Diseases / List of Bacterial Diseases / Disease description:

Salmonellosis (with special reference to Waterfowl, Cranes, Hedgehogs, Elephants, Bears, Lagomorphs and Bonobos)

INFORMATION AVAILABLE

GENERAL INFORMATION

CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS & PATHOLOGY

INVESTIGATION & DIAGNOSIS

TREATMENT & CONTROL

SUSCEPTIBILITY & TRANSMISSION

ENVIRONMENT & GEOGRAPHY

..

 

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General and References

Disease Summary

Disease which may be seen in individuals or as a group problem. Usually an infection of the intestines which may cause enteritis and diarrhoea, septicaemia and death. Sometimes causes outbreaks of mortality in wild birds (B48.7.w7)
WATERFOWL Usually subclinical disease in waterfowl and rarely seen clinically in wild waterfowl; sometimes causes acute septicaemia or enteritis particularly in ducklings, also arthritis.

See also : Fowl Typhoid and Pullorum Disease (both rare in waterfowl).

N.B. Salmonellosis is a notifiable disease in the UK.

CRANES Salmonella spp. have been isolated and salmonellosis has been recorded causing gastrointestinal disease.
ELEPHANTS Elephants have been reported to develop clinical disease resulting in gastroenteritis, fatal septicemia and abortion.
LAGOMORPHS
  • Rabbits can suffer from a salmonella infection, although the disease is uncommon, particularly in the individual pet rabbit. (B600.10.w10, B614.8.w8)
  • Organisms, such as Salmonella,  that cause diarrhoea and enteritis in other species, will usually cause a septicaemic disease in the rabbit rather than gastrointestinal pathology. (B601.8.w8)
  • Salmonellae have also been isolated from hares. (B209.28.w28i)
BONOBOS
  • Asymptomatic to severe diarrhoea in great apes. (B336.39.w39) Fatal enteritis has been recorded in a bonobo. (J23.20.w2)

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Alternative Names (Synonyms)

  • Salmonella Infection
  • Keel Disease
  • Paratyphoid Infection
  • Paratyphoid

See also:

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Disease Type

 Bacterial Infection

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Infectious/Non-Infectious Agent associated with the Disease

  • Salmonellae of the paratyphoid group; various serovars (more than 2,000 are known) but particularly Salmonella typhimurium.
  • Salmonella pullorum and Salmonella gallinarum, causing Pullorum Disease and Fowl Typhoid respectively, are rare in waterfowl.
  • Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium are considered to be the main types responsible for gastro-intestinal disorders. (B291.12.w12)

In cranes

  • Salmonella hartford, Salmonella java, Salmonella enteritidis serotype Panama and Salmonella enteritidis serotype Rubislaw have been isolated from cranes which were apparently healthy or ill from an unrelated cause. (J1.9.w4, J4.183.w5, J5.21.w2)
  • Salmonella enteritidis from the liver of a wild Grus americana - Whooping crane found dead near Monte Vista National Wildlife Refuge, Rio Grande County, Colorado. (J1.22.w9)

In hedgehogs:

In elephants:

  • Salmonella blocley, Salmonella montevideo, Salmonella london and Salmonella typhimurium have been reported to cause disease in Elephas maximus - Asian Elephant. (J2.19.w2, J3.65.w1, J4.163.w2, J4.185.w1)
  • Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella hadar, Salmonella heildeberg, Salmonella newport and Salmonella typhimurium have been reported to cause disease in captive Loxodonta africana - African Elephant. (J3.115.w3, J4.185.w1, J35.132.w1, J25.4.w1, P1.1985.w3, P30.1.w5)

In rabbits:

  • Salmonella enteritidis or Salmonella typhimurium are most common serovars reported to cause disease in rabbits. (B600.10.w10, B614.8.w8)
  • Salmonella typhimurium is the most common cause of salmonellosis in the rabbit. (B602.16.w16)
  • Salmonella mbandaka infection has also been reported. (B614.8.w8)

In great apes

  • Salmonella arizonae in fatal enteritis in a bonobo (J23.20.w2)
  • Various Salmonella types may cause intestinal and extraintestinal infection in nonhuman primates. (B22.31.w31f)

Further information on Disease Agents has only been incorporated for agents recorded in species for which a full Wildpro "Health and Management" module has been completed (i.e. for which a comprehensive literature review has been undertaken). Only those agents with further information available are linked below:

Infective "Taxa"

Specifically recorded for waterfowl:

In Cranes:

  • Salmonella hartford (J1.9.w4, P87.1.w3)
  • Salmonella java . (J1.9.w4, P87.1.w3)
  • Salmonella enteritidis serotype Panama. (J4.183.w5)
  • Salmonella infantis . (J5.8.w4)
  • Salmonella enteritidis serotype Rubislaw . (J5.21.w2)
  • Salmonella belem. (J5.8.w4)
  • Salmonella enteritidis. (J1.22.w9)
  • Salmonella typhimurium. (B485.22.w22)

Specifically recorded for Erinaceus europaeus - West European Hedgehog:

  • Salmonella dublin (B22.27.w3)
  • Salmonella enteritidis (J139.23.w1, B22.27.w3) phage type 11(J3.128.w2, J15.21.w1, B228.9.w9)J93.38.w2; serovar phage type 9a. (J93.38.w2)
  • Salmonella typhimurium (B22.27.w3, J15.21.w1)
  • Salmonella brancaster (J3.128.w2)
  • Salmonella edmonton (J3.128.w2, B228.9.w9)
  • Salmonella thompson (J3.128.w2, J139.23.w1, B228.9.w9)
  • Salmonella stanleyville (J3.128.w2, J139.23.w1, B228.9.w9)
  • Salmonella paratyphi B (J3.128.w2)
  • Salmonella dublin (J3.128.w2)
  • Salmonella adasuta (B228.9.w9) 
  • Salmonella bispeberg (B228.9.w9)
  • Salmonella carro (B228.9.w9)
  • Salmonella halle (B228.9.w9)
  • Salmonella kisarewe (B228.9.w9)
  • Salmonella miami (B228.9.w9)
  • Salmonella sofia (J18.38.w1)

In Elephants:

Specifically recorded for Elephas maximus - Asian Elephant:

Specifically recorded for Loxodonta africana - African Elephant:

  • Salmonella enteritidis (J25.4.w1)
  • Salmonella hadar (J3.115.w3)
  • Salmonella heildeberg (J35.132.w1) 
  • Salmonella newport (J35.132.w1)
  • Salmonella oslo (J79.21.w1)
  • Salmonella typhimurium (J3.65.w1, J4.185.w1, J35.132.w1, P1.1985.w3, P30.1.w5)

In Bears:

In Lagomorphs:

Rabbits

  • Salmonella enteritidis (B600.10.w10, B601.8.w8)
  • Salmonella typhimurium (B600.10.w10, B601.8.w8, B603.1.w1)
  • Salmonella mbandaka (B614.8.w8)

In Great apes

Bonobos

  • Salmonella arizonae (J23.20.w2)
  • In non-human primates most commonly Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella stanley and Salmonella enteritidis. (B22.31.w31f)

Chimpanzees

  • Salmonella aranienburg, Salmonella miami and Salmonella pullorum have been isolated. (B336.39.w39)

Non-infective agents

--

Physical agents

-- Indirect / Secondary

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References

Disease Author

Debra Bourne MA VetMB PhD MRCVS (V.w5); Nikki Fox BVSc MRCVS (V.w103); Gracia Vila-Garcia DVM, MSc, MRCVS (V.w67)
Click image for main Reference Section

Referees

William Lewis BVSc CertZooMed MRCVS (V.w129); Brigitte Reusch BVet Med (Hons) CertZooMed MRCVS (V.w127)

Major References / Reviews

Code and Title List

B9.6.w1, B10.26.w10, B11.39.w7, B11.40.w8, B13.46.w1, B14, B15, B16.19.w1, B18, B32.3.w25, B36.9.w9, B37.x.w1, B47, B48.7.w7, B101, B336.65.w65

J2.19.w2
J3.65.w1, J3.70.w3, J3.96.w1, J3.97.w4, J3.115.w3, J3.128.w2, J3.136.w2
J4.100.w1, J4.129.w1, J4.163.w2, J4.185.w1
J5.5.w2, J5.6.w2
J6.10.w3
J7.13.w1
J35.123.w1, J35.132.w1

J25.4.w1

P1.1985.w3, P30.1.w5
P23.1999S.w3, P23.1999S.w8
D48

Cranes:
B115
.8.w4, B197.9.w9, B703.10.w10
J1.22.w9, J5.8.w4, J5.21.w2
P62.12.w1, P87.1.w2, P87.1.w3

Hedgehogs:

Erinaceus europaeus - West European Hedgehog:

Elephants:

Elephas maximus - Asian Elephant:

Loxodonta africana - African Elephant:

Bears:

Lagomorphs:

Bonobos/Great apes/Primates:

Other References

Code and Title List

J1.100.w1
J5.10.w1
J35.123.w1
J36.41.w1

Cranes:
B485.22.w22, B702.19.w19
J1
.9.w4, J4.183.w5, J5.21.w2
P1.1986.w4, P87.11.w10

Hedgehogs:

Erinaceus europaeus - West European Hedgehog:

Elephants:

Loxodonta africana - African Elephant:

Lagomorphs:
P17.24.w1

Bonobos:
B338.18.w18

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Clinical Characteristics and Pathology

