Field Manual of Wildlife
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|the portion of
the body that lies between the thorax and the pelvis.
Abdominal cavity - the
space that contains the abdominal viscera (the liver, spleen, intestines, etc.).
Abdominal wall - the layers
of muscles lying between the skin and the abdominal cavity.
Absorption - to take in a
substance through the pores or cells of a tissue. The substance must pass through the
tissue to be absorbed.
Acanthocephalans - cylindrical,
unsegmented worms that attach to the host by a retractable proboscis with sharp hooks.
Acaracides - substances,
such as pesticides, that kill mites.
Acariasis - infestation
of the body by mites.
Accipiters - short winged,
long-tailed hawks; North American species are goshawk, Cooper's hawk, and sharp-shinned
Acute - sharp or severe,
such as an illness with a sudden onset and a relatively short course.
Air sacs - thin-walled sacs
that communicate with the lungs and are part of the avian respiratory system.
Airsacculitis - inflammation
of the air sacs in birds.
Alcids - typically, pelagic
colonial nesting seabirds, including species such as auklets, guillemots, murres,
murrelets, and puffins.
Algae - a special form of
plant life that lacks true roots, stems, or leaves, and that ranges in size from
microscopic single cells to multicellular structures, such as seaweeds.
Alimentary canal - the
Allergic disease - development
of a hypersensitivity of the host to substances foreign to the body, primarily antigens
and other proteins.
Altricial - refers to
newly hatched birds that require care in the nest for some period of time.
Ambient temperature - room
or environmental temperature.
Amino acids - organic
compounds of specific composition from which proteins are synthesized.
Amphibians - coldblooded
animals characterized by moist, smooth skin that live both on land and in water at various
life stages and that have gills at some stage of development, that is, frogs, toads,
Amplification host - a host
in which disease agents, such as viruses, increase in number.
Amyloid deposit - a complex
protein material that grossly resembles starch and that in certain abnormal conditions
accumulates in various body tissues causing cellular damage and injury to the affected
Anaerobic - absence of
oxygen; often refers to an organism that grows, lives, or is found in an environment
devoid of oxygen, such as the cellular form of Clostridium botulinum, which causes
Analgesia - the absence of
normal sensitivity to pain, typically, being in a semiconscious state induced through an
Anemia - a reduction in the
normal number of red blood cells, or erythrocytes, in the body.
Anesthetic - a drug used to
temporarily deaden pain.
Anesthetic induction time - the
time between administering an anesthetic chemical and the actual time when target nerves
Animal pathogens - organisms
such as viruses, bacteria, and parasites, that are capable of invading and infecting
animal hosts and causing disease.
Annelids - a group of
invertebrates characterized by the segmented worms, including those in marine and
freshwater and earthworms in addition to leeches.
Anorexia - lack of
Anoxia - a total lack of
oxygen caused by several mechanisms that prevent oxygen from reaching the mitochondria of
cells. Anoxia indicates a level of oxygen in animal tissues that is below normal in the
presence of an adequate blood supply.
Antibody - a specialized
serum protein produced by the immune system in response to an antigen in an attempt to
counteract the effects of the antigen; antibodies in the blood indicate exposure to
specific antigens or disease agents.
Antidote - substances that
counteract or prevent the action of a poison.
Antigen - any foreign
substance (generally proteins) to which the body reacts by producing antibodies. Antigens
may be soluble substances such as toxins, particulate matter such as pollen, or
microorganisms such as bacteria and viruses.
Antiserum - a serum
containing antibodies to specific antigens; can be used to test biological samples for the
presence of specific antigens.
Antitoxin - any substance
that counteracts the action of a toxin or poison; generally, a specific type of antibody
produced in experimental animals as a result of exposure to a specific toxin. Botulism
antitoxin, for example, can be produced by exposing an animal to low levels of botulism
toxin over a long period of time and then harvesting serum from that animal to treat other
Arbovirus - a virus that is
transmitted by invertebrates of the phylum Arthropoda [insects, arachnids (spiders, mites,
ticks, etc.) and crustaceans].
Arthropod - members of the
phylum Arthropoda (insects, arachnids, and crustaceans).
Ascites - accumulation of
fluid in the abdominal cavity.
Aseptic - free from
Asexual reproduction - the
formation of new individuals without the union with cells of the opposite sex and usually
by an individual.
Asymptomatic - without
visible signs of illness; an asymptomatic carrier is an organism that harbors a disease
agent, but that shows no outward signs.
Ataxia - incoordination.
Avicides - chemical
substances used to kill or repel birds.
Avirulent - not
virulent, does not cause disease.
Bacterin - a vaccine
consisting of killed bacteria that is used for protection against infection by a specific
Bacteriophage - a virus
that infects a bacterium.
Bacterium - singular for
bacteria. Any of a group of microscopic, unicellular organisms that have distinct cell
membranes and that lack a distinct nucleus surrounded by a nuclear membrane.
Barbiturate - a type of
sedative or anesthetic that is chemically derived from barbituric acid.
