 9, an authorised person shall not be guilty of an offence by reason of the killing or injuring of a wild animal included in Schedule 5 if he shows that his action was necessary for the purpose of preventing serious damage to livestock, food-stuffs for livestock, crops, vegetables, fruit, growing timber or any other form of property or to fisheries.

(5) A person shall not be entitled to rely on the defence provided by subsection (2) or (3)(c) as respects anything done in relation to a bat otherwise than in the living area of a dwelling house unless he had notified the Nature Conservancy Council for the area in which the house is situated or, as the case may be, the act is to take place, of the proposed action or operation and allowed them a reasonable time to advise him as to whether it should be carried out and, if so, the method to be used.

(6) An authorised person shall not be entitled to rely on the defence provided by subsection (4) as respects any action taken at any time if it had become apparent, before that time, that that action would prove necessary for the purpose mentioned in that subsection and either-

(a) a licence under section 16 authorising that action had not been applied for as soon as reasonably practicable after that fact had become apparent; or

(b) an application for such a licence had been determined.

Prohibition of certain methods of killing or taking wild animals

11. -(l) Subject to the provisions of this Part, if any person-

(a) sets in position any self-locking snare which is of such a nature and so placed as to be calculated to cause bodily injury to any wild animal coming into contact therewith;

(b) uses for the purpose of killing or taking any wild animal any self-locking snare, whether or not of such a nature or so placed as aforesaid, any bow or cross-bow or any explosive other than ammunition for a firearm;

(c) uses as a decoy, for the purpose of killing or taking any wild animal, any live mammal or bird whatever; or

(d) knowingly causes or permits to be done an act which is mentioned in the foregoing provisions of this section,

he shall be guilty of an offence.

(2) Subject to the provisions of this Part, if any person-

(a) sets in position any of the following articles, being an article which is of such a nature and so placed as to be calculated to cause bodily injury to any wild animal included in Schedule 6 which comes into contact therewith, that is to say, any trap or snare, any electrical device for killing stunning or frightening or any poisonous, poisoned or stupefying substance;

(b) uses for the purpose of killing or taking any such wild animal any such article as aforesaid, whether or not of such a nature and so placed as aforesaid, or any net;

(c) uses for the purpose of killing or taking any such wild animal-

(i) any automatic or semi-automatic weapon;

(ii) any device for illuminating a target or sighting device for night shooting;

(iii) any form of artificial light or any mirror or other dazzling device; or

(iv) any gas or smoke not falling within paragraphs (a) and (b);

(d) uses as a decoy, for the purpose of killing or taking any such wild animal, any sound recording;

(e) uses any mechanically propelled vehicle in immediate pursuit of any such wild animal for the purpose of driving, killing or taking that animal; or

(f) knowingly causes or permits to be done an act which is mentioned in the foregoing provisions of this subsection,

he shall be guilty of an offence.

(3) Subject to the provisions of this Part, if any person-

(a) sets in position or knowingly causes or permits to be set in position any snare which is of such a nature and so placed as to be calculated to cause bodily injury to any wild animal coming into contact therewith; and

(b) while the snare remains in position fails, without reasonable excuse, to inspect it, or cause it to be inspected, at least once every day,

he shall be guilty of an offence.

(4) The Secretary of State may, for the purpose of complying with an international obligation, by order, either generally or in relation to any kind of wild animal specified in the order, amend subsection (1) or (2) by adding any method of killing or taking wild animals or by omitting any such method as is mentioned in that subsection.

(5) In any proceedings for an offence under subsection (l)(b) or (c) or (2)(b), (c), (d) or (e) and in any proceedings for an offence under subsection (1) (d) or (2) (f) relating to an act which is mentioned in any of those paragraphs, the animal in question shall be presumed to have been a wild animal unless the contrary is shown.

(6) In any proceedings for an offence under subsection (2) (a) it shall be a defence to show that the article was set in position by the accused for the purpose of killing or taking, in the interests of public health, agriculture, forestry, fisheries or nature conservation, any wild animals which could be lawfully killed or taken by those means and that he took all reasonable precautions to prevent injury thereby to any wild animals included in Schedule 6.