Detailed Clinical and Pathological Characteristics

General

Birds
  • Acute septicaemic to chronic, localised or subclinical disease. Usually seen as an intestinal infection with enteritis, diarrhoea and terminal septicaemia and death. Also as a commensal. (B48.7.w7)
Mammals
  • May cause diarrhoea in juveniles and more rarely adults, and death from acute enteritis without time for the development of diarrhoea in neonates. (B58.29.w29)
WATERFOWL
CRANES
  • Usually asymptomatic in adults but more likely to cause clinical disease in chicks (e.g. diarrhoea, septicaemia, yolk sac infection). Can be fatal. (B115.8.w4, J1.22.w9, P1.1986.w4, P62.12.w1)
HEDGEHOGS 
  • Gastro-intestinal disease (particularly around weaning), sometimes respiratory signs and in juveniles sudden death. (J15.21.w1, B16.13.w13, B22.27.w3)
ELEPHANTS
  • Disease ranging from gastroenteritis and weakness to acute septicaemia causing sudden death has been recorded in juveniles and animals under stress. (B10.49.w21, B450.23.w23, D301.3.w3, J2.19.w2, J3.65.w1, J3.115.w3, J4.185.w1, J35.132.w1, J25.4.w1, J79.21.w1, P1.1985.w3)
  • Commonly reported as fatal after one to three days or after weeks. (B214.3.7.w3)
  • May result in abortion. (P30.1.w5)
  • Has been associated with cholelithiasis. (J4.163.w2)
  • Has been associated with necrosis of the extremities as a sequela of chronic salmonellosis in calves. (J3.115.w3)
LAGOMORPHS
  • Often peracute without clinical signs before death. (B614.8.w8)
BONOBOS
  • Enterocolitis and fatal enteritis have been recorded in bonobos. (J23.20.w2)
  • Asymptomatic to severe diarrhoea in great apes. (B336.39.w39)
  • Note: bacteraemia, local abscesses, including pyelonephritis, osteomyelitis and arthritis have occurred in primates. (B22.31.w31f)
  • In great apes, neonatal septicaemia and septic abortion are reported. (B22.31.w31f)
Clinical Characteristics Mammals
  • Variable.
  • Sudden death to chronic.
  • Diarrhoea.
  • (B58.29.w29).

Birds

  • Variable.
    • Acute to chronic,
    • Septicaemic to localised;
    • Subclinical or mild to severe;
    • Mild infections may produce vague nonspecific signs.
  • Acute disease is seen most frequently in juveniles. 

  • Emaciation and weakness may be seen in chronically infected adults

  • Affected birds may appear weak, lethargic.
  • May be visibly ill for several days before death or die more rapidly (D48)
  • May continue trying to eat until close to death.
  • Fluffed-up plumage
  • Diarrhoea
  • Elevated or subnormal temperature
  • Chronic arthrosynovitis: chronic pain/swelling/stiffness of joint(s)
  • Emaciation and weakness
  • Panophthalmitis: Blindness. Eyeball may be replaced by a mass of inspissated white pus
  • Acute septicaemic infection may be fatal or last for one to several weeks 
  • In pigeons, listlessness, growth retardation and usually diarrhoea.

(B48.7.w7, J35.123.w1, J3.136.w2, D48).

WATERFOWL 
  • Variable: Acute to chronic, septicaemic or localised, subclinical. Peracute or acute septicaemia common with infection of neonates.
  • Sudden death, drowsiness and depression, anorexia, weight loss, stunting of growth, polydipsia (excessive thirst), increased cloacal temperature, pale oral mucosa, ruffled plumage, drooping tail, diarrhoea and soiling of vent feathers may all be seen.
  • In domestic ducklings, dehydration, emaciation and pasting of the vent with urates were common, while variable signs included gasping for air, apparent blindness, swollen-shut oedematous eyelids, apparent blindness, locomotor incoordination, tremor and occasionally opisthotonus (J5.5.w2, J5.6.w2).
  • In chronic infection of adult birds, weakness and emaciation may be seen.
  • Carriers may show no clinical signs.

Yolk sac Infection:

(J4.100.w1, J4.129.w1, B11.39.w7, B11.40.w8, B13.46.w1, B16.19.w1, B37.x.w1, B48.7.w7)

CRANES
  • No clinical signs in an apparently healthy wild Grus canadensis - Sandhill crane. (J5.21.w2)
  • In a group of twenty eight-week-old greater sandhill cranes Grus canadenss tabida (Grus canadensis - Sandhill crane), some had been noted to be unthrifty. (J5.8.w4)
  • In a Grus americana - Whooping crane, with concurrent chronic Avian Tuberculosis, lethargy was noted before the crane was found dead. (J1.22.w9)
  • In chicks:
    • Diarrhoea, lack of weight gain/weight loss, dehydration and lethargy in a chick. (B197.9.w9, B703.10.w10, P62.12.w1)
    • Infection can be fatal. (B115.8.w4)
  • In adults:
    • Individuals with no obvious clinical signs may have reduced fertility (reproductive organs affected). (P62.12.w1)

HEDGEHOGS

  • Diarrhoea, anorexia and weight loss but no deaths. (B16.13.w13, B271.29.w29)
  • Persistent weight loss, green diarrhoea, prolapse of rectum or bowel, dyspnoea. (J15.21.w1)
  • Sudden death in unweaned juveniles.(J15.21.w1)
  • Enteritis, sometimes with septicaemia. (B291.12.w12)
  • Mucoid diarrhoea, dehydration, anorexia and death. (B22.27.w3)
  • May be asymptomatic (B291.12.w12): Salmonella spp. have been found in 28% of clinically healthy hedgehogs. (B22.27.w3)
ELEPHANTS
  • Sudden death in calves, resulting from septicaemia. (J25.4.w1)
  • Diarrhoea, preceded by anorexia, depression and weakness. (B10.49.w21, B214.3.7.w3, D301.3.w3, J2.19.w2, J4.185.w1, J79.21.w1, P1.1985.w3, P30.1.w5)
    • In some cases the diarrhoea has been described as haemorrhagic. (J3.65.w1)
    • Mucoid diarrhoea. (P30.1.w5, D301.3.w3)
    • Intestinal casts are frequently passed. (J3.115.w3)
  • Marked loss of weight. (J35.132.w1, P30.1.w5)
  • Ventral oedema, varying in size depending on exercise, has been recorded. (B450.18.w18, B450. 23.w23, P1.1985.w3)
  • Vesicles and serous fluids on the feet have been seen associated with the disease. (J3.115.w3)
  • Two female elephants, 14 and 24 months pregnant, aborted two weeks and six weeks after the first signs of disease, respectively. (P30.1.w5)
  • Reluctance to lie down and signs of abdominal discomfort. (D301.3.w3, J4.185.w1, P1.1985.w3, P30.1.w5)
  • Jaundice. (J4.163.w2)
  • Death of some of the animals affected occurred a few days after first symptoms were recorded. (J3.65.w1, J3.115.w3, J4.185.w1)
  • Note: Salmonellosis in elephants does not always present with diarrhoea. (V.w72)
BEARS
  • Diarrhoea was seen in a captive nine-day- old grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) [Ursus arctos - Brown bear] cub; rotavirus and Salmonella agona were isolated. (J4.183.w4)
LAGOMORPHS
Rabbits

Salmonellosis is often a peracute disease and so clinical signs may not be observed. (B614.8.w8)

  • Typical clinical findings:
    • Asymptomatic carriers can occur. (B600.16.w16)
    • Usually septicaemia and then rapid death. (B600.10.w10, B601.8.w8, B602.16.w16, B603.1.w1, B614.8.w8)
    • Pyrexia and depression. (B603.1.w1, B614.8.w8)
    • Anorexia. (B614.8.w8)
    • Emaciation. (B600.16.w16)
    • Occasionally diarrhoea. (B600.10.w10, B601.8.w8, B602.16.w16, B603.1.w1, B614.8.w8)
      • This can occur during weaning. (B603.1.w1)
  • Other clinical findings:
    • Salmonella can be a cause of myocardial or uterine infection in the rabbit. (B601.9.w9, B601.10.w10, B603.3.w3)
    • Abortion (B603.1.w1, B614.8.w8)
      • This may be the first sign of an outbreak. (B614.8.w8)
    • Hepatitis secondary to spread of an intestinal infection via the portal vein. (B603.1.w1)
    • Dyspnoea and cyanosis may be seen if the respiratory tract is involved. (B614.8.w8)
BONOBOS
  • In great apes, asymptomatic to diarrhoea which may mild to severe; occasionally mucus and blood may be present in the diarrhoea. There may be resultant dehydration. (B336.39.w39)
    • Leucocytosis with a left shift or a degenerative left shift may be present. (B336.39.w39)
    • In neonates/infants, usually diarrhoea and/or lack of appetite. (B338.18.w18)
  • In primates, enteric salmonellosis produces sudden-onset watery diarrhoea, sometimes (not usually) with mucus or blood. Pyrexia is common. (B22.31.w31f, B644.2.w2)
    • Associated with the diarrhoea, anorexia and depression; rarely vomiting; (B22.31.w31f) Pyrexia is common. (B22.31.w31f, B644.2.w2)
    • Dehydration may occur and can be severe in young animals. (B22.31.w31f)
    • Nonenteric salmonella infections in primates have included abortion, neonatal septicaemia, pyelonephritic, osteomyelitis and gluteal abscess. (B644.2.w2)
    • Leucocytosis may be present, but the WBC count is generally elevated less than in Shigella infections, and the percentage mononuclear cells is higher. (B22.31.w31f)
    • Hyponatraemia, hypochloraemia and metabolic acidosis may be present. (B22.31.w31f)
    • Hypoproteinaemia may occur since diarrhoea leads to reduced food intake and anorexia. (B22.31.w31f)

Incubation

WATERFOWL
  • Variable. 
  • Peracute to chronic. 
  • Acute septicaemia and enteritis, chronic enteritis, chronic arthritis and prolonged carrier status all reported. 
  • Ducklings are usually ill for two to three days before death.

(J5.5.w2, J6.10.w 3, B15).