Bay diving ducks - typically,
ducks that feed in deep bodies of water, usually in coastal bays and deep lakes. Species
include canvasback, goldeneyes, redhead, and scaup.
Benign - noninvasive, that
is, tumors that do not spread to other parts of the body; not malignant.
Big game - hunted species
of large mammals (from deer to elephants).
Bile - yellow-brown to
greenish liquid secreted by the liver and stored in the gallbladder before excretion by
way of the intestine. Bile is composed of metabolic breakdown products derived from
hemoglobin and other metabolic waste products.
Bioaccumulation - the
accumulation of long-lived toxins, such as chlorinated hydrocarbons, as a result of
repeated exposure or of exposure from a variety of sources.
Biomagnification - an
increase in concentrations of long-lived contaminants in animals at higher positions in
the food chain.
Biota - the plant and
animal life of an area.
Biotoxins - poisons
produced by and derived from the cells or secretions of a living organism, either plant or
Birds of prey - synonymous
with raptors; includes eagles, hawks, falcons, kites, and owls.
Biting louse - see
Black flies - small,
bloodsucking, biting flies of the genus Simulium; vectors for Leucocytozoon infections.
Blood flukes - trematode
parasites that are found in the blood cells of the host.
Brine flies - species of
flies whose larvae live in brine.
Brooding - care of young
birds by the adult.
Buffered formalin - a 3.7
percent solution of formaldehyde (equal to 10 percent formalin) to which sodium phosphate
buffers have been added. Buffered formalin is the best overall fixative for tissue for
later microscopic study.
Bumblefoot - an
inflammation and, often, swelling of the foot of birds as the result of a bacterial
Bursa of Fabricious - a
saclike outgrowth of the cloaca of birds that is part of the avian immune system.
Buteos - a subfamily of the
hawks characterized by soaring behavior, broad, rounded wings, and a broad, fanned tail,
such as the red-tailed hawk.
Caecum - (British; plural
caeca) or cecum (American; plural ceca) - a large, blind pouch or sac (often a pair) at
the junction of the small intestine and the large intestine.
Calcification - the process
by which tissues become hardened by the deposition of calcium salts.
Canidia - fungal spores.
Canker - synonymous with trichomoniasis in doves and pigeons.
Capture myopathy - a state
of immobility resulting from damage to skeletal and cardiac muscles caused by extreme
physical exertion, struggle, or stress; may occur in wildlife as they are chased in
capture attempts: may appear later when captured wildlife are under physical restraint; or
may appear after they have been released.
Cardiac muscle - heart
Cardiovascular system - the
heart and blood vessels by which blood is pumped and circulated through the body.
Carnivores - refers to
flesheating mammals in the Order Carnivora and includes dogs, skunks, weasels, cats,
Carrion - dead and decaying
Caseous - resembling cheese
Central nervous system - the
brain and spinal cord.
Ceratopogonid flies - very
small, bloodsucking gnats commonly known as punkies, no-see-ums, or sand flies.
Cercaria - the final
free-swimming larval stage of a trematode parasite.
Cestodes - flattened,
usually segmented, parasitic worms; tapeworms.
Chelating chemical - a
chemical that combines with a metal ion in a firm, ringlike band and that prevents the
metallic ion from having any further biochemical effect.
Chlorinated hydrocarbons - organic
compounds characterized by the presence of chlorine; commonly refers to persistent
chemicals with insecticidal properties; DDT and dieldrin are common examples.
Choana - one of the paired
openings on the inner side of the maxilla (upper beak), near the back of the oral cavity,
that opens into the nasal cavity.
Cholinesterase enzymes - enzymes
that are particularly important in the transmission of nerve impulses; the activity of
these enzymes is inhibited by exposure to organophosphorus and carbamate compounds, and
death results when activity is greatly reduced.
Chronic - persisting for a
relatively long time.
Chronic losses - mortality
of attrition; small numbers of continual losses over extended periods of time.
Clinical sign - an abnormal
physiological change or behavior pattern that is indicative of illness. Signs are
externally observable, as contrasted with symptoms, which are subjective.
Cloaca - a common passage
for the fecal, urinary, and reproductive discharges of most lower vertebrates (birds,
reptiles, and amphibians).
Coalescence - the fusion or
growing together of tissue damage from a disease agent.
Coldblooded vertebrates - species
such as fishes and reptiles, which have blood that varies in temperature to approximately
that of the surrounding environment.
Colibacillosis - infection
with the bacterium Escherichia coli.
Colon - the large
Colonial nesters - birds
that nest in large groups.
Comatose - in a coma or
comalike state; an abnormal state of continuous deep unconsciousness.
Congener - a member of the
same taxonomic grouping, such as polychlorinated biphenyls, that possess similar chemical
Congenital abnormality - usually
an anatomical malformation that results from incomplete growth during embryonic
development. Also refers to an abnormal biochemical pathway caused by a genetic factor.
Congestion - the abnormal
accumulation of blood in a tissue or organ; often causes a reddening of the affected area.
