DISEASE SUMMARY PAGE

Naturally Occurring Neoplasia in Lagomorphs

Summary Information
Diseases / List of Miscellaneous / Metabolic / Multifactorial Diseases / Disease summary
Alternative Names Tumours in Lagomorphs

See also: 

Disease Agents --
Infectious Agent(s) --
Non-infectious Agent(s) --
Physical Agent(s) --
General Description The four most common tumours of Oryctolagus are (in descending order):

(B614.12.w12)

Naturally occurring tumours that have been reported in lagomorphs are listed below:

Reproductive tract - female
In Oryctolagus:
  • Uterus
  • Vaginal squamous-columnar junction
    • Squamous cell carcinoma
  • Ovary
    • Haemangioma
In Lepus sp.:
  • Uterus
    • Fibroma
  • Vagina, cervix and uterus:
    • Adenocarcinoma. (J351.41.w1)
  • Vaginal squamous-columnar junction
    • Squamous cell carcinoma
  • Ovary
    • Teratoma

(B614.12.w12)

Reproductive tract - male
In Oryctolagus:
  • Testicle
    • Seminoma
    • Interstitial cell carcinoma
    • Adenocarcinoma
    • Teratoma

(B614.12.w12)

See: Testicular Neoplasias in Rabbits

Gastrointestinal tract
In Oryctolagus:
  • Stomach
    • Adenocarcinoma
    • Leiomyosarcoma
  • Intestine
    • Leiomyoma

    • Leiomyosarcoma

  • Sacculus rotundus

    • Papilloma

  • Rectal squamous-columnar junction

(B602.16.w16, B614.12.w12)

Hepatic
In Oryctolagus:
In Lepus spp.:
  • Haemangioma. At least four cases have been described. (J351.41.w1)

(B614.12.w12)

Respiratory Tract
In Oryctolagus:
  • Nasal mucosa
    • Carcinoma or adenocarcinoma with destruction of the turbinates. Clinical signs include air flow obstruction, sneezing, nasal discharge. (B601.7.w7)
  • Lung
    • "Carcinoma simplex" (B614.12.w12)
    • "Epitheliome primitif" (B614.12.w12)
    • "Cancer primitif" (B614.12.w12)
    • Metastases of uterine adenocarcinoma are common. (B601.7.w7) See: Uterine Neoplasia in Rabbits
    • Metastases of other neoplasias may be found. (B601.7.w7)
      • Haemangiosarcoma with pulmonary metastasis was described in an adult male New Zealand White rabbit. (J212.12.w3)
Cardiovascular System
In Sylvilagus spp.:
  • Haemangioendothelioma

(B614.12.w12)

Central Nervous System
In Oryctolagus:
  • Brain (B614.12.w12)
    • Myeloma, plasma cell
  • Cervical sympathetic trunk (B614.12.w12)
    • Neurinoma
  • Medulla oblongata (B614.12.w12)
    • Teratoma
  • Pituitary gland (B601.11.w11; B614.12.w12)

    • Eosinophilic adenoma

    • Teratoma

Clinical signs

  • Depend on the site and size of the lesion. (B601.11.w11)
  • Central brain lesions are frequently accompanied by vertical nystagmus. (B606.13.w13)

Diagnosis: MRI. (B601.11.w11)
Prognosis: poor. (B601.11.w11) 

Urinary Tract 
In Oryctolagus:
  • Kidney
    • Embryonal nephroma
    • Renal carcinoma
  • Urinary bladder
    • Leiomyoma
In Sylvilagus spp.:
  • Kidney
    • Embryonal nephroma
    • Hamartoma
    • Renal adenocarcinoma
In Lepus sp.:
  • Kidney
    • Renal carcinoma

(B614.12.w12)

Mammary Glands
In Oryctolagus:
  • Papilloma

  • Adenocarcinoma

In Lepus sp.:
  • Adenocarcinoma

(B614.12.w12)

Skin and connective tissue

See: Skin and Connective Tissue Neoplasia in Lagomorphs

In Oryctolagus:
  • Squamous epithelium
    • Papilloma (non viral)
    • Squamous cell carcinoma
  • Adnexa
    • Basal cell carcinoma
    • Sebaceous gland carcinoma
    • Trichoepithelioma
In Sylvilagus spp.:
  • Subcutaneous tissue
    • Lipoma
In Lepus sp.:
  • Subcutaneous tissue
    • Fibroma