CRANES --
HEDGEHOGS --
ELEPHANTS
  • Two elephants from a group of 20 became ill and were the only ones that had access to pooled water contaminated with faeces, a few days before developing symptoms. (J4.185.w1)
LAGOMORPHS --
BONOBOS --

Mortality / Morbidity

Birds and mammals generally:
  • Variable morbidity, has been associated with mortality.
  • Outbreaks in garden birds, mortality may be greater than 50% in a local population (D48, P23.1999S.w3). 
WATERFOWL
  • Infection common in young domestic ducklings, rare in free-living waterfowl. 
  • Morbidity and mortality in domestic duck flocks usually under 10%. 
  • Deaths of 2,000 of 16,000 mallard ducklings (12%) occurred during one outbreak affecting ducklings one day to four weeks old.

(J4.129.w1, J5.5.w2, B13.46.w1, B15).

CRANES
  • Infection can be fatal in chicks. (B115.8.w4)
  • In adults, infection may affect fertility, (B115.8.w4) and fatal infection has occurred. (J1.22.w9)
HEDGEHOGS
  • Infection is common in hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus - West European Hedgehog) in both England (25.0% of individuals) (Salmonella enteritidis) and New Zealand (39.4% of individuals) (Salmonella typhimurium). (J18.38.w1)
  • Salmonella enteritidis phage type 11 found in 13/74 dead wild hedgehogs; Salmonella typhimurium  phage type 104 found in one animal: infection in 18.9% of animals (J3.128.w2)
  • Two surveys in Germany found Salmonella spp. in 49 of 410 animals (11.9%) (J138.61.w1)and 17.1% of 637 animals. (J3.128.w2)
  • Death was attributed to salmonellosis in 78/109 hedgehog carcasses from which the organism was isolated at a laboratory in Germany. (J138.66.w1)
  • Incidence of 14.7% (of 34 hedgehogs) for isolation of Salmonella spp. in Italy. (B228.9.w9)
  • Rates of disease are lower than rates of infection. (J3.128.w2)
ELEPHANTS
  • Two juvenile elephants that had access to pooled water contaminated with faeces were diagnosed with clinical salmonellosis; one of them died. (J4.185.w1)
  • Two juvenile elephants that died as consequence of Salmonella typhimurium infection had access to a water supply contaminated with faeces. (J3.65.w1)
  • Salmonella typhimurium was isolated in an outbreak of the disease that affected a group of four adult elephants and resulted in abortion in two females. (P30.1.w5)
  • In the only recorded outbreak of salmonellosis in Loxodonta africana - African Elephants captured and confined in bomas in the Kruger National Park, involving Salmonella typhimurium, morbidity was "high" and mortality "significant". (B70.B4.w1)
  • A single fatal case of Salmonella hadar infection has occurred in a captive Loxodonta africana - African Elephant in the UK. (B70.B4.w1)
LAGOMORPHS
Rabbits
  • Uncommon in rabbits, particularly in the individual pet. (B600.10.w10, B614.8.w8)
  • Uncommon in wild rabbits in the UK. (P17.24.w1)
  • Outbreaks of salmonellosis can cause high morbidity and high mortality. (B602.16.w16, B614.8.w8)
    • In one outbreak of salmonellosis (due to Salmonella typhimurium) that began in breeding does and then spread to the young rabbits, 50 % mortality occurred. (B614.8.w8)
Prevalence of Infection in Hares
BONOBOS

Pathology

Birds

Gross pathology:

  • General body condition: Commonly very thin
  • Septicaemic lesions.
  • Gastro-intestinal tract - Crop wall may have areas of ulceration and abscessation (diffuse or multiple 1-5mm yellow nodules). Crop may be full indicating crop stasis.
  • Liver: May be enlarged and congested may contain focal lesions.
  • Spleen - may be enlarged and congested, may contain focal lesions.
  • Kidney: may be congested.
  • Respiratory tract - Lungs may be congested, contain focal lesions.
  • Musculoskeletal - joints may contain lesions.
  • Eyes - may be lesions - Panophthalmitis: eyeball may be replaced by a mass of inspissated white pus.

(D48, J3.136.w2)

Mammals
WATERFOWL GENERALISED INFECTION:

Gross Pathology:

  • Gross lesions may be seen in chronic disease, but in peracute infection there may be no lesions or only a slightly swollen pale liver.
  • Pasting of vent visible externally.
  • Gastro-intestinal tract - lower small intestine, caeca and rectum usually affected. Enteritis, enlarged and mottled lower small intestine and rectum, caseous caecal plugs or cores.
  • Liver - miliary abscesses/focal hepatic necrosis
  • Spleen - splenomegaly (may be six times normal size), often pale, mottled.
  • Kidney - Pale. Urate accumulation in ureters.
  • Central nervous system - meningitis, with cerebral meninges opaque and thickened.
  • Yolk sac - brownish, unabsorbed (See Omphalitis / Yolk Sacculitis) (J4.100.w1, J5.5.w2).

Histopathology:

  • Gastro-intestinal tract - May be inflammatory exudate on serosal surface. Infiltrate of heterophils in muscular and fibrous layers of the intestine, loss of villi and sloughing of mucosa (sometimes complete) and considerable exudate in lumen.
  • Liver - foci of necrosis. Heterophil foci throughout the liver. Exudate around the bile ducts and blood vessels and some intralobular septa, also mainly of heterophils.
  • Spleen - diffuse heterophil infiltration, occasionally necrotic foci.
  • Kidney - massive interstitial heterophil infiltrate, congestion of small vessels, frequently casts in tubules.
  • Respiratory tract - occasional congestion and heterophil infiltrate in lung parenchyma and affecting tunica externa and media of pulmonary arteries. Exudate containing heterophils may be seen on the peritoneal surface of the air sacs.
  • Heart - variable pericarditis and epicarditis. Mainly heterophil exudates, sometimes extending into the myocardium.
  • Central nervous system -
    Brain: Acute heterophilic leptomeningitis. Exudate filled with mainly heterophils. Arteritis and periarteritis in leptomeninges and also deep in cerebrum, with heterophil accumulation around vessels and in tunica media. Distension of lateral ventricles by inflamed choroid plexi, also with predominantly heterophil exudate.
    Spinal cord: Distension of spinal cord leptomeninges and heterophil exudate in central canal may be seen.
    Optic: heterophil perineuritis of optic chiasma, and optic neuritis.
    (J5.5.w2).

ARTHRITIS:

  • Swelling of affected joint. Joint distended with accumulated exudate. Frequently thickened joint capsule. Inflammation of periarticular soft tissues and tendon sheaths. Exudate may be cloudy, fibrino-purulent and red-brown. Sometimes dryish and yellow-grey.
  • Articular cartilage degenerated and necrotic, sometimes extending to affect subchondral bone.
    (J6.10.w3).

CHRONIC REPRODUCTIVE TRACT INFECTION:

  • Oophoritis may occur in females and orchiditis in males.

YOLK SAC INFECTION:

(J4.129.w1, J5.6.w2, B10.26.w10, B11.40.w8, B16.19.w1, B37.x.w1)

CRANES
  • In chicks:
    • GIT: Intestinal inflammation (enteritis). (P62.12.w1, P87.1975.w2)
    • Yolk sac inflammation. (P62.12.w1)
    • Hepatic: Liver necrosis may be present. (P62.12.w1)
  • In a Grus americana - Whooping crane, with concurrent Avian Tuberculosis
    • Gross lesions described were associated mainly with the concurrent avian tuberculosis. (J1.22.w9)

Histopathology:

HEDGEHOGS
ELEPHANTS Gross Pathology:
  • Ventral subcutaneous oedema and generalized lymphadenopathy. (P1.1985.w3)
  • Subcutaneous haemorrhage of the forelimbs and abdominal surface. (J4.163.w2)
  • Gastro-intestinal: 
    • Gastroenteritis with thickening of the mucosa and a diphtheritic deposit on the mucosa of the intestine. (J2.19.w2, J25.4.w1)
    • Oedematous mucosal inflammation of the small intestines. (J4.163.w2)
    • Congestion, necrotic foci and ulceration of the stomach and intestinal mucosa. (J2.19.w2)
    • Haemorrhages of the serosa and mucosa of small intestines. (J4.185.w1)
    • Haemorrhagic content of the gastrointestinal tract. (J2.19.w2)
    • Severe generalized necrosis of the intestines. (J35.132.w1)
  • Liver:
    • White foci and congestion (J2.19.w2, P1.1985.w3)
    • Hepatomegaly with rounded edges due to inflammation; pale and friable. The hepatic duct was dilated and contained faceted gallstones. The biliary ducts were thickened and dilated, filled with opaque light yellow bile and stones varying in size. (J4.163.w2)
  • Spleen: White foci. (P1.1985.w3)
  • Kidneys: Congestion.(J2.19.w2)
  • Urinary:  Fibrin-like clots in bladder. (J25.4.w1)
  • Heart: Petechial haemorrhages on both auricles, the atrioventricular valves and the epicardium. (J2.19.w2)
  • Lungs: Congestion. (J2.19.w2)

Histopathology:

  • Gastro-intestinal: 
    • Acute, necrotic ulceration of the intestinal mucosa, with extensive epithelial loss, oedema, congestion and perivascular haemorrages. Polymorphonuclear inflammatory infiltration and bacterial colonies were found in superficial necrotic tissue. (J4.185.w1)
  • Liver: Acute necrosis and gram negative rods were found in tissue section. (P1.1985.w3)
  • Spleen: Congestion with large numbers of macrophages and haemosiderin. (J4.163.w2)
  • Brain: Focal granulomatous lesion on the left temporal lobe of the cerebral cortex. (B450.23.w23)
LAGOMORPHS
Rabbits
The pathological findings of salmonellosis are consistent with septicaemia:
  • General: congestion and petechiation of multiple organs. (B602.16.w16, B603.3.w3, B614.8.w8) This may be the only pathology seen in peracute cases. (B614.8.w8)
  • Liver, spleen, kidney, myocardium and lymph nodes: necrotic foci surrounded by polymorphonuclear leucocytes may be seen in acute cases of salmonellosis. (B602.16.w16, B603.3.w3, B614.8.w8) The lymph nodes may also be oedematous. (B614.8.w8)
  • Respiratory tract: congestion, oedema, focal haemorrhages, and atelectasis may be seen early on in the disease progressing rapidly to terminal suppurative bronchopenumonia. (B614.8.w8)
  • Reproductive tract: evidence of abortion or fetal death along with suppurative necrotising metritis may be seen in pregnant does, particularly if they are in late gestation. (B614.8.w8)
BONOBOS In primates: (B22.31.w31f)