Contagious - capable of
being transmitted from animal to animal, such as a contagious disease.
Coccidiasis - the presence
of coccidia, protozoa of the subphylum Sporozoa.
Coccidiosis - a disease
caused by coccidia, protozoa of the subphylum Sporozoa.
Cornea - the transparent
tissue on the front of the eyeball that covers the iris and pupil, through which light
passes to the interior.
Coronary band - a fatty
band encircling the heart; in hooved animals, the germinal layer beneath skin at the
junction of the skin and hoof.
Cracker shell - a shotgun
shell that is loaded to produce a visible burst and loud sound in order to frighten
Crop - a dilation of the
esophagus at the base of the neck of some birds.
Crustacea - a specialized
group of invertebrates that includes such diverse species as lobster, shrimp, barnacles,
wood lice, and water fleas.
Cygnet - a young swan.
Cyanobacteria - a genus of
bacteria composed of the blue-green algae; like the dinoflagellates, cyanobacteria are
important sources of environmental toxins that can cause illness and death in humans and
Cyanosis - a bluish
discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes due to an excessive concentration of
deoxygenated hemoglobin in the blood.
Cystocanth - an infective
juvenile stage of thorny-headed worms (acanthocephalan parasites).
Cytoplasm - the aqueous
part of the cell that is outside of the nucleus but that is contained within the cell
wall. The cytoplasm is the site of most of the chemical activities of the cell.
Dabbling ducks - Ducks that
feed on the surface or in shallow water, including mallard, American black duck, gadwall,
American wigeon, northern pintail, northern shoveler, and teal. Also referred to as puddle
Definitive host - an
organism in which sexually mature stages of a parasite occur.
Dehydration - a condition
that results from excessive loss of body fluids.
Depopulation - the
destruction of an exposed or infected group of animals.
Dermatophytosis - a fungal
infection of the skin.
Dessication - the act or
process of drying a substance.
Digestive tract (alimentary
canal) - the organs associated with the ingestion, digestion, and absorption of food,
such as the esophagus, stomach, and intestines.
Dinoflagellates - aquatic
protozoa that are an important component of plankton. These single-celled organisms may be
present in vast numbers, causing discoloration of the water referred to as "red
tide." Some species secrete powerful neurotoxins.
Dioxins - a chemical
component of defoliants, such as agent orange, that are considered to be carcinogenic
(cause cancer), teratogenic (cause fetal abnormalities), and mutagenic (cause abnormal
Direct life cycle - a
parasitic life cycle that requires only a single host for its completion.
Diurnal - active during the
Diving ducks - synonymous
with bay diving ducks.
Domestic duck - ducks
typically raised for market, such as the white Pekin.
Drive-trapping - capture of
flightless birds during the molt and of other animals by herding them into a netted or
fenced containment area.
Drop nets - suspended nets
used to capture animals by remote release of the nets or triggering mechanisms at the net
Dyspnea - labored
Ecchymotic - a hemorrhagic,
irregular-shaped area in tissues that is bruise-like in appearance and, often, in color.
Ecology - the study of the
interrelationships between living organisms and their environment.
Ectoparasite - a parasite
that lives on the external surface, or in the integument, of its host.
Ectotherms - species that
rely on sources of heat outside themselves (i.e., coldblooded species).
Edematous - swelling of
tissues due to abnormal accumulation of fluid in the intercellular tissue spaces; seepage
of these fluids may result in accumulations within the body cavity.
EDTA - ethylenediamine
tetra-acetic acid; a chelating agent that binds with lead and that is used in the
treatment of lead poisoning.
EEE - eastern equine
encephalomyelitis; a viral disease.
ELISA - a molecular-based
enzyme-linked immonosorbent assay; a type of test used to detect either antigen or
Emaciation - a wasted
condition of the body; excessive leanness.
Emasculatome - a veterinary
instrument designed for bloodless castration of cattle or sheep; has been used for
euthanasia of birds by cervical dislocation.
Encrustation - forming a
crust or a covering; for example, salt encrustation.
Endemic - a disease that
commonly is present within a population or a geographical area.
Endogenous phase - developmental
phase of the life cycle of a parasite that occurs within the host.
Endoparasite - a parasite
that lives within the body of its host.
Endotherms - warmblooded
vertebrates; species able to internally regulate their body temperatures.
Enteritis - inflammation of the intestine.
Enzootic - an animal disease that commonly is present within a population or geographical
Epicardium - the outer
covering of the heart.
Epidemic - the presence of
a disease in a population or in an area in a higher than expected prevalence, or rate.
Epithelial cells - cells
that cover the external and internal surfaces of the body.
Epizootic - a disease
affecting a greater number of animals than normal; typically, occurrences involving many
animals in the same region at the same time.
Epizootiology - the study
of the natural history of disease in animal populations.
Erosion - wearing away;
Erythrocytes - red blood
cells; serve to transport oxygen throughout the body.
Esophagus -the passage
extending from the mouth to the stomach.