(7) In any proceedings for an offence under subsection (2) (f) relating to an act which is mentioned in subsection (2) (a) it shall be a defence to show that the article was set in position for the purpose of killing or taking, in the interests of public health, agriculture, forestry, fisheries or nature conservation, any wild animals which could be lawfully killed or taken by those means and that he took or caused to be taken all reasonable precautions to prevent injury thereby to any wild animals included in Schedule 6.

Protection of certain mammals

12. Schedule 7, which amends the law relating to the protection of certain mammals, shall have effect.

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Protection of plants

Protection of wild plants

13. (l) Subject to the provisions of this Part, if any person-

(a) intentionally picks, uproots or destroys any wild plant included in Schedule 8; or

(b) not being an authorised person, intentionally uproots any wild plant not included in that Schedule,

he shall be guilty of an offence.

(2) Subject to the provisions of this Part, if any person-

(a) sells, offers or exposes for sale, or has in his possession or transports for the purpose of sale, any live or dead wild plant included in Schedule 8, or any part of, or anything derived from, such a plant; or

(b) publishes or causes to be published any advertisement likely to be understood as conveying that he buys or sells, or intends to buy or sell, any of those things,

he shall be guilty of an offence.

(3) Notwithstanding anything in subsection (1), a person shall not be guilty of an offence by reason of any act made unlawful by that subsection if he shows that the act was an incidental result of a lawful operation and could not reasonably have been avoided.

(4) In any proceedings for an offence under subsection (2)(a), the plant in question shall be presumed to have been a wild plant unless the contrary is shown.

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Miscellaneous

Introduction of new species etc

14. (l) Subject to the provisions of this Part, if any person releases or allows to escape into the wild any animal which-

(a) is of a kind which is not ordinarily resident in and is not a regular visitor to Great Britain in a wild state; or

(b) is included in Part I of Schedule 9,

he shall be guilty of an offence.

(2) Subject to the provisions of this Part, if any person plants or otherwise causes to grow in the wild any plant which is included in Part II of Schedule 9, he shall be guilty of an offence.

(3) Subject to subsection (4), it shall be a defence to a charge of committing an offence under subsection (1) or (2) to prove that the accused took all reasonable steps and exercised all due diligence to avoid committing the offence.

(4) Where the defence provided by subsection (3) involves an allegation that the commission of the offence was due to the act or default of another person, the person charged shall not, without leave of the court, be entitled to rely on the defence unless, within a period ending seven clear days before the hearing, he has served on the prosecutor a notice giving such information identifying or assisting in the identification of the other person as was then in his possession.

(5) Any person authorised in writing by the Secretary of State may, at any reasonable time and (if required to do so) upon producing evidence that he is authorised, enter any land for the purpose of ascertaining whether an offence under subsection (I) or (2) is being, or has been, committed on that land; but nothing in this subsection shall authorise any person to enter a dwelling.

(6) Any person who intentionally obstructs a person acting in the exercise of the power conferred by subsection (5) shall be guilty of an offence.

The Endangered Species (Import and Export)

15. (1) The Endangered Species (Import and Export) Act 1976 shall have effect subject to the amendments provided for in Schedule 10; and in that Schedule "the 1976 Act" means that Act.

(2) The functions of the Nature Conservancy Council shall include power to advise or assist-

(a) any constable;

(b) any officer commissioned or other person appointed or authorised by the Commissioners of Customs and Excise to exercise any function conferred on the Commissioners by the said Act of 1976; or

(c) any person duly authorised by the Secretary of State under section 7(3) of that Act, in, or in connection with, the enforcement of that Act or any order made under it.

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Supplemental

Power to grant licences

16. (l) Sections 1, 5, 6(3), 7 and 8 and orders under section 3 do not apply to anything done-

(a) for scientific or educational purposes;

(b) for the purpose of ringing or marking, or examining any ring or mark on, wild birds;

(c) for the purpose of conserving wild birds;

(d) for the purpose of protecting any collection of wild birds;

(e) for the purposes of falconry or aviculture;

(f) for the purposes of any public exhibition or competition;

(g) for the purposes of taxidermy;

(h) for the purpose of photography;

(i) for the purposes of preserving public health or public or air safety;

(j) for the purpose of preventing the spread of disease; or

(k) for the purposes of preventing serious damage to livestock, foodstuffs for livestock, crops, vegetables, fruit, growing timber or fisheries,

if it is done under and in accordance with the terms of a licence granted by the appropriate authority.