Gross Pathology

  • GIT: 
    • Inflammatory reaction of the jejunum, ileum and colon, mainly polymorphonuclear cells initially, later lymphocytes and monocytes. Inflammation is less severe in the large intestine than is seen with Shigella infection. (B22.31.w31f)
    • Congestion and oedema of the ileum, caecum and colon. (B22.31.w31f)
  • Lymph nodes: Mesenteric lymph nodes swollen. (B22.31.w31f)

Histopathology

  • Small intestines and large intestines: epithelial degeneration and desquamation. Infiltration of the lamina propria with small round cells and histiocytes. In crypts, a few microabscesses may be found. (B22.31.w31f)

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Human Health Considerations

  • Important zoonosis causing febrile gastroenteritis and sometimes bacteraemia.
  • The main route of infection is by ingestion.
  • Usually self-limiting.
  • Particularly important in the very young, very old and in persons who may be immunocompromised. 
  • Notifiable disease in the UK
  • Wild birds may be a source of infection for humans, as may various mammals and also reptiles. (P24.327.w4)
  • N.B. human carriers may be the source of infection for birds
  • Incubation period usually six to 72 hours. (B23.22.w5, P24.327.w4)
  • Clinical signs include diarrhoea, vomiting, nausea, abdominal pain, anorexia and headache; dehydration may result. (P24.327.w4)
  • Recovery usually in less than one week, in adults. (B23.22.w5); may be eight to nine days. (P24.327.w4)

(J35.123.w1, B11.39.w7, B14, B16.19.w1, B23.22.w5, B32.3.w25, B36.9.w9, B37.x.w1, B47, B48.7.w7, B336.65.w65, P23.1999S.w3, P23.1999S.w8, P24.327.w4, D48

HEDGEHOGS (Erinaceus europaeus - West European Hedgehog)

  • Potential for development of carrier state and related public health hazard. (B16.13.w13)
  • Hedgehog faeces in gardens constitute a potential zoonotic hazard for humans (and for household pets). (J10.12.w1)
  • Salmonella enteritidis phage type 11, which is commonly found in hedgehogs in the UK, is known to be seen in clinical cases of salmonellosis in humans. (J3.128.w2)
  • Hedgehogs positive for Salmonella enteritidis phage type 11 have been in gardens, presenting a possible human health hazard, particularly for children. (J3.128.w2)
  • Strains of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis found in humans and hedgehogs in Denmark were identical or very similar to one another. (J93.38.w2)
  • High prevalence of Salmonella typhimurium in samples of hedgehog faeces in Norway in an area (Jeloy, south-east Norway) simultaneously with an outbreak of salmonellosis due to Salmonella typhimurium in humans. (P35.3.w18)
  • Hygienic precautions are recommended when handling hedgehogs, hedgehog faeces and utensils used with hedgehogs. (J3.128.w2)
  • Owners/carers must be reminded of the zoonotic potential of salmonella infection and the chance that an infected hedgehog may become a carrier. (J34.24.w1)
  • In Canada during the period 1994-1996 cases of human salmonellosis (in infants and young children) was associated with salmonellae in pet African pygmy hedgehogs Atelerix albiventris. (J93.35.w1)
  • Salmonella tilene has been isolated from African pygmy hedgehogs [Atelerix albiventris] in the USA associated with human salmonellosis. (W170.Sept02.H1)
  • In Norway, Salmonella Typhimurium was detected in samples from 39% of 99 hedgehogs sampled in the area of one human outbreak (Jeloy) and in 41% of 82 hedgehogs samples in the area of another outbreak (Askoy, Bergen and Os), but in 0% of 115 and 24 individuals sampled from two other locations. The PFGE profiles of the hedgehog isolated matched those of the isolates from humans in the same locality. It was considered likely that the hedgehogs constituted the primary source for the human infections. (J19.128.w1)

ELEPHANTS

  • A multi-serotype Salmonella infection affected a group of six calves Loxodonta africana - African Elephant. In the same park one of the elephant keepers and some other members of the staff suffered from vomiting and diarrhoea. Despite investigation by the local Medical Officer of Health the source of the disease was not determined. (J35.132.w1)
  • Salmonella enteritidis serotype was isolated from a Loxodonta africana - African Elephant; this commonly infects man and the possibility of a human carrier was outlined. (J25.4.w1)
  • Salmonella typhimurium was isolated in the only recorded outbreak of salmonellosis in Loxodonta africana - African Elephants captured and confined in bomas in the Kruger National Park. (B70.B4.w1)
  • A single fatal case of Salmonella hadar infection has occurred in a captive Loxodonta africana - African Elephant in the UK. (B70.B4.w1)
  • Salmonella typhimurium was isolated from one of two Elephas maximus - Asian Elephant calves dead as consequence of the infection; the bacteria were suspected to come from the faecally-polluted water supply in the zoo. The contamination source was presumed to be earth closets used by the public. (J3.65.w1)
  • Salmonella typhimurium was isolated from a Elephas maximus - Asian Elephant that died of severe fibronecrotic enterocolitis (the same animal was found at post mortem examination to be infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis). (J2.32.w1)
  • Salmonella blockey was isolated in two cases of infection in Elephas maximus - Asian Elephant in Malaysia. This agent is known to be a local human pathogen, but no attempts were made to screen the keepers. (J2.19.w2)

LAGOMORPHS

  • Rabbits: There have been isolated reports of human salmonella infections after contact with infected domestic rabbits. (B600.3.w3)

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Susceptibility / Transmission

General information on Susceptibility / Transmission

SALMONELLA HAVE BEEN ISOLATED FROM A WIDE RANGE OF MAMMALS, BIRDS, REPTILES AND AMPHIBIANS.

Susceptibility:

  • The outcome of Salmonella spp. infections is dependent upon species, age and concurrent stress, as well as Salmonella spp. serovar and strain virulence
  • Young animals are more susceptible to acute infection than are adults; mortality is higher in juveniles.
    • In waterfowl clinical disease is seen mainly in young ducklings and is usually secondary to other disease or stress
  • A wide variety of stressors including inclement weather, overcrowding, hospitalisation, transportation, training, parasitism, parturition etc. may predispose animals to the development of salmonellosis.
  • Epidemics are usually related to stressors such as food shortage, breeding, climatic changes, cold stress and overcrowding.

Transmission:

  • Ingestion of contaminated food or water, and inhalation of infective dust from dry faeces.
  • Excreted by infected individuals, including apparently-healthy carriers.
  • Also carried mechanically by rodents, insects, water, people, various species of wild birds and in e.g. sewage outflows.
  • Also via infected eggs in incubators (infection passed on from infected adults).

(J4.100.w1, J4.129.w1, B9.6.w1, B10.26.w10, B11.39.w7, B13.46.w1, B15, B18, B36.9.w9, B47, B48.7.w7, B336.65.w65, D48).

CRANES Susceptibility
  • May be increased by stress. (B115.8.w4)
  • In general, bacterial diseases are seen in cranes which are predisposed to infection due to population or environmental stressors. (B336.20.w20)

Transmission

  • In a group of twenty eight-week-old greater sandhill cranes Grus canadenss tabida (Grus canadensis - Sandhill crane), in which two salmonella types were isolated, the source of the infections was not determined. Possible sources included hens used for brooding the chicks, or feed (turkey starter, earthworms (Lumbrus sp.) and mealworms (Tenebrio sp.). (J5.8.w4)
  • Transmission by the faeco-oral route may e increased where flock densities are high. (P62.12.w1)
HEDGEHOGS Susceptibility:

Transmission:

  • Transmission route is not known. (J3.128.w2)
  • Faecal route is likely: the organism was isolated from the gut in 8/13 9nfected individuals (61.5%). (J3.128.w2)
  • Fleas and slugs may be involved in the spread of salmonella between hedgehogs. (J3.128.w2)
  • Prevalence of Salmonella Typhimurium was significantly higher in hedgehogs collected from places where they were fed than from those collected from other locations in the same area. (J19.128.w1)
ELEPHANTS Susceptibility:
  • Disease has been reported in captive animals or captive wild-caught animals after capture. (J2.19.w2, J3.65.w1, J4.185.w1, J35.132.w1, J25.4.w1, J79.21.w1, P1.1985.w3, P30.1.w5)
  • Post-capture stress and concurrent diseases such as wounds may play a very important role on the development of the infection. (J2.19.w2, J35.132.w1)
  • Juveniles are particularly susceptible to the development of acute salmonellosis, whilst adults may become asymptomatic carriers. (J3.65.w1, J4.185.w1, J35.132.w1, J25.4.w1)
  • Susceptibility to disease may be increased in individuals under stress. (J2.19.w2, J4.185.w1, J25.4.w1, P30.1.w5)

Transmission:

  • The transmission routes in detected cases have not been determined, but water contaminated with faeces has been suggested as the source of infection. (J3.65.w1, J3.115.w3, J4.185.w1)
  • Contact with humans has been suggested as the source of infection. (J2.19.w2, J3.65.w1, J4.185.w1, J35.132.w1, J25.4.w1)
  • Contamination of food by rodents has also been involved in the transmission of salmonellosis. (J4.185.w1)
LAGOMORPHS

