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Click image for Title PageWetlands, Industry & Wildlife - a manual of principles and practices
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  • Title Page
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgements
  • Contents


    1. Introduction
    1.1 The aim of the manual
    1.2 Context
    1.3 The target audience
    1.4 Wetlands covered by the manual
    1.5 Using the manual

    2. Industry, wetland and wildlife
    2.1 Why should industry encourage wetlands and wildlife?
    2.2 Are industry and wildlife compatible?
    2.3 Where are the opportunities for wetlands on industrial land?
    2.4 Habitat creation: the conservationists dilemma
    2.5 Encouraging wildlife: the industrialists dilemma

    3. Deciding what to do
    3.1 Project proposals and management plans
    3.2 Getting advice
    3.3 Investigating a site
    3.4 Evaluating a site
    3.5 Setting objectives
    3.6 Keeping costs down
    3.7 Implementation. Who should manage industrial wetlands
    3.8 Monitoring and review. Is your wetland a success?


    4. Wetland wildlife
    4.1 Food Webs
    4.2 Adaptability and diversity of species
    4.3 Succession
    4.4 Bacteria and Fungi
    4.5 Algae
    4.6 Plants
    4.7 Invertebrates
    4.8 Fish
    4.9 Amphibians and reptiles
    4.10 Birds
    4.11 Mammals

    5. Water: chemistry and quality
    5.1 Water sources and their quality
    5.2 Acidity, alkalinity and pH
    5.3 Oxygen
    5.4 Plant nutrients
    5.5 Salinity
    5.6 Chemical pollutants
    5.7 Should wildlife be attracted to contaminated wetlands?
    5.8 Designing and managing wetlands to improve water quality

    5.8.1 Suspended solids and associated contaminants
    5.8.2 High nutrient levels
    5.8.3 Acidity
    5.8.4 Floating substances and debris
    5.8.5 Separating contaminated water sources

    6. Water: the physical environment
    6.1 Depth and topography of aquatic habitats
    6.2 Water flow
    6.3 Hydrology and water budgets
    6.4 Using groundwater and hydraulic gradients in wetland creation
    6.5 The benefits of water level control
    6.6 Methods for controlling water levels

    6.6.1 Sluices
    6.6.2 Dams and bunds
    6.6.3 Pumps
    6.7 Wind, waves and erosion
    6.8 Designing waterbodies to reduce wave action

    6.8.1 The design and use of shelterbelts
    6.8.2 Engineering solutions to bank erosion

    7. Substrates
    7.1 Watertight linings
    7.1.1 Clay
    7.1.2 Flexible synthetic liners
    7.1.3 Bentonite
    7.1.4 Concrete
    7.2 Surface substrates
    7.3 Improving substrates for wildlife

    7.3.1 Increasing the levels of organic matter
    7.3.2 Increasing the levels of plant nutrients
    7.3.3 Increasing surface texture
    7.3.4 Increasing substrate stability
    7.3.5 Creating gravel banks
    7.4 Handling soils
    7.5 Grading and land forming
    7.6 Spoil

    8. Other aspects of wetland design
    8.1 Island
    8.1.1 Design and siting of islands for birds
    8.1.2 Floating islands
    8.2 Boxes for wildlife
    8.3 Making links with other habitats
    8.4 Accommodating visitors

    8.4.1 Paths
    8.4.2 Hides
    8.4.3 Site Interpretation
    8.5 Reducing the impact of watersports and other recreation
    8.6 Making management easier
    8.7 Landscape considerations

    9. The establishment and management of wetland plants and animals
    9.1 Introducing wildlife into wetlands
    9.2 Establishing vegetation
    9.2.1 Reeds and other emergent plants
    9.2.2 Aquatic plants
      a) Invasive and unwanted plants
    9.2.3 Marginal and meadow plants
      a) Species selection
      b) Planting wildflowers
      c) Seeding wildflowers and grass
    9.2.4 Trees and shrubs
      a) Species selection
      b) Site selection
      c) Establishing trees and shrubs
    9.3 Controlling vegetation
    9.3.1 Manipulating water levels
    9.3.2 Cutting, mowing and grazing
      a) Timing
      b) Cutting/mowing
      c) Grazing
    9.3.3 Burning
    9.3.4 Coppicing
    9.3.5 Herbicides
    9.3.6 Use of Barley straw to clear algae
    9.4 Waterway clearance and dredging
    9.5 Predator control
    9.6 Biomanipulation

    10. Wetland designs for wildlife
    10.1 Habitat for wintering and passage waders (‘wader scrapes’)
    10.2 Habitat for breeding waders of lowland wet grasslands.
    10.3 Habitat for passage and wintering wildfowl (‘duck marsh’)
    10.4 Habitat for breeding wildfowl
    10.5 Reedbed habitat.
    10.6 Habitat for breeding amphibians.
    10.7 Ponds for breeding dragonflies.
    10.8 Ditches for aquatic invertebrates and plants.