(2) Section 1 and orders under section 3 do not apply to anything done for the purpose of providing food for human consumption in relation to-

(a) a gannet on the island of Sula Sgeir; or

(b) a gull's egg or, at any time before 15th April in any year, a lapwing's egg,

if it is done under and in accordance with the terms of a licence granted by the appropriate authority.

(3) Sections 9(1), (2) and (4), 11(1) and (2) and 13(1) do not apply to anything done-

(a) for scientific or educational purposes;

(b) for the purpose of ringing or marking, or examining any ring or mark on, wild animals;

(c) for the purpose of conserving wild animals or wild plants or introducing them to particular areas;

(d) for the purpose of protecting any zoological or botanical collection;

(e) for the purpose of photography;

(f) for the purpose of preserving public health or public safety;

(g) for the purpose of preventing the spread of disease; or

(h) for the purpose of preventing serious damage to livestock, foodstuffs for livestock, crops, vegetables, fruit, growing timber or any other form of property or to fisheries,

if it is done under and in accordance with the terms of a licence granted by the appropriate authority.

(4) The following provisions, namely-

(b) sections 9(5) and 13(2); and

(c) section 14,

do not apply to anything done under and in accordance with the terms of a licence granted by the appropriate authority.

(5) Subject to subsection (6), a licence under the foregoing provisions of this section-

(a) may be, to any degree, general or specific;

(b) may be granted either to persons of a class or to a particular person;

(c) may be subject to compliance with any specified conditions

(d) may be modified or revoked at any time by the appropriate authority; and

(e) subject to paragraph (d), shall be valid for the period stated in the licence;

and the appropriate authority may charge therefor such reasonable sum (if any) as they may determine.

(6) A licence under subsection (1), (2) or (3) which authorises any person to kill wild birds or wild animals-

(a) shall specify the area within which, and the methods by which the wild birds or wild animals may be killed; and

(b) subject to subsection (5) (d), shall be valid for the period, not exceeding two years, stated in the licence.

(7) It shall be a defence in proceedings for an offence under section 8(b) of the Protection of Animals Act 1911 or section 7(b) of the Protection of Animals (Scotland) Act 1912 (which restrict the placing on land of poison and poisonous substances) to show that-

(a) the act alleged to constitute the offence was done under and in accordance with the terms of a licence issued under subsection (1) or (3); and

(b) any conditions specified in the licence were complied with.

(8) For the purposes of a licence granted under the foregoing provisions of this section, the definition of a class of persons may be framed by reference to any circumstances whatever including, in particular, their being authorised by any other person.

(9) In this section the appropriate authority" means-

(a) in the case of a licence under paragraph (a), (b) or (c) of subsection (1), either the Secretary of State after consultation with whichever one of the advisory bodies he considers is best able to advise him as to whether the licence should be granted, or the relevant Nature Conservancy Council;

(b) in the case of a licence under any of paragraphs (d) to (g) of subsection (1), subsection (2)or paragraph (a) or (b) of subsection 4, the Secretary of State after such consultation as aforesaid;

(c) in the case of a licence under paragraph (h) of subsection (1) or any of paragraphs (a) to (e) of subsection (3), the relevant Nature Conservancy Council;

(d) in the case of a licence under paragraph (i), (j) or (k) of subsection (1) or paragraph (f), (g) or (h) of subsection (3) or a licence under paragraph (c) of subsection(4) which authorises anything to be done in relation to fish or shellfish, the agriculture Minister; and

(e) in the case of any other licence under paragraph (c) of subsection (4), the Secretary of State.

(10) The agriculture Minister-

(a) shall from time to time consult with each of the Nature Conservancy Councils as to the exercise in the area of that Council of his functions under this section; and

(b) shall not grant a licence of any description unless he has been advised by the relevant Nature Conservancy Council as to the circumstances in which, in their opinion, licences of that description should be granted.

(11) For the purposes of this section a reference to a relevant Nature Conservancy Council is a reference to the Nature Conservancy Council for the area in which it is proposed to carry on the activity requiring a licence.

False statements made for obtaining registration or licence etc

17. A person who, for the purposes of obtaining, whether for himself or another, a registration in accordance with regulations made under section 6(2) or 7(1) or the grant of a licence under section16-

(a) makes a statement or representation, or furnishes a document or information, which he knows to be false in a material particular; or

(b) recklessly makes a statement or representation, or furnishes a document or information which is false in a material particular,

shall be guilty of an offence.