Susceptibility:

  • Salmonellosis has been seen in rabbits of various ages. (B601.8.w8)
  • Stress and immunosuppression are risk factors for development of disease. A study demonstrated the precipitation of peracute disease in carrier animals that were given prednisone, either alone or along with minor surgery. (B614.8.w8)
Transmission:
  • Contaminated food and water, e.g. by wild rodents. (B600.16.w16, B602.16.w16, B614.8.w8)
    • Some Salmonella outbreaks in rabbits have been due to transmission from poultry, e.g. feeding rabbits contaminated chicken eggs; feeding hay that had been contaminated by chickens housed nearby. (B614.8.w8)
    • Rabbits are not thought to be common reservoirs of Salmonella, but they do sometimes carry the organism. One survey reported in 1983 revealed a 38 % of a group of Eimeria and Pasteurella- free rabbits were carriers of Salmonella mbandaka. (B614.8.w8) 
  • Contaminated bedding and cages (B614.8.w8)
  • Contamination occurs when the bacteria are shed in the faeces of clinically ill or carrier animals. (B614.8.w8)
  • Direct contact with infected animals. (B614.8.w8)
BONOBOS
  • Great apes: Cases are usually sporadic. (B336.39.w39)
    • Transmission in great apes is faeco-oral. (B336.39.w39)
    • Note: individuals can become carriers. (B336.39.w39)
  • Occurrence of infection in nonhuman primates is highest in recently-imported individuals. In general it is infrequent in New World primates, but in prosimians it is more common than is Shigella. (B22.31.w31f)
  • Infection in primates is nearly always oral. Faeces are a major source for primates but fruit, rodents and small birds may act as sources; insects can be mechanical vectors. Infection is more common in primates in zoological collections than in research facilities, due to the wider potential exposure. (B22.31.w31f)
  • Relatively common in neonates, also during periods of stress such as weaning. (B338.18.w18)

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Disease has been reported in either the wild or in captivity in:

Waterfowl

  • Ducks, geese (B36.9.w9).
  • White Pekin ducks Anas platyrhynchos domesticus on Long Island, New York, USA; mainly Salmonella typhimurium (J5.5.w2, J5.6.w2).
  • Free-range domestic ducks Anas platyrhynchos domesticus with arthritis. (J6.10.w3)
  • Wood ducks Aix sponsa being reared in Illinois, USA. (J1.100.w1)
  • Mallard ducklings, 1day to four weeks old, reared in Maryland, USA. Acute septicaemia with 12% lost from 16,000 birds; both Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella anatum identified. (J4.129.w1)
  • Tufted duck Aythya fuligula, scaup Aythya marila, goosanders (common merganser) Mergus merganser on the coast of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, utilising areas fed by warm waste-water in severe frosty weather. (J7.13.w1)
  • Mute swans Cygnus olor taken to a rescue centre for treatment after pollution with light oil, from a river known to be polluted from e.g. storm sewage overflows. (J3.97.w4)
  • Infection with Salmonella typhimurium reported in a wild tufted duck Aythya fuligula in the UK, with a note that infection had also been recorded in a mallard (J3.70.w3)
  • Infection reported, mainly with Salmonella typhimurium, in domestic ducks in the UK (1968-1973) (J3.96.w1).
  • Salmonella typhimurium isolated from a Whooper swan Cygnus cygnus and two mute swans Cygnus olor dying from other illnesses in Scotland, UK (J36.41.w1).
  • Isolation from a mallard Anas platyrhynchos and a mute swan Cygnus olor in the UK; also noted infection reported in barnacle goose Branta leucopsis from Schleswig Holstein, Germany. (J35.123.w1)
  • Salmonella spp. were isolated from waterfowl submitted for diagnostic evaluation in Massachusetts, USA: ducklings, 0-4 weeks old, in which isolations were made variously from the heart, liver, yolk sac and intestines, and a swan, in which isolation was made from the intestines. (J5.10.w1)

In Cranes:

  • Salmonella hartford was isolated from the intestinal tract of one Grus canadensis - Sandhill crane on a wintering ground in Florida. (J1.9.w4, P87.1.w3) Another sandhill crane was later found positive for Salmonella hartford. (B702.19.w19)
  • Salmonella java was isolated from the intestinal tract of one Grus canadensis - Sandhill crane on a wintering ground in Florida. (J1.9.w4, P87.1.w3)
  • Salmonella enteritidis serotype Panama was isolated from the intestines of a 1.5-month-old Grus japonensis - Red-crowned crane which died due to aspergillosis. (J4.183.w5)
  • Salmonella infantis (one case) and Salmonella belem (two cases) were isolated from eight-week-old greater sandhill cranes Grus canadenss tabida (Grus canadensis - Sandhill crane), some of whom had been noted to be unthrifty. (J5.8.w4)
  • Salmonella enteritidis serotype Rubislaw was isolated from a cloacal swab from one of 24 apparently healthy live-trapped Grus canadensis tabida (greater sandhill cranes) (Grus canadensis - Sandhill crane) in Indiana and Wisconsin in November 1976. (J5.21.w2)
  • Salmonella enteritidis was isolated form the liver of a wild Grus americana - Whooping crane found dead near Monte Vista National Wildlife Refuge, Rio Grande County, Colorado. (J1.22.w9)
  • Fatal infection in one Grus japonensis - Red-crowned crane at ICF, 972-1982. (P92.1.w5)
  • Salmonella typhimurium was isolated from one Lilford's crane (Grus grus - Common crane) and one Grus carunculatus - Wattled crane. (B485.22.w22)
  • "Salmonella-like bacteria" were cultured from the intestines of two greater sandhill cranes with enteric lesions; one was three months old, the other was 18 months old. (P87.1.w2)
  • Campylobacter sp. have sometimes been isolated from faeces of Grus americana - Whooping cranes on routine screening at the International Crane Foundation, Baraboo, Wisconsin, USA, 1976-2008. (P87.11.w10)

In Hedgehogs

  • Hedgehogs; primary salmonellosis in wild hedgehogs, also sudden death in unweaned juveniles and gastrointestinal disease around weaning time. (J15.21.w1)
  • Common in hedgehogs in both England (25.0% of individuals) (Salmonella enteritidis) and New Zealand (39.4% of individuals) (Salmonella typhimurium). Salmonella sofia has been isolated from the alimentary tract of hedgehogs in Europe. (J18.38.w1)
  • Hedgehogs in East Anglia, England, UK: Salmonella enteritidis phage type 11 found 13/74 dead wild hedgehogs; Salmonella typhimurium  phage type 104 found in one animal. (J3.128.w2)
  • Hedgehogs have also been reported infected with Salmonella brancaster in the UK, Salmonella edmonton, Salmonella thompson, Salmonella stanleyville, Salmonella paratyphi B and Salmonella dublin in Italy. In Germany Salmonella enteritidis (phage type not stated), was the dominant serotype, but Salmonella typhimurium var copenhagen and 10 other serovars were also isolated. (J3.128.w2)
  • Incidence of 14.7% (of 34 hedgehogs) for isolation of Salmonella spp. in Italy: Salmonella edmonton, Salmonella thompson, Salmonella stanleyville, and Salmonella enteritidis have been isolated. (B228.9.w9)
  • In Sicily, Salmonella dublin, Salmonella paratyphi and Salmonella typhimurium have been isolated from hedgehogs. (B228.9.w9)
  • In Greece, Salmonella adasuta, Salmonella bispebergSalmonella carro, Salmonella halle, Salmonella kisarewe and Salmonella miami  have been isolated from hedgehogs. (B228.9.w9)
  • Salmonella enterica serovar Enteridis phage type 11 and phage type 9a (10 and six strains respectively), also seven strains not conforming to a known phage types, were isolated from hedgehogs in Denmark, 1994-1998. (J93.38.w2)
  • High prevalence of Salmonella typhimurium in samples of hedgehog faeces in Norway in an area (Jeloy, south-east Norway) simultaneously with an outbreak of salmonellosis due to Salmonella typhimurium in humans. (P35.3.w18)
  • In Norway Salmonella Typhimurium was detected in samples from 39% of 99 hedgehogs sampled in the area of one human outbreak (Jeloy) and in 41% of 82 hedgehogs samples in the area of another outbreak (Askoy, Bergen and Os), but in 0% of 115 and 24 individuals sampled from two other locations. The PFGE profiles of the hedgehog isolated matched those of the isolates from humans in the same locality. It was considered likely that the hedgehogs constituted the primary source for the human infections. (J19.128.w1)
  • Salmonella enteritidis isolated from faeces in a captive colony of hedgehogs in Nottingham, UK, associated with loss of condition in some individuals. (B271.29.w29)
  • Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella thompson and Salmonella stanleyville, sometimes in combined infections, were detected during a survey in Italy. (J139.23.w1)
  • Salmonella typhimurium isolated from the faeces of 13/33 wild hedgehogs from Hamilton, New Zealand, and from a combined homogenate of liver, spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes in 3/9 animals (all three of which also had the organism in their faeces); one animal was positive for Salmonella typhimurium in the faces but negative from the homogenised organs. (J10.12.w1)
  • In the UK, isolates have been made from hedgehogs of Salmonella brancaster and Salmonella enteritidis var. jena; additional isolates from hedgehogs outside the UK include Salmonella adamstua, Salmonella bispebjerg, Salmonella cerro, Salmonella halle, Salmonella kisarawe and Salmonella miami. (P17.24.w1)
  • Salmonellosis was diagnosed in 49/410 hedgehogs Erinaceus europaeus examined post mortem 1975-1979. (J138.61.w1)
  • Salmonellae were isolated from 47/1721 (2.7%) of hedgehog faecal samples and from 109/637 (17.1%) of hedgehog carcasses submitted to a laboratory in Germany and death was attributed to salmonellosis in 78/109 of the individuals from which the organism was isolated. Salmonella enteritidis was isolated in 70/78 cases of salmonella septicaemia as well as in 16/31 latent infections and 23/47 positive faecal samples. Other isolates from diseased individuals included Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella copenhagen. (J138.66.w1)
  • Salmonella enteritidis was isolated from the lymph nodes of 8/200 hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) from three locations in New Zealand (4/19 animals from Wairarapa, 4/53 animals from North Canterbury, but 0/128 animals from Otoag). Salmonella typhimurium was isolated from the lymph nodes of two individuals from Palmerston North. (J195.24.w1)
  • Salmonella tilene has been isolated from African pygmy hedgehogs [Atelerix albiventris (Atelerix albiventris - Four-toed hedgehog)] in Canada (associated with salmonellosis in human children); Salmonella typhimurium has also been isolated. (J93.35.w1)
  • Salmonella tilene has been isolated from African pygmy hedgehogs [Atelerix albiventris] in the USA associated with human salmonellosis. (W170.Sept02.H1)

