> Glossary &
References / Book List
/ B36 Field Manual of Wildlife Diseases / Text Sections:
(LARGE PAGE - wait to load, then scroll down)
Section 6 - Introduction to Biotoxins
"Ecological toxicology is the study of all toxicants produced by living organisms and of the ecological relationships made possible by these poisons." (Hayes)
"In all communities chemical interrelations are important aspects of the adaptation of species to one another; in some communities chemical relations seem to be the principal basis of species niche differentiation and community organization." (Whittaker and Feeny)
"Undoubtedly there is much to be learned from finding out how the battle [between toxicants produced by living organisms and host defenses developed in response to these toxicants] has been fought for the last several million years." (Hayes)
All quotes from: Hayes, Wayland, J., Jr., 1991, in Hayes, Wayland J., Jr., and Laws, Edward R., Jr., eds., Handbook of pesticide toxicology, v. 1, General principles: New York, Academic Press, p. 78.
Biotoxins are usually defined as poisons that are produced by and derived from the cells or secretions of living organisms. These natural poisons include some of the most toxic agents known and they are found within a wide variety of life forms. Organisms that produce such toxins are generally classified as being venomous or poisonous. The classification of venomous is usually associated with animal life forms such as poisonous reptiles and insects that have highly developed cellular mechanisms for toxin production and that deliver their toxins during a biting (rattlesnake) or stinging (black widow spider) act. Poisonous organisms are generally thought of as those that deliver toxins by being ingested or by their secretions being ingested by another organism. Therefore, these toxins are essentially forms of food poisoning. Readers should appreciate that virtually all venomous organisms are poisonous but many poisonous organisms are not venomous. This Section will address poisonous, but not venomous, organisms, and it includes the perspective of biotoxins as products of plants and lower life forms.
Birds become poisoned by a broad array of biotoxins. The chapter about avian botulism involves microbial toxins produced within replicating Clostridium botulinum bacteria. The potency of toxins that are produced by the disease-causing Clostridia are legendary, and the toxins include such human diseases as tetanus and lethal botulism food poisoning. Avian botulism is currently the most important disease of waterfowl and shorebirds, nationally and internationally, and outbreaks of this disease commonly kill tens of thousands of birds during a single event. Up to a million birds have recently been lost within a single location during the course of a protracted outbreak.
Because many avian botulism die-offs occur on the same wetlands year after year, one of the primary areas of research on this disease has focused on identifying and understanding the microenvironmental characteristics that contribute to a mortality event. The development of wetland-specific risk assessment tools will enable wildlife disease specialists and natural resource managers to more effectively manage avian botulism.
Fungi are an additional source of microbial biotoxins that cause the death of free-ranging wild birds. Mycotoxins, which are toxins produced by fungi, have received considerable study because of their effects on food animals and humans. In poultry, for example, many types of mycotoxins are known to cause problems that include mortality, decreased growth, impaired reproduction, immunosuppression, and pathologic effects on a variety of other organ systems. Although these toxins have received little study in wildlife, a growing body of literature documents similar effects of mycotoxins in a variety of free-ranging species. The chapter about mycotoxins illustrates the capabilities of aflatoxins and trichothecenes to cause large-scale bird losses as the result of bird ingestion of food contaminated by molds that produce these toxins. As more becomes known about the occurrence of mycotoxins in the natural environment, and as analytical techniques for the specific toxins become more commonly available, it is likely that more and more cases of mycotoxicosis will be reported in wildlife.
The range of living organisms that cause poisoning in wild birds is further illustrated by plant toxins in the chapter about algal toxins. Less is known about poisoning of birds from toxic plants than is known about poisoning from bacterial and fungal toxins. Plant toxins other than algal toxins that have caused bird mortality have rarely been reported. Choke cherry seeds contain chemical compounds that release cyanide upon digestion if the seed capsule is broken during digestion. Songbirds have been killed by cyanide poisoning from eating these seeds. Waterfowl mortality has been attributed to ingestion of castor beans, which results in intoxication from ricin, the active ingredient within the seed that causes poisoning. A small number of other reports of plant toxins causing wild bird mortality also exist.
The so-called algal toxins are produced by a variety of organisms, including true algae, dinoflagellates (aquatic protozoa), and blue-green algae, and are the least understood of the biotoxins covered in this Section. Algal blooms, especially red tides and blue-green blooms, wreak aesthetic and economic havoc in many freshwater and marine environments because of the potential for toxins to be present. Perhaps one of the most widely recognized toxins in this group is saxitoxin, the agent of paralytic shellfish poisoning, which causes occasional human deaths and renders many tons of shellfish inedible throughout the world.
Algal toxins are likely to become increasingly recognized as a cause of waterbird mortality. Eutrophication of inland waterbodies due to nutrient loads is causing more algal blooms within those waters, many of which are used by large numbers of water birds. Enhanced technology and increased study are needed to better understand the ecology of algal blooms and the production of toxic components that are hazardous to bird life. With the exception of avian botulism, biotoxins as a cause of disease in wild birds have received little study. However, there should be no debate regarding the need for study since disease caused by biotoxins extends beyond direct mortality. Impaired immune system function or immunosuppression and cancers caused by biotoxins have both been documented in animals and humans. Other effects on wildlife are also likely because of the diversity of disease impacts seen in humans and domestic animals.
Return to top of page