(B614.12.w12)

Bone and cartilage
In Oryctolagus:
  • Skull - mandible and maxilla
    • "Round cell sarcoma" (B614.12.w12)
    • Adamantinoma (mucoepidermoid carcinoma?) (B614.12.w12)
    • Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (B614.12.w12)
    • Osteosarcoma (B614.12.w12)
      • This type of tumour has been reported in the jaw bone of rabbits and should be differentiated from osteomyelitis. (B606.10.w10)
  • Appendicular skeleton
    • Osteochondroma (B614.12.w12)
      • This tumour has been reported to occur in the long bones. (B606.10.w10)
    • Osteosarcoma (B606.10.w10; B614.12.w12)
      • This tumour has been reported to occur in the long bones of older domestic rabbits. (B601.11.w11)
    • May be treated by limb amputation; rabbits manage well on three legs. (N12.38.w1)
Lymphoreticular system 
In Oryctolagus:
  • Generalised lymphosarcoma.
    • Note: lymphosarcoma is the second commonest type of neoplasia seen in rabbits. (J29.16.w2)
  • Cutaneous lymphosarcoma (with or without metastasis to visceral organs, as well as cutaneous involvement of visceral lymphoma). (B602.21.w21b)
  • Hodgkins-like lymphosarcoma
  • Myeloid leukaemia (B608.21.w21b)
  • Lymphoblastic leukaemia (with lymphosarcoma). (B602.21.w21b, J495.28.w2)
    • WBC counts of 30,000 to > 100,000 cells/ÁL.
    • Neoplastic cells in bone marrow, lymph nodes and other organs. 
  • Histiocytoma
  • Thymus
    • Thymoma, thymosarcoma
  • Brain
    • Myeloma, plasma cell
  • Spleen
    • Epithelioma
  • Vascular
    • Haemangioepithelioma

    (B614.12.w12)

In Sylvilagus spp.:
In Lepus sp.:
  • Generalised lymphosarcoma.
  • Hodgkins-like lymphosarcoma.
  • Myeloid leucosis.

(B614.12.w12)

Endocrine glands
In Oryctolagus:
  •  Adrenal

    • Adenoma

    • Carcinoma

  • Pituitary

    • Eosinophilic adenoma

    • Teratoma

  • Thyroid

    • Carcinoma

(B614.12.w12)

Eye and Orbit
In Oryctolagus:
  • Primary intraocular tumours do occur, but are rare. (J29.16.w2)
  • Reported tumours include:
    • Squamous cell carcinoma.
    • Undifferentiated carcinoma.
    • Fibrosarcoma.

    (B531.16.w16, J518.49.w1)

  • More commonly, secondary metastatic lymphosarcoma may affect the eye. (J29.16.w2)
Miscellaneous
In Oryctolagus:
  • Malignant melanoma
  • Diaphragmatic endothelioma
  • Metastatic "abdominal sarcoma"
  • Retroperitoneal fibroleiomyoma
  • Unknown site
    • Myxosarcoma
    • "Spindle cell sarcoma"
    • Encephaloid carcinoma
    • Malignant haemangioendothelioma in the liver and lung. (J26.21.w1)

(B614.12.w12)

In Sylvilagus spp.:
  • Malignant haemangioendothelioma in a wild rabbit (age and sex unknown, presumed Sylvilagus sp.) from Alabama, USA. The site of origin was possibly the subcutis, but multiple visceral organs were involved in addition to the subcutis and adjacent skeletal muscle. (J26.21.w1)
In Brachylagus idahoensis - Pygmy rabbit 
  • Large haemangiosarcoma on the neck [exact site not specified] noted in a captive, wild-caught female. (J11.91.w1)
Further Information
  • Note: Hypertrophic osteopathy has been described associated with intrathoracic neoplasia. (B601.7.w7, J4.210.1)
Associated Techniques
Host taxa groups /species Lagomorphs:
Author Nikki Fox BVSc MRCVS (V.w103)
Referees John Chitty BVetMed CertZooMed MRCVS (V.w65); Brigitte Reusch BVet Med (Hons) CertZooMed MRCVS (V.w127)

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