Attempts to commit offences etc

18. (1) Any person who attempts to commit an offence under the foregoing provisions of this part shall be guilty of an offence and shall be punishable in like manner as for the said offence.

(2) Any person who for the purposes of committing an offence under the foregoing provisions of this Part, has in his possession anything capable of being used for committing the offence shall be guilty of an offence and shall be punishable in like manner as for the said offence.

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Enforcement

19. (1) If a constable suspects with reasonable cause that any person is committing or has committed an offence under this Part, the constable may without warrant-

(a) stop and search that person if the constable suspects with reasonable cause that evidence of the commission of the offence is to be found on that person;

(b) search or examine any thing which that person may then be using or have in his possession if the constable suspects with reasonable cause that evidence of the commission of the offence is to be found on that thing;

(c) repealed;

(d) seize and detain for the purposes of proceedings under this Part any thing which may be evidence of the commission of the offence or may be liable to be forfeited under section 21.

(2) If a constable suspects with reasonable cause that any person is committing an offence under this Part, he may, for the purpose of exercising the powers conferred by subsection (1) or arresting a person, in accordance with section 25 of the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984, for such an offence, enter any land other than a dwelling house.

(3) If a justice of the peace is satisfied by information on oath that there are reasonable grounds for suspecting that-

(a) an offence under section 1, 3, 5, 7 or 8 in respect of which this Part or any order made under it provides for a special penalty; or

(b) an offence under section 6, 9, 11(1) or (2), 13 or 14,

has been committed and that evidence of the offence may be found on any premises, he may grant a warrant to any constable (with or without other persons) to enter upon and search those premises for the purpose of obtaining that evidence.

In the application of this subsection to Scotland, the reference to a justice of the peace includes a reference to the sheriff.

Summary prosecutions

20. (1) This section applies to-

(a) any offence under section 1(1) or 3(1) involving the killing or taking of any wild bird or the taking of an egg of such a bird;

(b) any offence under section 9(1) involving the killing or taking of any wild animal; and

(c) any offence under section 13(1) involving the picking uprooting or destruction of any wild plant.

(2) Summary proceedings for an offence to which this section applies may be brought within a period of six months from the date on which evidence sufficient in the opinion of the prosecutor to warrant the proceedings came to his knowledge; but no such proceedings shall be brought by virtue of this section more than two years after the commission of an offence.

(3) For the purpose of this section a certificate signed by or on behalf of the prosecutor and stating the date on which such evidence as aforesaid came to his knowledge shall be conclusive evidence of that fact; and a certificate stating that matter and purporting to be so signed shall be deemed to be so signed unless the contrary is proved.

Penalties, forfeitures etc

21. (1) Subject to subsection (5), a person guilty of an offence under section 1, 3, 5, 6, 7 or 8 shall be liable on summary conviction-

(a) in a case where this Part or any order made under it provides that he shall be liable to a special penalty, to a fine not exceeding level 5 on the standard scale;

(b) in any other case, to a fine not exceeding level 3 on the standard scale.

(2) Subject to subsection (5), a person guilty of an offence under section 9 or 11(1) or (2) shall be liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding level 5 on the standard scale.

(3) Subject to subscription (5), a person guilty of an offence under section 11(3), 13 or 17 shall be liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding level 4 on the standard scale.

(4) A person guilty of an offence under section 14 shall be liable-

(a) on summary conviction, to a fine not exceeding the statutory maximum;

(b) on conviction on indictment, to a fine.

(5) Where an offence to which subsection (1), (2) or (3) applies was committed in respect of more than one bird, nest, egg, other animal, plant or other thing, the maximum fine which may be imposed under that subsection shall be determined as if the person convicted had been convicted of a separate offence in respect of each bird, nest, egg, animal, plant or thing.

(6) The court by which any person is convicted of an offence under this Part-

(a) shall order the forfeiture of any bird, nest, egg, other animal, plant or other thing in respect of which the offence was committed; and

(b) may order the forfeiture of any vehicle, animal, weapon or other thing which was used to commit the offence and, in the case of an offence under section 14, any animal or plant which is of the same kind as that in respect of which the offence was and was found in his possession.

