Diseases / List of Bacterial Diseases / Disease description:

Bacterial Cystitis in Ferrets 

INFORMATION AVAILABLE

GENERAL INFORMATION

CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS & PATHOLOGY

INVESTIGATION & DIAGNOSIS

TREATMENT & CONTROL

SUSCEPTIBILITY & TRANSMISSION

ENVIRONMENT & GEOGRAPHY

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General and References

Disease Summary

This is a bacterial infection of the bladder and ascending urinary tract.
Ferrets Cystitis is a bacterial infection of the bladder which may occur as a primary ascending infection but commonly affects ferrets with urolithiasis or prostatomegaly. The infection can cause septicaemia if untreated.

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Alternative Names (Synonyms)

See also Urolithiasis in Lagomorphs and Ferrets

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Disease Type

Bacterial Infection

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Infectious/Non-Infectious Agent associated with the Disease

  • Ascending bacterial infection (B631.27.w27)
  • Secondary to:
    • Prostatomegaly (which occurs in association with (Adrenocortical Neoplasia in Ferrets), which increases urinary stasis and this may allow bacterial overgrowth. (B602.4.w4, B631.27.w27)
    • Urolithiasis (cystic calculi). (B631.27.w27)
    • Pyelonephritis. (B631.27.w27)
  • Bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus may be involved. (B232.13.w13)

Infective "Taxa"

Non-infective agents

--

Physical agents

-- Indirect / Secondary

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References

Disease Author

Bridget Fry BSc, RVN (V.w143)
Click image for main Reference Section

Major References / Reviews

Code and Title List

B232.13.w13, B602.4.w4, B631.27.w27, 
J34.28.w1, J213.6.w4

Other References

Code and Title List

 

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Clinical Characteristics and Pathology

Detailed Clinical and Pathological Characteristics

General --

Clinical Characteristics

 
Ferrets This disease is often subclinical, but can lead to ascending urinary tract infections or septicaemia. (B232.13.w13)

Clinical signs that may be seen are:

  • General:
    • Fever. (B232.13.w13)
    • Anorexia. (B232.13.w13)
    • Depression. (B232.13.w13)
    • In severe cases, signs of renal failure. (B232.13.w13)
  • Urinary:
    • Pollakiuria (frequent urination). (B602.4.w4, B631.27.w27)
    • Dysuria (painful urination). (B602.4.w4, B631.27.w27)
    • Straining when urinating. (B602.4.w4)
    • Haematuria. (B602.4.w4, B631.27.w27)
    • On abdominal palpation the bladder wall may feel thickened. (B602.4.w4) 
    • Painful abdomen. (B631.27.w27)
Clinical pathology
  • A complete blood count and plasma biochemistry should be run, especially if the ferrets are older than three years and showing signs of systemic illness. (B602.4.w4)

Incubation

--
Ferrets --

Mortality / Morbidity

--
Ferrets
  • Cystitis is common in female ferrets and may be associated with uroliths (B232.13.w13) or in males with prostatomegaly (Inflammation of the prostate gland). (B602.4.w4)

Pathology

--
Ferrets --

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Human Health Considerations

--

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Susceptibility / Transmission

General information on Susceptibility / Transmission

--
Ferrets

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Disease has been reported in either the wild or in captivity in:

  • Cystitis has been commonly reported in captive ferrets. (B232.13.w13) 

Further information on Host species has only been incorporated for species groups for which a full Wildpro "Health and Management" module has been completed (i.e. for which a comprehensive literature review has been undertaken). Host species with further information available are listed below:

Host Species List

(List does not contain all other species groups affected by this disease)

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Disease has been specifically reported in Free-ranging populations of:

  • --

Further information on Host species has only been incorporated for species groups for which a full Wildpro "Health and Management" module has been completed (i.e. for which a comprehensive literature review has been undertaken). Host species with further information available are listed below:

Host Species List

  • --

(List does not contain all other species groups affected by this disease)

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Environment/Geography

General Information on Environmental Factors/Events and Seasonality

  • --

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Regions / Countries where the Infectious Agent or Disease has been recorded

  • --

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Regions / Countries where the Infectious Agent or Disease has been recorded in Free-ranging populations

  • --

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General Investigation / Diagnosis

General Information on Investigation / Diagnosis

--
Ferrets Diagnosis is based on clinical signs, urine analysis, radiography and ultrasound investigations: (B631.27.w27)

Abdominal palpation:

  •  The bladder wall may feel thickened. (B602.4.w4) 

Urine analysis:

  • Urine should be collected by Cystocentesis of Ferrets (J34.28.w1, B602.4.w4) 
    • Urinalysis (J34.28.w1) may show red blood cells, white blood cells, tubular casts and bacteria. (B232.13.w13, B631.27.w27)
    • Urinary culture and sensitivity. (J34.28.w1, B602.4.w4) 
  • Note: differentiating between pyelonephritis (urinary tract infection that has reached the kidney) and lower urinary tract infections can be difficult. (B232.13.w13)

Blood tests:

  • A complete blood count and plasma biochemistry should be run, especially if the ferrets are older than three years and showing signs of systemic illness. (B602.4.w4) 

Imaging:

  • Radiography and ultrasound examination should indicate if there is renal involvement and reveal other conditions which may cause dysuria, such as urolithiasis (Urolithiasis in Lagomorphs and Ferrets), bladder neoplasia (Neoplasia in Ferrets), prostatomegaly or an abdominal mass. (B602.4.w4) 
  • Radiography and ultrasound may be used to evaluate the adrenal glands, bladder and urethra. (J34.28.w1)

Note: 

  • Cystitis may be seen with pyelonephritis, or secondary to cystic calculi, adrenal disease (Adrenocortical Neoplasia in Ferrets) and prostatitis. If cystitis re-occurs then a full diagnostic workup is advised, including hormone analysis. (B631.27.w27)
Related Techniques
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Similar Diseases (Differential Diagnosis)

--
Ferrets
  • A male ferret may be presented with what appears to be cystitis, but this may be a prostatic abscess. (J34.28.w1)

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Treatment and Control

Specific Medical Treatment

--
Ferrets
  • A broad spectrum antibiotic should be used whilst waiting for results from the culture and sensitivity results; thereafter an antibiotic should be chosen based on those results. (B602.4.w4, B631.27.w27) 
Related Techniques

 

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General Nursing and Surgical Techniques

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Ferrets
Related Techniques
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Preventative Measures

Vaccination --
Ferrets --
Prophylactic Treatment

--

Ferrets
  • In the long term, the diet should be changed to one high in animal-based (rather than plant-based) protein to reduce the occurrence of uroliths. (J213.6.w4).
Related Techniques
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Environmental and Population Control Measures

General Environment Changes, Cleaning and Disinfection --

Ferrets

--
Population Control Measures --
Ferrets --
Isolation, Quarantine and Screening --
Ferrets --
Related Techniques
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