The objective of WHO is the attainment by all
peoples of the highest possible level of health. Health, as defined in
the WHO Constitution, is a state of complete physical, mental and
social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.
In support of its main objective, the Organization has a wide range of
functions, including the following:
To act as the directing and co-ordinating
authority on international health work;
To promote technical co-operation;
To assist Governments, upon request, in
strengthening health services;
To furnish appropriate technical assistance
and, in emergencies, necessary aid, upon the request or acceptance
To stimulate and advance work on the
prevention and control of epidemic, endemic and other diseases;
To promote, in co-operation with other
specialized agencies where necessary, the improvement of nutrition,
housing, sanitation, recreation, economic or working conditions and
other aspects of environmental hygiene;
To promote and co-ordinate biomedical and
health services research;
To promote improved standards of teaching
and training in the health, medical and related professions;
To establish and stimulate the establishment
of international standards for biological, pharmaceutical and
similar products, and to standardize diagnostic procedures;
To foster activities in the field of mental
health, especially those activities affecting the harmony of human
WHO also proposes conventions, agreements,
regulations and makes recommendations about international nomenclature
of diseases, causes of death and public health practices. It develops,
establishes and promotes international standards concerning foods and
biological, pharmaceutical and similar substances.
Pesticide Evaluation Scheme (WHOPES) http://www.who.int/ctd/whopes/index.html
WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme, set up in 1960, is the only
international programme which promotes and coordinates the testing and
evaluation of new pesticides proposed for public health use. It
functions through the participation of representatives of governments,
the pesticide industry, WHO Collaborating Centres and university
associations, associate laboratories as well as other WHO Programmes,
notably the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS).
its present form, established in 1981, WHOPES involves a four-phase
evaluation and testing programme, including laboratory, small-,
medium- and large-scale field studies to study the safety, efficacy,
ease of application, acceptance of treatment by residents as well as
the cost-effectiveness of the proposed product.
a pesticide has met the criteria of the WHOPES laboratory and field
evaluations, specifications are drawn up for the technical product and
the formulations evaluated. The specifications not only provide basic
standards of quality in the trading and use of the pesticide but also
basic standards of quality on which safety measures may be based.
WHOPES has two main components:
and assessment of alternative and existing pesticides for their
safety, efficacy, acceptability and cost-effectiveness.
development of specifications and analytical methods for assuring
- Facilitate the search for alternative
pesticides and application methodologies that are safe and
- Develop and promote policies, strategies
and guidelines for the use of pesticides in public health, and to
assist and monitor their implementation by the Member States.
- Policies, strategies and guidelines for
the use of pesticides and pesticide application equipment in
- Safe, effective and affordable pesticides
and application technologies
- Specification for public health
pesticides and application equipment for quality control and
Collaboration for Development of Pesticides for Public Health (GCDPP)
strengthen WHOPES activities, and facilitate the search for
alternative safe and more cost-effective pesticides and application
methodologies, and to further promote the safe and proper use of
pesticides and application equipment, WHOPES has established the
Global Collaboration for Development of Pesticides for Public Health (GCDPP).
This collaboration provides a forum for exchange of information and
ideas on issues related to the development and use of pesticides and
pesticide application equipment within the context of WHO's global
disease control strategies, and serve as an advisory and
resource-mobilizing role to WHOPES.
The specific objectives of GCDPP are:
- to advise on issues related to the
development and use of pesticides and pesticide application
equipment, within the context of WHO's global disease control
- to advise on the relative priority of
activities within the mandate of the GCDPP.
- to promote harmonization of activities
related to pesticide development and safe use.
- to promote the highest quality of work
through appropriate resource mobilization.