In Elephants

Elephas maximus - Asian Elephant
  • Salmonella oslo was isolated post mortem from a 15-year old circus elephant imported to France from Ceylon. (J79.21.w1)
  • Salmonella typhimurium was isolated from one of two calves that died as consequence of the infection in the zoological gardens of Sri Lanka (former Ceylon). (J3.65.w1)
  • Salmonella blockey was recover from the liver, mesenteric lymph node and heart blood from two Asian elephant calves kept in captivity in Malaysia. (J2.19.w2)

Loxodonta africana - African Elephant

  • Salmonella enteritidis was isolated from post mortem tissues of two elephants in a holding ground in Nairobi where several juveniles were kept after being trapped in Uganda several months before. (J25.4.w1)
  • Salmonella montevideo (group C) was isolated from frozen faeces collected post mortem in a juvenile elephant at the San Diego Wild Animal Park. Salmonella typhimurium was later isolated from fresh faeces in an asymptomatic elephant from the same herd. (J4.185.w1)
  • Salmonella typhimurium was isolated in an outbreak of salmonellosis in Oakland Zoo that affected four animals and resulted in abortion in two cases. (P30.1.w5)
  • A multi-serotype Salmonella infection was confirmed in a group of six three-and-a-half-year-old captive wild-caught elephants previously infested with intestinal flukes in a zoological park in Southern England. (J35.132.w1)

In bears

  • Rotavirus and Salmonella agona were isolated from a captive nine-day-old grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) [Ursus arctos - Brown bear] cub with diarrhoea. (J4.183.w4)
  • Salmonella sp. was isolated from a seven-year-old, captive Kodiak bear (Ursus arctos - Brown bear) in a case of antibiotic-associated colitis caused by Clostridium difficile (See: Clostridium difficile Infection in Bears). (J13.44.w1)
  • A survey of Ursus americanus - American black bears in Florida, detected Salmonella litchfield in a five-month-old cub from Alachua county. (B419.14.w14)
  • Salmonellosis (Salmonella typhimurium in five cases, Salmonella dublin in one case, Salmonella abony in one case, unspecified in one case) was considered the primary cause of death in eight Ursus arctos - Brown bear cubs at Rostock zoo and was a secondary finding in several other cubs. (P5.29.w5)

In lagomorphs

  • Oryctolagus cuniculus domesticus - Domestic European rabbit:
    • Salmonellosis is an uncommon disease in rabbits. However, in the early 1900s salmonellosis was prevalent and there were several reports of explosive outbreaks causing death in large numbers of rabbits. Most rabbits died rapidly from septicaemia although diarrhoea was occasionally reported. An outbreak of Salmonella enteriditis infection in pregnant does in 1936 resulted in abortion and subsequent death. (B614.8.w8)
    • Salmonella mbandaka was reported in 1984 as the cause of rabbits dying peracutely after experimental manipulation. (B614.8.w8)
  • Lepus europaeus - Brown hare: salmonellae have been isolated from this species. However, one study in Denmark in 1994 revealed less than 1% of 975 European brown hares to be infected. (B209.28.w28i)
  • Lepus timidus - Mountain hare salmonellae have been isolated from this species. (B209.28.w28i)

In primates

Further information on Host species has only been incorporated for species groups for which a full Wildpro "Health and Management" module has been completed (i.e. for which a comprehensive literature review has been undertaken). Host species with further information available are listed below:

Host Species List

BIRDS:

MAMMALS:

(List does not contain all other species groups affected by this infectious agent)

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Disease has been specifically reported in Free-ranging populations of:

  • Various garden birds including greenfinches, chaffinches, house sparrows, bullfinches (D48)
  • Salmonella typhimurium has been isolated from feral pigeons (Columba livia - Rock pigeon), greenfinches (Carduelis chloris - European greenfinch), tawny owl (Strix aluco - Tawny owl), hooded crow (Corvus corone - Carrion crow ), rook (Corvus frugilegus - Rook), red-throated diver (Gavia stellata - Red-throated loon), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos - Mallard), mute swan (Cygnus olor - Mute swan), house sparrows (Passer domesticus - House sparrow), herring gull (Larus argentatus - Herring gull), wood pigeon (Columba palumbas - Common wood-pigeon), starlings (Sturnus vulgaris - Common starling) (J35.123.w1)
  • Greenfinches (Carduelis chloris - European greenfinch), chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs - Chaffinch), house sparrows (Passer domesticus - House sparrow), great tit (Parus major - Great tit), herring gull (Larus argentatus - Herring gull), and harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena - Harbour porpoise) during 1996-1997 (N5.3.w1).
  • Young pigeon (Columba livia - Rock pigeon) in 1999; also roe deer (Capreolus capreolus - Western roe deer), hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus - West European hedgehog), harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena - Harbour porpoise), seal (species not given) and cultured from the faeces of badger (Meles meles - Eurasian badger) on a farm with the same organism (Salmonella agama) isolated from cows.(D49)
  • Tufted duck Aythya fuligula, scaup Aythya marila, goosanders (common merganser) Mergus merganser on the coast of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, utilising areas fed by warm waste-water in severe frosty weather (J7.13.w1).
  • Mallard Anas platyrhynchos, mute swan Cygnus olor in the UK; also noted infection reported in barnacle goose Branta leucopsis from Schleswig Holstein, Germany (J35.123.w1).
  • Mute swans Cygnus olor taken to a rescue centre for treatment after pollution with light oil, from a river known to be polluted from e.g. storm sewage overflows (J3.97.w4).
  • Infection with Salmonella typhimurium reported in a wild tufted duck Aythya fuligula in the UK (J3.70.w3).

In cranes

  • Salmonella hartford was isolated from the intestinal tract of one Grus canadensis - Sandhill crane on a wintering ground in Florida. (J1.9.w4, P87.1.w3)
  • Salmonella java was isolated from the intestinal tract of one Grus canadensis - Sandhill crane on a wintering ground in Florida. (J1.9.w4, P87.1.w3)
  • Salmonella enteritidis serotype Rubislaw was isolated from a cloacal swab from one of 24 apparently healthy live-trapped Grus canadensis tabida (greater sandhill cranes) (Grus canadensis - Sandhill crane) in Indiana and Wisconsin in November 1976. (J5.21.w2)
  • Salmonella enteritidis was isolated from the liver of a wild Grus americana - Whooping crane found dead near Monte Vista National Wildlife Refuge, Rio Grande County, Colorado. (J1.22.w9)

In Hedgehogs

  • Hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus - West European Hedgehog); primary salmonellosis in wild hedgehogs.(J15.21.w1)
  • Hedgehogs in East Anglia, England, UK: Salmonella enteritidis phage type 11 found 13/74 dead wild hedgehogs; Salmonella typhimurium  phage type 104 found in one animal. (J3.128.w2)
  • High prevalence of Salmonella typhimurium in samples of hedgehog faeces in Norway in an area (Jeloy, south-east Norway) simultaneously with an outbreak of salmonellosis due to Salmonella typhimurium in humans. (P35.3.w18)
  • In Norway Salmonella Typhimurium was detected in samples from 39% of 99 hedgehogs sampled in the area of one human outbreak (Jeloy) and in 41% of 82 hedgehogs samples in the area of another outbreak (Askoy, Bergen and Os), but in 0% of 115 and 24 individuals sampled from two other locations. The PFGE profiles of the hedgehog isolated matched those of the isolates from humans in the same locality. It was considered likely that the hedgehogs constituted the primary source for the human infections. (J19.128.w1)
  • Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella thompson and Salmonella stanleyville, sometimes in combined infections, were detected during a survey in Italy. (J139.23.w1)
  • Salmonella typhimurium isolated from the faeces of 13/33 wild hedgehogs from Hamilton, New Zealand, and from a combined homogenate of liver, spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes in 3/9 animals (all three of which also had the organism in their faeces); one animal was positive for Salmonella typhimurium in the faces but negative from the homogenised organs. (J10.12.w1)
  • Salmonellosis was diagnosed in 49/410 hedgehogs Erinaceus europaeus examined post mortem 1975-1979. (J138.61.w1)

In bears

In lagomorphs

Further information on Host species has only been incorporated for species groups for which a full Wildpro "Health and Management" module has been completed (i.e. for which a comprehensive literature review has been undertaken). Host species with further information available are listed below:

Host Species List

BIRDS:

MAMMALS:

(List does not contain all other species groups affected by this infectious agent)

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Environment/Geography

General Information on Environmental Factors/Events and Seasonality

  • Resistance is reduced by stressors such as extreme environmental temperatures, inclement weather and low nutritional planes (B47, B48.7.w7)
  • Outbreaks in wild birds may be more common in winter (J35.123.w1)

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Regions / Countries where the Infectious Agent or Disease has been recorded

Worldwide (B32.3.w25, B36.9.w9, B209.28.w28i).