Estrogenic - possessing
characteristics of the hormone estrogen; estrogenic compounds may elicit the development
of feminine characteristics in male animals.
Etiologic agent - any living or nonliving thing, power, or substance
capable of causing a disease.
Eutrophication - the
excessive growth, caused by an oversupply of nutrients, of plants and algae in bodies of
Exotic disease - a disease
that normally does not occur within a particular area.
Exotoxin - a toxin formed
and excreted by bacterial cells.
Exsanguination (bleeding out) -
the draining of blood from an animal.
Fastidious - refers to the
very specific requirements for the culture of some bacteria.
Fauna - the animals of an
"Feather edge" - a
long, shallow edge of a body of water that gradually deepens offshore.
Femur - the thigh bone of
humans; the upper legbone in hooved mammals and birds. The bone between the pelvis and the
Feral pigeon - rock dove.
Fibrin - an insoluble
protein that forms a network of fibers during clotting of the blood.
Fibrinoperitonitis - fibrin-coated
inflammation of the surfaces of the peritoneal cavity.
Fibrinous - a pathologic
term referring to a threadlike sheet of material that may occur on surfaces of organs in
some disease conditions; clotting factors in blood contribute to the structure of this
Flatworms - the common name
for parasites of the phylum Platyhelminthes, flukes or trematodes.
Flukes - parasitic
flatworms; also referred to as trematodes.
Fly larvae - maggots.
Fomite - an object that is
not in itself harmful, such as a wooden object or article of clothing, but that may harbor
pathogenic microorganisms and serve to transmit an infection to a living organism.
Food chain - ascending
trophic levels within an ecosystem in which species at the lower level are the primary
food base for the species at the next highest level.
Formalin - a liquid
solution of formaldehyde that is used as a tissue fixative, usually to prepare tissues for
Fossorial - refers to
digging animals that live in burrows.
Frounce - synonymous
with trichomoniasis in raptors.
Fungicides - chemicals
that kill fungi.
Gallinaceous birds - heavy-bodied,
chickenlike land birds. Includes ring-necked pheasant, quails, grouse, and wild turkey.
Gamete - one of two cells
produced by a gametocyte; the union of male and female gametes initiates the development
of a new individual during sexual reproduction.
Gametocyte - an
undifferentiated cell that develops into a gamete.
Gangrene - tissue death due
to a failure of the blood supply to that tissue area followed by bacterial invasion and
Gapes - see gapeworm.
Gapeworm - parasites of the
trachea of birds; synonym for tracheal worms.
Gastrointestinal tract - the
tubular organs that form a digestive pathway from the mouth to the vent, including the
stomach and intestines.
Geographic information system -
a specialized computer system for storage, manipulation, and presentation of layers of
Gizzard - the enlarged
muscular ventriculus (stomach) of many birds.
Granuloma - refers to a
tumorlike mass or nodule; often associated with a response to an infection.
Haemoproteus - blood
parasites transmitted by louse flies of the family Hippoboscidae and midges of the family
Hatchet-breast - a common
term to describe the prominent, protruding breast keel seen as the result of the atrophy
of the breast muscles. "The keel appears as sharp and as prominent as the back of a
Hawaiian forest birds - native
and introduced avifauna of the forested areas of the Hawaiian Islands. Includes such
species as sparrows, finches, cardinals, honeycreepers, and thrushes.
Helminths - parasitic
Hemosporidia - protozoan
Hemoglobin - the
oxygen-carrying pigment of red blood cells.
Hemozoin - a dark pigment
produced from the hemoglobin in the host's red blood cells by malarial parasites that
collect in tissues, such as the spleen and liver, causing those organs to appear grayish
to dark brown or black.
Hepatitis - inflammation of
Hepatomegaly - enlargement
of the liver.
Herbicides - chemicals used
to kill unwanted vegetation.
Hermaphroditic - organisms
that possess both male and female functional reproductive organs.
Herpesvirus - one of the
major groups of related viruses that have DNA nucleic acids and that are further
characterized by similar size, shape, and physiochemical reactions.
Herpetologists - those who
study the natural history and biology of reptiles.
Heterogenous organism - one
that is derived from a combination of different types of parent organisms.
Hippoboscid flies - a group
of wingless and winged parasitic flies found on birds and mammals.
Histoplasmosis - a disease
of humans caused by inhalation of the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum.
History - as it refers to
wildlife disease investigations, a record of background information and chronological
events associated with a die-off.
Homeostasis - the tendency
toward equilibrium; refers to the capacity of living organisms to maintain internal body
environmental conditions necessary for survival.
Husbandry practice - the
care and maintenance of animals.
Hydropericardium - an
excessive amount of fluid within the sac surrounding the heart.
Hypersensitivity - greater
than normal sensitivity to stimuli or to biological agents.
Hypothermia - greatly
reduced body temperature.
Hypovalemic shock - shock
resulting from insufficient blood volume to maintain adequate cardiac output and blood
pressure; caused by acute hemorrhage or excessive fluid loss.
