DISEASE SUMMARY PAGE

Neoplasia in Waterfowl

Summary Information
Diseases / List of Miscellaneous / Metabolic / Multifactorial Diseases / Disease summary
Alternative Names
  • Tumours

See also: Reticuloendotheliosis, Multicentric Mesenchymal Neoplasia

Disease Agents Unknown. May include viruses, carcinogens ingested or with dermal contact, irradiation.
Infectious Agent(s)
Non-infectious Agent(s)
Physical Agent(s)
General Description Variable presentation. Single or multiple masses, sometimes visible externally.
Further Information
  • Neoplasia is reported more frequently in captive waterfowl than in wild waterfowl, and a variety of neoplasias have been recorded. Most neoplasias occur as single lesions in individual waterfowl.
  • Exceptions include tumours caused by Avian Reticuloendotheliosis virus (J6.13.w1) (See Reticuloendotheliosis), hepatic neoplasia (both hepatocellular and cholangiocellular) developing in birds with chronic low-level exposure to Aflatoxins (J9.208.w1), and Multicentric Mesenchymal Tumours (See Multicentric Mesenchymal Tumours) in  wild Canada geese and white-fronted geese (B15).
  • The possibility of viral involvement, contact with environmental carcinogens or ingestion of carcinogens must be considered in the development of tumours, particularly in situations where particular types of neoplastic lesions are seen repeatedly in a group of birds (J6.21.w1, J6.22.w2).
Techniques linked to this disease
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Host taxa groups /species
Disease has been reported in either the wild or in captivity in the following WATERFOWL Species: [N.B. Miscellaneous / Traumatic Diseases tend to be under-reported and the majority are likely to affect all waterfowl species, given exposure to the related disease agents/factors.]
  • Laysan teal Anas laysanensis adenocarcinoma adrenal and ovary; mandarin duck Aix galericulata - adenocarcinoma intestine, lung, spleen and liver; Old World comb duck Sarkidiornis melanotos melanotos - fibroma skin; southern Bahama pintail (white-cheeked pintail) Anas bahamensis - melanoma with multiple organ involvement, spur-wing goose Plectropterus gambensis - hemanigio-endothelioma (San Antonio Zoo, USA) (J2.14.w1).
  • Red-crested pochard Netta rufina - hepatocellular carcinoma liver; European pochard Aythya ferina - thyroid carcinoma; European pochard Aythya ferina - lymphoid leukosis liver; Aylesbury duck Anas platyrhynchos domesticus - lymphoid leucosis liver; domestic goose Anser anser domesticus - lymphoid leucosis spleen (J2.16.w1).
  • Brazilian teal Amazonetta brasiliensis - proventricular adenoma (J3.107.w1).
  • Khaki Campbell drake Anas platyrhynchos domesticus - teratoma (J3.117.w1).
  • Mute swan Cygnus olor - fibroma, on the neck (successfully removed) (J4.155.w1).
  • Domestic goose Anser anser domesticus - subconjunctival hibernoma (successfully removed) (J4.189.w1).
  • Muscovy duck Cairina moschata - uveal malignant melanoma, with metastases (J4.206.w1).
  • Hybrid (mule) ducks Cairina moschata domesticus x Anas platyrhynchos domesticus - melanoma eye, with metastases (one drake); teratomas of gonad (two ducks) (J5.11.w1).
  • Domestic goose Anser anser domesticus - osteogenic sarcoma, affecting the sternum and one foot (J5.11.w2).
  • White Pekin duck Anas platyrhynchos domesticus - epithelial cell tumour cloaca, with metastases; white Pekin drake Anas platyrhynchos domesticus - abdominal teratoma; White Pekin duck Anas platyrhynchos domesticus - possible fibrous tissue tumour (not definitely confirmed neoplastic) adjacent to the proventriculus (J5.14.w1).