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Regions / Countries where the Infectious Agent or Disease has been recorded in Free-ranging populations

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General Investigation / Diagnosis

General Information on Investigation / Diagnosis

  • Clinical signs may be suggestive.
  • Diagnosis must be confirmed by pathological findings (septicaemic lesions or necrotising enteritis).
  • Special culture techniques must be used to culture the organism from samples of faeces, feed, water supplies, tissues etc.
  • (B101)
Birds
  • The pattern of an epidemic in wild birds may be suggestive.
  • Clinical signs, post mortem examination findings.
  • Isolation of Salmonella spp. from faecal material, blood or affected organs.
  • N.B. Salmonella spp. may also be carried asymptomatically.

(B48.7.w7, D48)

Mammals
  • Enteric salmonellosis: direct plating of faecal samples/intestinal scrapings onto selective and differential media (e.g. MacConkey, brilliant green, salmonella-shigella, xylose-lysine, deoxycholate, Hektoen, bismuth sulphite) (B47)
WATERFOWL
  • Clinical signs, post mortem lesions, serology. 
  • Culture from faeces or from organs at post mortem examination, and identification of Salmonella spp.
    • Sterile swab of fresh faeces or gut contents; place swab into nutrient broth or transport medium if delay prior to culture. 
    • Selective enrichment media should be used for detection of Salmonella spp. in faeces of apparently healthy carriers.

(B10.26.w10, B11.39.w7, B14, B16.19.w1, B37.x.w1, B48.7.w7,)

CRANES
  • Culture and typing is required to confirm infection. (P62.12.w1)
  • Note: interpret culture results in association with clinical/post mortem findings, to determine whether salmonella infection is causing clinical disease. (P62.12.w1)

HEDGEHOGS

  • Diagnosis requires laboratory culture. (B16.13.w13)
  • Submission of whole carcass for post mortem examination and bacteriology.(J15.21.w1)
    • May not be cultured successfully if only swabs or tissues are posted to a laboratory for culture.(J15.21.w1)
ELEPHANTS
  • Consider salmonella infection in elephants with diarrhoea, also in any elephants with vague or acute life-threatening signs. (V.w72)
  • Tentative diagnosis can be based on clinical signs, haematological and serum chemistry findings such as leucopaenia, neutropaenia, hyperfibrinogenaemia and decreased in the total protein. (J4.185.w1, P30.1.w5, D301.3.w3)
  • In a case of atypical salmonellosis, haematology revealed a severe anaemia (PCV of 9.5%) and neutrophilia with a regenerative left shift. Serum chemistry was within the normal limits, despite severe liver necrosis that was detected post mortem. (P1.1985.w3)
  • Culture from faeces or from organs at post mortem examination, and identification of Salmonella spp. (B10.49.w21, J3.65.w1, J4.185.w1, J35.132.w1, J25.4.w1, D301.3.w3)
  • Salmonellae can be difficult to detect by culture methods (including enrichment techniques). A preliminary study on PCR in faecal samples from elephants showed that a symptomatic Salmonella shedding can be detected using this diagnostic test. However, the prevalence of asymptomatic infection and shedding in elephants was found to be difficult to determine. (P501.1.w1)
  • The use of a DNA-probe for diagnosis of salmonellosis may be useful in the future to detect asymptomatic carriers. (B336.53.w53)
LAGOMORPHS Diagnosis is based on isolation and identification of the organism in conjunction with evidence of disease that is compatible with salmonellosis.
  • Culture: 
    • From the living animal: faeces.
    • From the dead animal, specimens can be taken for culture from: small intestine, colon, spleen, liver or mesenteric lymph nodes.

(B209.28.w28i, B603.3.w3)

BONOBOS In primates: 
  • Culture of the organism. (B336.39.w39)
  • Isolation of Salmonella sp. from faeces, a rectal swab or the site of a lesion. (B644.2.w2)
  • Ideally, 1-2 g recently-passed faeces is placed in Gram-negative or selenite broth immediately and incubated at 37 C. (B644.2.w2)
  • Refrigerate samples if they must be transported before culture. (B644.2.w2) place samples into an appropriate transport medium.  (B22.31.w31f)
  • At necropsy, liver, spleen, intestinal tract, lung and lymph nodes should be cultured (also uterus/placenta/fetus in suspect septic abortion). (B644.2.w2)
  • Salmonella forms clear round colonies on MacConkey agar. Lactose negative. Motile: visible microscopically in a hanging drop or wet mount. Three are a large number of serovars; serotyping can be useful. (B644.2.w2)
  • On a faecal smear stained with methylene blue, mononuclear leucocytes tend to be found, compared with polymorphonuclear cells predominating with Shigella infections [Shigellosis in Bonobos]. (B22.31.w31f)
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Similar Diseases (Differential Diagnosis)

WATERFOWL Colibacillosis (Colibacillosis), other enteric pathogens such as Chlamydia (Chlamydiosis / Psittacosis), Pasteurella spp. (Avian Cholera), Pseudomonas spp (Pseudomonas Infection), other acute septicaemias (B14, B37.x.w1).
CRANES Escherichia coli can also cause septicaemia in crane chicks. (P1.1986.w4)
HEDGEHOGS Colibacillosis (Colibacillosis) also causes diarrhoea in juveniles. (B284.6.w6)
ELEPHANTS
LAGOMORPHS
BONOBOS

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Treatment and Control

Specific Medical Treatment

  • Broad-spectrum antibiotics parenterally to treat septicaemia;

    (B101)

  • Antibiotics should be chosen according to culture and sensitivity (B10.26.w10, B11.39.w7, B11.40.w8, B37.x.w1, B47).
  • Antibiotics may be effective against clinical disease but may not prevent animals from becoming carriers (B13.46.w1, B101).

N.B. Fluid therapy may also be required and is often essential to correct fluid deficit and acid-base imbalances - see below: General Nursing and Surgical Techniques

WATERFOWL
CRANES
  • In clinically ill chicks, antibiotic therapy, preferably based on culture and sensitivity testing. (B197.9.w9, P1.1986.w4, P62.12.w1) Antibiotic therapies which have been used successfully include:
    • Trimethoprim-sulfadiazine 8 mg/kg trimethoprim, twice daily intramuscularly. (B115.8.w4, P62.12.w1).
    • Enrofloxacin 8 mg/kg twice daily, by intramuscular injection or orally. (B115.8.w4, P62.12.w1)
    • Amikacin 10 mg/kg twice daily intramuscularly. (B115.8.w4, P62.12.w1)
    • Ormetoprim-sulfamethoxine in feed (68.1 g ormetoprim and 113.5 g sulfamethoxine per 0.45 kg feed. (P62.12.w1)
    • Note: antibiotic therapy should be given alongside supportive care. (B703.10.w10)
  • Clinically-healthy culture-positive individuals should not necessarily be treated with antibiotics; this may decrease shedding temporarily but may result in development of a carrier state. (B115.8.w4, P62.12.w1)
    • Antibiotic therapy may be useful for birds with persistent infection. (B115.8.w4)

HEDGEHOGS

  • Antibiotics, preferably chosen based on bacterial culture and sensitivity testing. (J34.24.w1, D107)
  • Enrofloxacin (Baytril, Bayer) 10mg/kg oral, intramuscularly, subcutaneously or intraperitoneally, twice daily; amoxycillin/clavulanic acid (Synulox, Pfizer) 30-50mg/kg orally, intramuscularly or subcutaneously, twice daily; or spectinomycin. (J15.21.w1)
  • Chloramphenicol, oral administration. (B16.13.w13)
  • Antimicrobial tests on isolates from hedgehogs in Germany found that for Salmonella enteritidis suitable antibiotics were chloramphenicol, neomycin and streptomycin while for Salmonella typhimurium ampicillin was the most effective. 5.3% of Salmonella enteritidis and 4.9% of Salmonella typhimurium isolates were gentamicin-resistant. (J138.66.w1)
  • Chloramphenicol, 20 mg per 100 g bodyweight (0.1 mL of 200 mg/mL solution per 100g bodyweight) subcutaneously for 5-7 days; neomycin 0.1 mL of 20 mg/ml solution per 100g bodyweight orally; enrofloxacin 1.25 mg/100 g bodyweight (0.05 mL of 2.5% solution per 100 g bodyweight) subcutaneously for 3-5 days; gentamicin (for cases resistant to other antibiotics, following culture and sensitivity testing) 10 mg per hedgehog under 500g bodyweight, 25 mg per hedgehog over 500 g bodyweight subcutaneously for 5-7 days. (B291.12.w12)
  • Potentiated sulphonamides (e.g. Tribrissen (Trimethoprim/ Sulphonamide) 24% (Schering-Plough Animal Health), 30 mg/kg once daily intramuscularly or subcutaneously, for five to eight days, or Zaquilan (Schering-Plough Animal Health) 20-40 mg/kg orally once daily), or Amoxycillin / Clavulanic acid (30-50 mg/kg twice daily orally, subcutaneously or intramuscularly) or Enrofloxacin (10 mg/kg twice daily subcutaneously, intramuscularly or orally). (D107)
ELEPHANTS
  • High doses of antibiotics based on culture and sensitivity. Chloramphenicol, gentamicin and ampicillin may be administered as a first choice while waiting for culture and sensitivity report. (B10.49.w21, D301.3.w3)
  • Parental and oral administration of antibiotics and sulfonamides using twice or three times the doses for cattle has been recommended. (B214.3.7.w3)
  • Ampicillin 10 g intramuscularly daily for five days. (J4.185.w1)
  • Ampicillin 6.8 g intramuscularly daily for seven days and 6 g orally for three days; tetracycline 1-2 g orally twice daily for four days. (P1.1985.w3)
  • Good results were obtained using streptomycin in syrup form and oral ampicillin 40-50 mg/kg. (B214.3.7.w3)
  • Nitrofurazone, oral administration of an unspecified dose was given to group of captive elephants after the sudden death of two juveniles and diagnostic confirmation of salmonellosis on culture of post mortem tissues. No further deaths were recorded. (J25.4.w1)
  • Penicillin G 5670 IU/kg intramuscularly once daily in combination with ceftiofur 2.5 mg/kg intramuscularly once daily, added two days after the initial treatment. Culture and sensitivity showed that the Salmonella typhimurium isolate was resistant to penicillin group antibiotics but sensitive to amikacin, therefore treatment was changed to amikacin, initially at 3.77 mg/kg intravenously every 12 hours and then increased to 5 mg/kg intravenously every 12 hours to reach the therapeutic range. Polymixin B 3000 IU/kg intravenously every 12 hours was also added to the treatment as a binder of endotoxins. (P30.1.w5)
  • Amikacin at 6 mg/kg was immediately started on a second female elephant showing signs of disease after Salmonella typhimurium was isolated from another elephant of the group and proved to be sensitive to this antibiotic. (P30.1.w5)
  • Trimethoprim-sulfadiazide 4.5 mg/kg orally for 12 days was given in a case of vaginal discharge three months after abortion and persistent Salmonella-positive culture. (P30.1.w5)