Icthyologists - those who
study the natural history and biology of fishes.
Immune - being resistant to
lmmunosuppressive therapy - a
medical treatment that suppresses the normal immune response.
Impaction - an abnormal
accumulation of food or other ingested materials that become lodged in a section of the
Immune system - the
combination of host body defenses that guard against infectious disease.
lnapparent - an infection
in which the infectious agent exists within the host but that causes no recognizable signs
of illness; the infectious agent may or may not be shed at irregular times.
Incidence - the number of
new cases of a disease occurring in a population within a certain time period.
Inclusion body - a
structure within the cytoplasm or nucleus of a cell; a characteristic of some viral
diseases, inclussion bodies occur in only a few species.
Incubation period - the
time interval required for the development of disease; the time between the invasion of
the body by a disease agent and the appearance of the first clinical signs.
Indigenous - native to a
Indirect life cycle - a
life cycle that requires more than one host for its completion.
Infection - the invasion
and multiplication of an infectious agent in host body tissues.
Infectious agent - a living
organism capable of invading another.
Infective - capable of
Infestation - parasitic
invasion of external surfaces of a host.
Insecticides - pesticides
used to kill insects.
Intermediate host - an
organism in which a parasite undergoes a stage of asexual development.
lntracellular parasite - a
parasitic organism, usually microscopic, that lives within the cells of the host animal.
Involuntary muscle - muscle
that is not under the control of the individual.
Isolate - refers to
microorganisms; the separation of a population of organisms that occur in a particular
sample (verb); for example, to isolate a bacterial or viral organism from a sample. As a
noun, refers to the organism that was isolated; for example, a bacterial isolate was
obtained from a sample.
lsopods - crustaceans with
flattened bodies, such as sowbugs, pillbugs, and wood lice.
Joint capsule - the thick,
fibrous capsule surrounding a joint, as around the knee.
Keel - the narrow middle
portion of a bird's sternum.
Kites - hawk-like birds.
Lacrimal discharge - a
discharge from the tear glands near the eye.
Laparotomy - a surgical
procedure in which an incision is made into the abdominal cavity, often to determine the
sex of birds for which plumage and other characteristics cannot be used for that purpose.
Larva - an immature
parasitic life cycle stage; typically, the form of the parasite is unlike the mature
Larynx - the
musculocartilaginous structure at the upper part of the trachea; it guards the entrance to
the trachea and secondarily serves as the organ of voice.
Latent - dormant or
concealed; a latent infection refers to the situation in which a disease condition is not
Lentogenic - refers to a
form of Newcastle disease virus that is mildly virulent as measured in chickens.
Leucocytozoon - blood
parasites transmitted by black flies of the family Simulidae.
Lesion - an abnormal change
in tissue or an organ due to disease or injury.
Lethargy - abnormal
drowsiness or stupor.
Louse fly - see
Lyme disease - an
infectious disease that is caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi and
transmitted by ticks.
Lipophilic - having an
affinity for fat; such as chemicals that accumulate in fat and fatty tissues.
Livestock - domestic
animals raised for food and fiber commonly refers to animals such as hogs, sheep, cattle,
M-44 - a predator-control
device that uses cyanide as the toxic component.
Macrocyst - a large cyst; a
large spore case (fungi); an encapsulated reproductive cell of some slime molds.
Macrogamete - the female
sexual form of the malaria parasite that is found in the gut of the mosquito vector.
Maggot - a soft-bodied
larva of an insect, especially a form that lives in decaying flesh.
Malarias - infectious
diseases caused by protozoan parasites that attack the red blood cells.
Malignant - spread from the
location of origin to other areas; that is, tumors that are invasive and that spread
throughout the body.
Marek's disease - an
important infectious disease of poultry, that is caused by infection with a herpesvirus.
Marine birds - birds of the
open ocean, typically pelagic, and often colonial nesters, such as alcids, shearwaters,
storm petrels, gannets, boobies, and frigatebirds.
Meningoencephalitis - inflammation
of the transparent covering (meninges) of the brain.
Mergansers - a group of
waterfowl that are commonly referred to as "fish ducks" due to their food
Meront - an asexual stage
in the development of some protozoan parasites that gives rise to merozoites.
Merozoite - a stage in the
life cycle of some protozoan parasites.
Mesogenic - refers to a
form of Newcastle disease virus that is moderately virulent as measured in chickens.
Metabolic rate - an
expression of the rate at which oxygen is used by cells of the body.
Metacercaria - the encysted
resting or maturing stage of a trematode (fluke) parasite in the tissues of an
Microgamete - the male
sexual form of the malaria parasite found in the gut of the mosquito vector.
Migratory birds - all birds
listed under the provisions of the Migratory Bird Treaty Act.
Minamata disease - mercury
poisoning of humans; named after an incident resulting from contamination within Minamata
Miracidium - the first
larval stage of a trematode parasite, which undergoes further development in the body of a
Mobilization - refers to
the tendency of lipophilic chemicals [environmental contaminants, such as chlorinated
hydrocarbons, that have an affinity for storage in adipose (fat) tissue] to be released
into the bloodstream as fat stores are depleted.