  • Canada goose Branta canadensis - haemangiosarcoma left metatarsus and muscle of abdomen, right side; mallard Anas platyrhynchos - mesothelioma or metastatic adenocarcinoma attached to lung and incorporating left brachiocephalic plexus; mallard Anas platyrhynchos - infiltrating lymphoblastic lymphosarcoma, in the thorax; oldsquaw (long-tailed duck) Clangula hyemalis - intramuscular lipoma, right thigh (USA) (J5.27.w1).
  • Mountain duck (Australian shelduck) Tadorna tadornoides - adrenal adenocarcinoma (J5.31.w1).
  • Comb duck Sarkidiornis melanotos - malignant melanoma (J5.31.w1).
  • Pekin duck Anas platyrhynchos domesticus - teratoma (J5.35.w1).
  • Two domestic ducks Anas platyrhynchos domesticus with cranial teratomas (J5.35.w2).
  • Wild mallards Anas platyrhynchos from two different flocks - chondromas, plantar surface foot pad (reported flock incidence approximately 10%; two domestic geese Anser anser domesticus and five domestic ducks Anas platyrhynchos domesticus, also with chondromas, plantar surface foot pad; two domestic ducks with osteomas, foot pad; one Pacific black duck Anas superciliosa - myxoma or myxofibroma kidney; two black swans Cygnus atratus and one mute swan Cygnus olor - myxoma or myxofibroma footpad, domestic duck Anas platyrhynchos domesticus - intra-abdominal lipoma; domestic duck Anas platyrhynchos domesticus - lymphoblastic sarcoma; chestnut teal Anas castanea - lymphocytic sarcoma or mixed-cell lymphoma, Cape Barren goose Cereopsis novaehollandiae and paradise shelduck Tadorna variegata - plasmocytoma; New Zealand scaup Aythya novaeseelandiae - dermal squamous cell carcinoma; blue-billed duck Oxyura australis - cholangioma; domestic duck Anas platyrhynchos domesticus - seminoma, Radjah shelduck Tadorna radjah - oviduct adenoma; chestnut teal Anas castanea and mallard Anas platyrhynchos - metastatic abdominal adenocarcinoma; domestic duck Anas platyrhynchos domesticus - astrocytoma; Pacific black duck Anas superciliosa - melanosarcoma (Australia) (J6.21.w1).
  • Domestic goose Anser anser domesticus - abdominal teratoma (J6.22.w1).
  • Domestic duck flocks, up to 38% incidence, hepatic tumours (Guangdong Province, China) (J6.22.w2).
  • Mallard Anas platyrhynchos - bilateral seminoma (J6.27.w1).
  • Philippine duck Anas luzonica - cyst-adenoma liver; coscoroba swan Coscoroba coscoroba - haemangioma liver; scaup - ulcerated papilloma, neck; orinoco goose Neochen jubata - lymphatic leucosis liver (similar lesions seen in other birds) (Slimbridge, UK) (J7.10.w2).
  • Domestic goose - bilateral dermoids (J10.33.w1).
  • Black swan Cygnus atratus - seminoma (J27.48.w1).
  • Canvasback Aythya valisineria - renal adenoma; mandarin Aix galericulata neurofibroma skin, ring-necked duck Aythya collaris seminoma (National Zoological Park, Washington, USA) (B39.w4).
  • Black brant Branta bernicla nigricans - malignant lymphoma (spleen, liver, kidney, ovary) (P5.17.w1)
Disease has been reported in free-ranging populations of the following WATERFOWL Species:
  • Mute swan Cygnus olor - fibroma (J4.155.w1).
  • Canada goose Branta canadensis - haemangiosarcoma left metatarsus and muscle of abdomen, right side; mallard Anas platyrhynchos - mesothelioma or metastatic adenocarcinoma attached to lung and incorporating left brachiocephalic plexus; mallard Anas platyrhynchos - infiltrating lymphoblastic lymphosarcoma, in the thorax; oldsquaw (long-tailed duck) Clangula hyemalis - intramuscular lipoma, right thigh (USA) (J5.27.w1).
  • Wild mallards Anas platyrhynchos from two different flocks - chondromas, plantar surface foot pad (reported flock incidence approximately 10% (Australia) (J6.21.w1).

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