N.B. Fluid therapy may also be required - see below: General Nursing and Surgical Techniques

LAGOMORPHS
  • "No successful treatment has been described." (B600.16.w16)
  • Antibiotics
    • Antimicrobial therapy may be attempted on the basis of culture and sensitivity. (B603.3.w3)
    • However, the zoonotic implications frequently necessitate euthanasia because there is a possibility of the survivors becoming inapparant carriers. (B603.3.w3, B614.8.w8)
    • If treatment is necessary, chloramphenicol is usually the drug of choice. (B614.8.w8)
BONOBOS In great apes: Treatment is not always needed; in individuals with dehyddration or systemic signs, antibiotics and fluids should be given. (B336.39.w39)

In primates. 

  • Antibiotic treatment, based on culture and sensitivity testing. (B22.31.w31f, B644.2.w2)
    • To reduce the likelihood of the animal becoming a carrier, only give antibiotics in severe cases. (B644.2.w2)
    • Use of appropriate antimicrobials may reduce shedding and thereby reduce the spread of infection through a group of primates. (B22.31.w31f)
    • Cephalothin, Cefazolin, Trimethoprim-Sulphonamide, Ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin are recommended. Note: many strains of Salmonella are resistant to antibiotics including Ampicillin,  Erythromycin, chloramphenicol, Tetracycline, kanamycin and dihydrostreptomycin. [1993](B22.31.w31f)
    • Three to five days of treatment should eliminate the organism but clinical signs may persist longer than this. (B22.31.w31f)
    • Note: Use of antimotility agents is contraindicated; retardation of intestinal motility may make the animals, condition worse and increase the time for which the pathogen is excreted. (B22.31.w31f)
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General Nursing and Surgical Techniques

  • Symptomatic treatment including fluid therapy to counteract dehydration and acid-base imbalances. (B101)
CRANES
  • Supportive care should be given alongside antibiotic therapy in clinically-affected chicks. (B197.9.w9, B703.10.w10, P1.1986.w4, )

HEDGEHOGS

  • Fluid/electrolyte therapy is essential. (B16.13.w13, J34.24.w1, D107)
  • Buscopan (Boehringer Ingelheim Limited) is recommended (0.1-0.2 ml/kg no more frequently than every eight hours, not for prolonged use) if squeals indicate that the hedgehog is suffering from intestinal cramping. (D107)
  • Probiotics, digestive enzymes, vitamins and Kaolin may also be useful. (D107)
ELEPHANTS Fluid therapy
  • Fluid therapy must be prompt and continuous while clinical sings are present, at 50 to 200 litres per day. (B10.49.w21)
  • Fluid therapy intravenously of 75 mL/kg/day lactated Ringer's solution or 1.5 time maintenance volumes for an adult female at the estimated weight of 3200 kg. (P30.1.w5)
  • Symptomatic treatment in juveniles consisted of a single dose of 100 mg dexamethasone and 1 g of flunixin meglumine while signs of abdominal discomfort were present. Of the two juvenile elephants affected, one improved in two days and the other deteriorated despite treatment and intensive fluid therapy and died after five days. (J4.185.w1)
  • Further information on fluid therapy is given in: Medicating Elephants - Fluid Therapy Considerations

Other supportive treatment

  • Symptomatic treatment of the six-year-old African elephant presenting with severe anaemia and ventral oedema consisted of 200 mg dexamethasone intramuscularly daily for three days, iron dextran 25 mL daily for three days, vitamin B-complex, Vitamin E, Selenium and Vitamin A and Vitamin D, tetanus antitoxin and furosamide. (P1.1985.w3)
  • Encouragement to eat bland foods and drink fluids. (B10.49.w21)
  • Analgesics or antipyretics. (B336.53.w53)
  • Vitamin supplements. (B336.53.w53)
LAGOMORPHS Fluid therapy (B601.8.w8)
BONOBOS
  • In great apes: Fluid therapy if there are signs of dehydration. (B336.39.w39)
  • In primates: 
    • Supportive care includes fluid therapy to compensate for fluid and electrolyte loss and acid-base imbalances associated with diarrhoea. (B644.2.w2)
    • Fluids are most likely to be needed in infants, elderly individuals and animals under 2 kg body weight. (B22.31.w31f)
    • Oral fluids (at least 60 mL/kg within the first two hours) should be given if dehydration is less than 10% and the primate can drink. Note that if hyponatraemia is severe then a fluid with equimolar glucose and sodium concentrations should be given (Pedialyte contains only 45 mEq/L sodium, while fluids containing 90 mEq/L are preferable). (B22.31.w31f)
    • Intravenous fluids should be given if the primate is 12% dehydrated or more. (B22.31.w31f)
    • Food should not be withheld from small or young primates. Small, frequent meals should be given to maximise the possibility of protein and caloric intake. (B22.31.w31f)
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Preventative Measures

Vaccination WATERFOWL --
HEDGEHOGS --
ELEPHANTS --
BONOBOS --
Prophylactic Treatment

WATERFOWL

Probiotics in first 14 days (B11.40.w8).
HEDGEHOGS --
ELEPHANTS --
BONOBOS --
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Environmental and Population Control Measures

General Environment Changes, Cleaning and Disinfection Ensure good general hygiene and pest control around animal accommodation; protect foodstuffs from contamination by droppings of wild rodents and birds. (B47)
  • For wild birds such as "garden birds".
    • Move feeding stations regularly, avoid feeding at the same site continuously.
    • Avoid using suspended feeders with sills on which food particles and droppings may collect
    • Clean up discarded feed and droppings from under suspended feeders and bird tables regularly e.g. by sweeping, and dispose of hygienically (incineration is ideal).
    • Brush bird tables or other surfaces used for feeding daily.
    • Thoroughly clean bird feeders/tables regularly (as appropriate for speed of build up of droppings) and daily during a disease outbreak.
    • Wash or soak feeders/tables using a 5% sodium hypochlorite solution or a safe disinfectant (e.g. Tamodine-E, Vetark), followed by thorough rinsing.
    • Use fresh, good-quality foods, dispose of uneaten food hygienically
    • Store foods carefully in rodent-proof containers.
  • (D48)
WATERFOWL 
  • Improve general hygiene and hygiene of feed storage (J4.129.w1, J5.6.w2, B10.26.w10, B11.39.w7, B13.46.w1, B18, B37.x.w1).
  • Clean feeding utensils, rearing coops, duckery mats daily, clean and fumigate hatchers between batches.
  • Remove and preferably incinerate soiled food. 
  • General incubation and hatchery hygiene.
  • Fumigation.
  • (B11.39.w7).
CRANES
HEDGEHOGS
  • Good hygiene and disinfection are important. (B291.12.w12)
ELEPHANTS
  • Good hygiene, disinfection with bleach and recommendations on food handling. (J4.185.w1, J35.132.w1, J25.4.w1, D301.3.w3)
  • Dirty conditions, where workers are not provided with adequate latrines, may result in the transmission of infection from human to captive elephants. (J25.4.w1)
  • Rodent control. (D301.3.w3)
LAGOMORPHS Eliminate potential sources of exposure, e.g. wild rodents and poor quality feed. (B614.8.w8)
BONOBOS  
Population Control Measures
  • Avoid overcrowding. (B47)
  • Reduce stocking densities at wild bird feeding stations by e.g. reducing food quantity supplied (D48)
WATERFOWL
  • Identify and remove carrier birds (repeated testing of faecal samples required for detecting carriers), restock after outbreak (J4.129.w1, B13.46.w1, B18, B36.9.w9)
  • Reduce stocking levels (B11.40.w8).
CRANES
  • Reducing flock densities should reduce the risk of faeco-oral transmission. (P62.12.w1)
HEDGEHOGS --
ELEPHANTS
  • Reduce stress. (D301.3.w3)
  • Regular deworming. (D301.3.w3)
LAGOMORPHS --
BONOBOS --
Isolation, Quarantine and Screening
  • Isolation, quarantine and screening are extremely important when salmonellosis is suspected and in situations where it is likely to be a risk. 
  • Repeated faecal samples are required for screening purposes, particularly when new animals are brought into a group and for the identification of carriers.
(B101)
WATERFOWL --
CRANES
  • Isolate Salmonella-positive birds. (B115.8.w4, P62.12.w1)
HEDGEHOGS --
ELEPHANTS --
LAGOMORPHS --
BONOBOS In primates: Ideally, carriers are identified, isolated and removed from the population or treated. However, treatment may result in antibiotic resistance, and might prolong the carrier state. (B22.31.w31f)
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