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The Environmental Husbandry Manual
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Individual Methods for Enclosure Design
Varied Substrates

The methods outlined in this section relate to features of enclosure construction and layout which may be used to enhance the living conditions of animals, including the use of shelter areas, vegetation, viewing platforms and climbing structures.

Varied Substrates

Method Sections of the enclosure containing different underfoot substrates, including wood chip and bark, concrete, soil, peat, pebbles, and grass. A selection of two or more substrates are used in each enclosure.
Species Carnivores, Arabian Oryx, Antelope, Deer, Pheasants, Fowl, Penguins.
Purpose Provide variable textures, smells and surfaces in environment. Hard and abrasive substrates maintain hooves in good condition, while sandy substrates are ideal for dust bathing to deal with skin parasites.
Pro --
Con --
Improvements --
Comments See also Wood Chip and Pebble Beach substrates for specific examples.
Frequency of Use Constant.
Ratings Usefulness 10/10/10
Convenience 9/8/10
Value For Money 10/10/10
Range of Users 10/10/10
Contributed By Carnivore Section / Hoof-Stock Section / Bird Section

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