Mollusks - species of the
phylum Mollusca; includes snails, slugs, mussels, oysters, clams, octopuses, nautiluses,
squids, and similar species.
Molt - the normal shedding
of hair, horns, feathers, and external skin before replacement by new growth.
Moribund - a visible,
debilitated state resulting from disease; appearing to be suffering from disease and close
Motility/motile/nonmotile - these
terms refer to whether or not a bacterial organism moves on a particular culture medium;
such movement reflects the presence of flagellae. Thus, the absence or presence of
motility is a useful characteristic for identifying bacteria.
Motor paralysis - paralysis
of the voluntary muscles.
Mucosa - a mucous
Mucous membrane - the layer
of tissue that lines a cavity or the intestinal tract and that secretes a mixture of
salts, sloughed cells, white blood cells, and proteins.
Mucosal surface - a layer
of cells lining the inside of the intestinal tract or other body part that secretes mucus.
Myocarditis - inflammation
of heart muscle.
Myocardium - the middle and
thickest layer of the heart wall; composed of cardiac muscle.
Mycosis - fungal infection.
Mycotoxin - a poison
produced by various species of molds (fungi).
Myiasis - infestation of
the body by fly maggots.
Nares - the external
openings on the top of the bill of birds; the external orifices of the nose; the nostrils.
Nasal gland - a specialized
gland of birds and some other species that serves to concentrate salt and secrete it from
Nasal cavity - the forward
(proximal) portion of the passages of the respiratory system, extending from the nares to
the pharynx and separated from the oral cavity by the roof of the mouth.
NDV - Newcastle disease
Necropsy - the methodical
examination of the internal organs and tissues of an animal after death to determine the
cause of death or to observe and record pathological changes.
Necrosis - the death of cells in an organ or
Necrotic - dead; exhibiting morphological changes indicative of cell death; in this
Manual, necrotic lesions refer to areas of dead tissue.
Nematocides - chemicals used to kill nematode
Nematodes - unsegmented,
cylindrical parasitic worms; roundworm.
Neoplasm - see tumor.
Nervous system - specialized
components of vertebrates, and, to a lesser extent invertebrates, that control body
actions and reactions to stimuli and the surrounding environment.
Neurotoxin - toxins that
cause damage to or destroy nerve tissue.
Nictitating membrane - the
so-called third eyelid, a fold of tissue connected to the medial (side closest to the
midline) side of the eye, which moves across the eye to moisten and protect it.
Nocturnal - species that
are active during evening (nondaylight) hours.
Nodule - a small mass of
tissue that is firm, discrete, and detectable by touch.
Nontoxic shot - shotshells
with shotpellets that are not made of lead or other toxic metals; typically, soft iron is
used, and is referred to as steel shot.
No-see-ums - see
Occlusion - a blockage or
obstruction; the closure of teeth.
Oligochaetes - the
earthworms and aquatic forms of the class Oligochaeta.
Oocyst - the encyst or
encapsulated zygote in the stage of some protozoan parasites; often highly resistant to
Opisthotonos - abnormal
spasm of the neck and back muscles resulting in a body position in which the head and
heels are involuntarily thrown back and the body is arched forward.
Osmoregulation - adjustment
of osmotic pressure in relation to the surrounding environment.
Osteoporosis - loss of bone
PAH - an acronym for
polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
Panzootic - a disease
involving animals within a wide geographic area such as a region, continent, or globally.
Parasitism - an association
between two species in which one (the parasite) benefits from the other (the host), often
by obtaining nutrients.
Paratenic host - a host
that has been invaded by a parasite, but within which no morphological or reproductive
development of the parasite takes place; a "transport" host.
Paresis - partial
Passerines - small- to
medium-sized perching birds.
Pathogenic - the ability
to cause disease.
Pathological - an adjective
used to describe structural or functional changes that have occurred as the result of a
PCB - acronym for
polychlorinated biphenyls, a group of chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons used in a variety
of commercial applications. These compounds have long environmental persistence and have
been a source for various toxic effects in a wide variety of fauna.
Pelagic - refers to living
in or near large bodies of water, such as oceans or seas; typically, this term refers to
avian species that only come to land areas during the breeding season.
Pericardium - the fibrous
sac surrounding the heart.
Pericarditis - inflammation
and thickening of the sac surrounding the heart.
Peritoneal cavity - the
abdominal cavity, which contains the visceral organs.
Phage - a virus that has
been isolated from a prokaryote (an organism without a defined nucleus, having a single
double-standard DNA molecule, a true cell wall, and other characteristics). Most phages
are bacterial viruses.
Pharynx - the
musculomembranous passage between the mouth and the larynx and esophagus.
Pigeon milk - the
regurgitated liquid that an adult pigeon feeds its young.
- aquatic mammals that include the sea lions, fur seals, walruses, and earless seals.