(7) Any offence under this Part shall, for the purpose of conferring jurisdiction, be deemed to have been committed in any place where the offender is found or to which he is first brought after the commission of the offence.

Power to vary Schedules

22. (1) The Secretary of State may by order, either generally or with respect to particular provisions of this Part, particular areas of Great Britain or particular times of the year, add any bird to, or remove any bird from, any of or any Part of Schedules 1 to 4.

(2) An order under subsection (1) adding any bird to Part II of Schedule 1 or Part I of Schedule 2 may prescribe a close season in the case of that bird for the purposes of sections 1 and 2; and any close season so prescribed shall commence on a date not later than 21st February and end on a date not earlier than 31st August.

(3) The Secretary of State may, on a representation made to him by the Nature Conservancy Council, by order, either generally or with respect to particular provisions of this Part, particular areas of Great Britain or particular times of the year-

(a) add to Schedule 5 or Schedule 8 any animal or plant which, in his opinion, is in danger of extinction in Great Britain or is likely to become so endangered unless conservation measures are taken; and

(b) remove from Schedule 5 or Schedule 8 any animal or plant which, in his opinion, is no longer so endangered or likely to become so endangered.

(4) The Secretary of State may, for the purpose of complying with an international obligation, by order, either generally or with respect to particular provisions of this Part or particular times of the year-

(a) add any animals to, or remove any animals from, Schedule 5 or Schedule 6 ; and

(b) add any plants to, or remove any plants from, Schedule 8.

(5) The Secretary of State may by order, either generally or with respect to particular areas of Great Britain-

(a) add any animals to, or remove any animals from. Part I of Schedule 9; and

(b) add any plants to, or remove any plants from, Part II of that Schedule.

Advisory bodies and their functions

23. (1) The Secretary of State may-

(a) establish any body or bodies, consisting in each case of such members as he may from time to time appoint;

(b) assign to any body or bodies the duty referred to in subsection (4).

(2) Without prejudice to his power under subsection (1), the Secretary of State shall, as soon as practicable after the commencement date,-

(a) establish at least one body under paragraph (a) of subsection (1) ; or

(b) assign to at least one body, under paragraph (b) of that subsection, the duty referred to in subsection (4).

(3) A reference in this Part to an advisory body is a reference to a body which is established under subsection (1) or to which the duty there referred to is assigned under that subsection.

(4) It shall be the duty of an advisory body to advise the Secretary of State on any question which he may refer to it or on which it considers it should offer its advice-

(a) in connection with the administration of this Part; or

(b) otherwise in connection with the protection of birds or other animals or plants.

(5) In so far as it does not have power to do so apart from this subsection, an advisory body may publish reports relating to the performance by it of its duty under subsection (4).

(6) Before appointing a person to be a member of an advisory body established under subsection (1)(a), the Secretary of State shall consult such persons or bodies as he thinks fit.

(7) The Secretary of State may, out of moneys provided by Parliament and to such an extent as may be approved by the Treasury, defray or contribute towards the expenses of an advisory body established under subsection (l)(a).

Functions of the Nature Conservancy Council

24. (1) The Nature Conservancy Council may at any time and shall five years after the passing of this Act and every five years thereafter, review Schedules 5 and 8 and advise the Secretary of State whether, in their opinion,-

(a) any animal should be added to, or removed from, Schedule 5;

(b) any plant should be added to, or removed from. Schedule 8.

(2) Advice may be given under subsection (1) either generally or with respect to particular provisions of this Part, particular areas of Great Britain or particular times of the year; and any advice so given shall be accompanied by a statement of the reasons which led the Council to give that advice.

(3) The Council shall include any advice so given and the statement accompanying it in the annual report submitted by them to the Secretary of State under paragraph 17 of Schedule 3 to the Nature Conservancy Council Act 1973.

(4) The functions of the Council shall include power to advise or assist-

(a) any constable;

(b) any proper officer of a local authority; or

(c) any person duly authorised by the Secretary of State under section 6(9), 7(6) or 14(5),

in, or in connection with, the enforcement of the provisions of this Part or any order or regulations made under it.

Functions of the local authorities

25. (l) Every local authority shall take such steps as they consider expedient for bringing to the attention of the public and of schoolchildren in particular the effect of-

(a) the provisions of this Part; and

(b) any order made under this Part affecting the whole or any part of their area.