    11. Water storage reservoirs
    11.1 Potential constraints associated with reservoirs
    11.1.1 Concrete shorelines
    11.1.2 Salinity
    11.1.3 High silt loads
    11.1.4 Fluctuating water levels
    11.2 Attracting wildlife to reservoirs
    11.2.1 Concrete-banked reservoirs
    11.2.2 Saltwater reservoirs
    11.2.3 Reservoirs with highly fluctuating water levels

    12. Silt storage lagoons
    12.1 Potential constraints associated with silt lagoons
    12.1.1 Semi-liquid consistency
    12.1.2 Formation of impermeable surface pans
    12.1.3 Contaminants
    12.1.4 Salinity
    12.1.5 Deposition rate
    12.1.6 Drainage
    12.1.7 Difficulties of working on silt
    12.2 Attracting wildlife to silt lagoons
    12.2.1 Estuarine silt
    12.2.2 Freshwater silt
    12.2.3 Highly organic silt

    13. Ash (PFA) storage
    13.1 Potential constraints associated with PFA storage areas
    13.1.1 Toxic and saline properties
    13.1.2 Low nitrogen levels
    13.1.3 Formation of solid sub-surface pans
    13.1.4 Difficulties of working on PFA
    13.1.5 Floating scum and dust formed by lightweight particles
    13.2 Attracting wildlife to PFA storage areas
    13.2.1 Storage in lagoons
    13.2.2 Storage in disused gravel pits
      a) Floating islands
    13.2.3 Storage in mounds
    13.2.4 Orchid-rich grasslands
    13.2.5 Creating artificial cliffs

    14. Water treatment systems
    14.1 Potential constraints associated with wastewater treatment systems

      14.1.1 Water quality
    14.1.2 Land availability
    14.1.3 Variable flows
    14.2 Attracting wildlife to water treatment systems
      14.2.1 Reedbed treatment systems
      a) Design and construction of reedbed systems
      b) Increasing the wildlife value of reedbed systems
      14.2.2 Grass plots
      14.2.3 Polishing lagoons
      14.2.4 Sludge removal

    15. Wetlands for drainage
    15.1 Potential constraints associated with drainage wetlands
    15.1.1 Water quality
    15.1.2 Fluctuating water levels and flows
    15.1.3 High Flows
    15.1.4 Land ownership
    15.2 Attracting wildlife to drainage areas
    15.2.1 Improving water quality
    15.2.2 Flood storage ponds and lakes
    15.2.3 Drainage ditches

    16. Reclaiming industrial land
    16.1 Potential constraints associated with reclamation sites
      16.1.1 Substrate quality
      a) Permeability
      b) Plant growth medium
      c) Contaminants
      16.1.2 Acidity
    16.1.3 Unpredictable volumes of materials
    16.1.4 Deep and regular shaped excavations
    16.1.5 Long timescales
    16.2 Attracting wildlife to wetlands created through site reclamation
      16.2.1 Sand and gravel extraction
     16.2.2 Opencast coal
    16.2.3 Clay extraction
    16.2.4 Waste disposal sites
    16.2.5 Sediment lagoons
    16.2.6 Derelict sites
    16.2.7 Subsidence pools and flashes

    17. Non-operational land
    17.1 Potential
    constraints associated with non-operational land
    17.1.1 Future land requirements
    17.1.2 Staff perception of non-operational land
    17.1.3 Contamination
    17.2 Attracting wildlife to non operational land

    18. Looking to the future
    18.1 The need for further investigation
    18.2 Future opportunities

    APPENDICES (Key to the Appendices)
    1. Trees and shrubs associated with UK wetlands; characteristics and requirements
    2. Submerged and floating aquatic plants; requirements and values
    3. Emergent and marginal wetland plants; requirements and values
    4. Birds of freshwater and estuarine habitats; occurence and requirements
    5. Commoner dragonflies of the UK; habitat preferences
    6. Commoner amphibians of the UK; habitat preferences
    7. NRA stream classification system
    8. Earth-moving machinery; characteristics
    9. Contents for a full management plan
    10. Addresses of relevant organisations
    11. Selected references and further reading

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