Plaque - a patch or a flat
area, often on the surface of an organ.
Plasmodium - blood
parasites transmitted by mosquitos of the family Culicidae.
Plumage - the feather
covering of birds.
Postmortem - examination
and dissection of animal carcasses performed after the death of the animal. Also, changes
that occur in tissues after death.
Poultry - domestic avian
species, such as chickens and domestic ducks, geese, and turkeys.
Prefledglings - birds of
the current hatch year that have not become feathered enough to fly.
Prevalence - the number
of cases of a disease occurring at a particular time in a designated or defined area;
Proboscis - a tubular
process or structure of the head or snout of an animal, usually used in feeding; in this
Manual, the tubular process of Acanthocephalan parasites is used for attachment to the
host and feeding from it.
Protoporphyrin - a
component of hemoglobin; useful in the diagnosis of exposure to lead.
Protozoan - a one-celled
animal with a recognizable nucleus, cytoplasm, and cytoplasmic structures.
Psittacines - parrots,
parakeets, and other species within the family Psittacidae.
Puddle ducks - see dabbling
Proventriculus - the
first, or "glandular," stomach of a bird.
Puddle ducks - synonymous
with dabbling or surface-feeding ducks.
Punkies - small, biting
midges of the genus Culicoides; vectors for Haemoproteus infections. See
Purulent - containing pus,
as in a purulent discharge.
Range - the geographic
distribution of a population or the area within which an individual animal moves (as in
Raptors - synonymous with
birds of prey. Birds, including hawks, owls, falcons, and eagles, that feed on flesh.
Reactivation - refers to
the process by which cholinesterase enzyme activity returns to normal after carbamate
Rendering - a process by
which animal carcasses are converted into fats and fertilizer.
Reptiles - coldblooded
vertebrates that belong to the class Reptiles; such as., snakes, turtles, lizards.
Reservoir host - the host
that maintains the disease agent in nature and that provides a source of infection to
Respiratory system - the
collection of organs that provide oxygen to the organism and result in the release of
carbon dioxide; typically, the trachia and lungs.
Rice breast disease - synonym
Rocket nets - remotely
triggered, weighted firing devices that are propelled through the air by an explosive
force carrying the netting to which they are attached over the birds or other animals
Rodenticides - toxic
substances used to kill rodents.
Rodents - mammals that have
chisel-like, ever growing incisor teeth that are used for gnawing; i.e., mice to beavers.
Rookery - a nesting area
for some colonial birds, such as herons and egrets.
Roost sites - typically,
locations where birds congregate at night in trees and other locations.
Rough fish - a term given
to bottom-feeding freshwater fish with large scales, such as carp, buffalo, and similar
Roundworms - see nematodes.
Ruminants - hooved mammals
possessing a rumen or first stomach, from which food or a cud is regurgitated for further
chewing. Includes deer, elk, sheep, cattle, etc.
Salivary glands - the
glands of the mouth that produce saliva.
Salt gland - see nasal
Sand flies - see
Scavengers - animals
that feed on dead, sick or injured prey. Includes crows, vultures, gulls, eagles, hawks,
Schizogony - a type of
asexual reproduction in some protozoan parasites in which daughter cells are produced by
multiple nuclear divisions of the parasite (schizont).
Schizonts - the
multinucleate, intermediate parasite stage that develops into merozoites within a host
Scoliosis - an abnormal
lateral curvature of the spine.
Sea ducks - ducks that
frequent open ocean, although some species may be found on coastal bays or inland waters.
includes oldsquaw, eiders, scoters, and harlequin duck.
Secondary poisoning - intoxication
of an animal as a result of eating a poisoned animal; for example, the poisoning of an
eagle after it has fed on a duck that was poisoned by a chemical in treated grain. This
differs from biomagnification, which involves increasing concentrations of toxic compounds
within the body of organisms at increasing higher levels of a food chain.
Section 7 consultations - the
Endangered Species Act requires discussion and evaluation of any proposed Federal
activity, program, or permit that might affect an endangered species.
Sedated - chemically
Septicemia - the presence
of pathogenic microorganisms or toxins in the blood.
Serosa - refers to the
outside layer of an organ, such as the serosal surface of the intestine, or the lining of
a body cavity.
Serosal surface - the
external surface of an organ or a tissue within the body.
Serotype - a taxonomic
subdivision of a microorganism, based on characteristic antigens or proteins.
Serovar - a taxonomic
subdivision of a microorganism similar to serotype (above) but usually more specific.
Shorebirds - birds that
feed at the edge of shallow water, along mudflats, and in shallow wetlands. Typically,
these birds feed on invertebrates and include such species as American avocet,
black-necked stilt, curlews, plovers, phalaropes, sandpipers, yellowlegs, and sanderling.
Signs - observable evidence
of disease in animals (similar to symptoms in humans).
Sloughing - shedding of
dead cells or dead tissue from living structures or tissues.
Slugs - terrestrial,
snail-like mollusks that have a long, fleshy body and only a rudimentary shell.