(2) A local authority in England and Wales may institute proceedings for any offence under this Part or any order made under it which is committed within their area.

Regulations, orders, notices etc.

26. (1) Any power to make regulations or orders under this Part shall be exercisable by statutory instrument.

(2) A statutory instrument containing regulations under this Part, or an order under a provision of this Part other than sections 2(6), 3, 5 and 11, shall be subject to annulment in pursuance of a resolution of either House of Parliament.

(3) No order under section 5 or 11 shall be made unless a draft of the order has been laid before and approved by a resolution of each House of Parliament.

(4) Before making any order under this Part, the Secretary of State-

(a) except in the case of an order under section 2(6), shall give to any local authority affected and, except in the case of an order under section 3. any other person affected, by such means as he may think appropriate, an opportunity to submit objections or representations with respect to the subject matter of the order;

(b) except in the case of an order under section 22(3), shall consult with whichever one of the advisory bodies he considers is best able to advise him as to whether the order should be made; and

(c) may, if he thinks fit, cause a public inquiry to be held.

(5) Notice of the making of an order under this Part shall be published by the Secretary of State-

(a) if the order relates in whole or in part to England and Wales, in the London Gazette; and

(b) if the order relates in whole or in part to Scotland, in the Edinburgh Gazette.

(6) The Secretary of State shall give consideration to any proposals for the making by him of an order under this Part with respect to any area which may be submitted to him by a local authority whose area includes that area.

Interpretation of Part I

27. (1) In this Part, unless the context otherwise requires-

"advertisement" includes a catalogue, a circular and a price list;

"agriculture Minister" means the Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food or the Secretary of State;

"authorised person" means-

(a) the owner or occupier, or any person authorised by the owner or occupier, of the land on which the action authorised is taken;

(b) any person authorised in writing by the local authority for the area within which the action authorised is taken;

(c) as respects anything done in relation to wild birds, any person authorised in writing by any of the following bodies, that is to say, any of the Nature Conservancy Councils, a district board for a fishery district within the meaning of the Salmon Fisheries (Scotland) Act 1862 or a local fisheries committee constituted under the Sea Fisheries Regulation Act 1966;

(d) any person authorised in writing by the National Rivers Authority (a), a Water undertaker, a sewerage undertaker;

so, however, that the authorisation of any person for the purposes of this definition shall not confer any right of entry upon any land;

"automatic weapon" and "semi-automatic weapon" do not include any weapon the magazine of which is incapable of holding more than two rounds;

"aviculture" means the breeding and rearing of birds in captivity;

"destroy", in relation to an egg, includes doing anything to the egg which is calculated to prevent it from hatching, and "destruction" shall be construed accordingly;

"domestic duck" means any domestic form of duck;

"domestic goose" means any domestic form of goose;

"firearm" has the same meaning as in the Firearms Act 1968;

"game bird" means any pheasant, partridge, grouse (or moor game), black (or heath) game or ptarmigan;

"livestock" includes any animal which is kept-

(a) for the provision of food, wool, skins or fur;

(b) for the purpose of its use in the carrying on of any agricultural activity; or

(c) for the provision or improvement of shooting or fishing;

"local authority" means-

(a) in relation to England, a county, district or London borough council;

(aa) in relation to Wales, a county council or county borough council;

(b) in relation to Scotland, a regional, islands or district council;

"occupier", in relation to any land other than the foreshore, includes any person having any right of hunting, shooting, fishing or taking game or fish;

"pick", in relation to a plant, means gather or pluck any part of the plant without uprooting it;

"poultry" means domestic fowls, geese, ducks, guinea-fowls, pigeons and quails, and turkeys;

"sale" includes hire, barter and exchange and cognate expressions shall be construed accordingly;

"uproot", in relation to a plant, means dig up or otherwise remove the plant from the land on which it is growing;

"vehicle" includes aircraft, hovercraft and boat;

"water authority", in relation to Scotland, has the same meaning as in the Water (Scotland) Act 1980;

"wild animal" means any animal (other than a bird) which is or (before it was killed or taken) was living wild;

"wild bird" means any bird of a kind which is ordinarily resident in or is a visitor to Great Britain in a wild state but does not include poultry or, except in sections 5 and 16, any game bird;

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