Small mammals - mice to
rabbits, racoons etc.; a general term used in wildlife management to group species of
small to moderate size.
Small rodents - see
rodents; rodents of small size, such as rats and mice.
Songbirds - small perching
and singing birds, typically of the order Passeriformes, including sparrows, finches, and
Sowbugs - see isopods.
Splenomegaly - enlargement
of the spleen.
Spore - refers to a
resistant stage, usually of bacteria or fungi, by which some microorganisms survive
unfavorable environmental conditions and then develop into active life forms during
favorable environmental conditions.
Sporogony - sporulation
that involves multiple fission of a sporont (schizogony), resulting in the production of a
sporocysts and sporozoites.
Sporont - a zygote of
Sporozoite - the elongate
nucleated infective stage of coccidian protozoan parasites.
Sporulation - the formation
or libertion of spores.
Squab - a nestling pigeon
that has not fledged.
Sternum - the breastbone.
Subcutaneous - under the
Systemic - affecting the
Tapeworms - segmented
parasitic flatworms; also referred to as cestodes.
Teal - small, swift-flying
waterfowl of the genus Anas.
Tegument - the covering of
an organ or the body.
Tenosynovitis - inflammation
of the tendon sheath.
Teratogenic - causing
embryonic deformities due to abnormal differentiation and development of cells.
Thermoregulation - regulation
of the internal temperature of the body by various physiological processes.
Thorax - the part of the
body between the neck and the respiratory diaphragm (in mammals), encased by the ribs.
Thorny-headed worms - acanthocephalan
Thymus gland - a
lymph-gland-like organ involved in cellular immunity, located in the neck or upper
Torticollis - twisting or
rotation of the neck causing an unnatural position of the head.
Toxic - poisonous.
Toxicosis - the
condition of being poisoned.
Trematodes - flat,
unsegmented parasitic worms; flatworms, flukes.
Trichomonids - protozoan
parasites of the genus Trichomonas.
Trophic level - refers to
an animal's position in the food chain. Species at higher trophic levels are, to a greater
or lesser extent, dependent upon species in preceding trophic levels as sources of energy.
Tumor (neoplasm) - growths
within organs and tissues of the body that result from the abnormal progressive
multiplication of cells in a manner uncontrolled by the body.
Ubiquitous - found
Ulceration - crater-like
lesions in the skin and other tissues.
Ungulates - hoofed mammals.
Unthrifty appearance - an
expression used in animal husbandry to describe an animal that is unkempt and dirty.
Usually hair or feathers are soiled by excrement.
Upland gamebirds - game
birds found in terrestrial habitats. Includes species such as ring-necked pheasant,
quails, grouse, wild turkey, etc.
Upper digestive tract - the
portion of the gastrointestinal tract that extends from the anterior opening of the
esophagus in the region of the mouth to the stomach, but not including the intestines.
Ureter - the tubular
structure that transports urates from the kidneys to the cloaca of birds.
Vascular system - blood
Vector - an insect or other
living organism that carries and transmits a disease agent from one animal to another.
Vegetative form - in
bacteria, an active, growing, multiplying stage of development as opposed to a
"spore," or a resistant resting stage.
Velogenic - refers to
highly virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus that are capable of producing severe
disease in the host.
Ventriculus - the stomach
of a bird.
Verminous peritonitis - inflammation
of the peritoneal cavity caused by parasites, usually nematodes.
Vertebrates - animals with
Viremia - the presence of
virus in the blood.
Virulence - the
disease-producing ability of a microorganism, generally indicated by the severity of the
infection in the host and the ability of the agent to invade or cause damage or both to
the host's tissues.
Virulent - the degree to
which an infectious agent produces adverse effects on the host; a highly virulent organism
may produce severe disease, including death.
Virus shedding - discharge
of virus from body openings by way of exudate, excrement, or other body wastes or
Viscera - the internal
organs, particularly of the thoracic and abdominal cavities.
Viscerotropic - possessing
an affinity for visceral organs; a disease that acts primarily on the soft internal
tissues of the body such as the heart, lungs, liver, and digestive tract.
Voluntary muscle - muscle
normally under control of the individual.
Voucher specimen - specimens
deposited in scientific collections that are representative of a species or a subgrouping
of a species.
Wading birds - long-necked,
long-legged birds that feed by wading in wetlands and catching prey with their bills.
Includes egrets, herons, ibises, roseate spoonbills, flamingos, and bitterns.
Waterbirds - birds that
require aquatic habitat.
Waterfowl - species of the
Family Anatidae; ducks, geese, and swans. Does not include American coot.
Whistling ducks - the
fulvous whistling duck or the tropical black-bellied tree duck.
Yeasts - single-celled,
usually rounded fungi that produce by budding.
Zooplankton - minute animal
organisms that in combination with counterparts from the plant kingdom constitute the
plankton (minute free-floating organisms) of natural waters.
Zygote - a cell
resulting from the union of a male and a female gamete, until it divides; the fertilized