Diseases / List of Miscellaneous / Metabolic / Multifactorial Diseases / Disease description:

Respiratory Tract Disease in Bonobos

INFORMATION AVAILABLE

GENERAL INFORMATION

CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS & PATHOLOGY

INVESTIGATION & DIAGNOSIS

TREATMENT & CONTROL

SUSCEPTIBILITY & TRANSMISSION

ENVIRONMENT & GEOGRAPHY

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General and References

Disease Summary

Respiratory tract infections in great apes vary from mild signs of "a cold" to severe and life-threatening disease.
Bonobos Infections of the respiratory tract, which may be viral or bacterial, and mild to severe or even fatal

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Alternative Names (Synonyms)

  • Upper respiratory tract disease
  • Pneumonia
  • Bacterial pneumonia
  • Viral pneumonia
  • "Colds"
  • Influenza

See also:

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Disease Type

Miscellaneous / Metabolic / Multifactorial

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Infectious/Non-Infectious Agent associated with the Disease

  • Often the organism(s) involved are not identified. (J495.21.w3, P131.w3)
  • Bacterial pneumonias in great apes often involve enteric bacteria such as Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Acinetobacter spp. (B22.31.w31c)
  • Organisms isolated from fatal cases of respiratory disease include Streptococcus pneumoniae?/Diplococcus (2), Klebsiella pneumoniae / Klebsiella oxytoca (2), Escherichia coli (3), Aeromonas hydrophila (1), Proteus sp. (1), Haemophilus influenzae (1), Staphylococcus aureus (1), mixed Streptococcus spp. including beta-haemolytic organisms and Candida sp. (2). Often more than one organism was isolated from a given individual. (P131.w2)
  • Klebsiella pneumoniae. (J23.20.w2)
  • Human viruses including respiratory syncytial virus, rhinoviruses and influenza viruses can infect the great apes. (B22.31.w31c)
  • One outbreak of severe respiratory disease in bonobos occurred during an outbreak of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in the surrounding human population. Streptococcus pneumoniae was cultured from two infant bonobos with severe pneumonia and from the air sac of an adult with an air sac stoma. (P131.w3)
  • A Group F Streptococcus was identifies in a bonobo with chronic sinusitis. (P131.w3)
  • Haemophilus influenzae as a primary infection. (B22.31.w31c)
  • Haemophilus pneumoniae was cultured following the death of one bonobo at San Diego Zoo and was cultured from another bonobo later. (P131.w4)
  • Haemophilus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pneumoniae were cultured from the throat of one bonobo at San Diego Wild Animal Park, while Streptococcus pneumoniae was cultured from nasal discharge from another bonobo. (P131.w5)
  • Staphylococcus aureus was cultured from the lung and vocal sac of a nine-year-old female bonobo. (P131.w6)
  • Apes are susceptible to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), rhinovoruses, Hamophilus spp., Mycoplasma spp.and Bordatella pertussis (whooping cough). (J504.31S.w1)
  • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) cultured from a severely ill bonobo and from one with fatal infection. (P131.w4)
  • Serratia sp.: in a female bonobo at San Diego Zoo in whom "confluent aspiration bronchopneumonia due to Serratia sp." was diagnosed at necropsy. (J23.20.w2)
  • Note: Meconium aspiration may occur if an infant great ape is stressed during parturition (therefore defecates in utero) and hypoxic (therefore attempts to breath prematurely). (B23.50.w50)

Infective "Taxa"

  • --

Non-infective agents

--

Physical agents

-- Indirect / Secondary

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References

Disease Author

Dr Debra Bourne MA VetMB PhD MRCVS (V.w5)
Click image for main Reference Section

Major References / Reviews

Code and Title List

J23.20.w2, J495.21.w3
P131.w3, P131.w4
D386.4.3.w4c

Other References

Code and Title List

B437.w24
J339.48.w1, J495.24.w2

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Clinical Characteristics and Pathology

Detailed Clinical and Pathological Characteristics

General Variable from mild disease with nasal discharge to severe pneumonia. Can be fatal.

Clinical Characteristics

In great apes, varying from mild "colds" to more severe signs; upper respiratory tract disease sometimes develops to pneumonia, which can be fatal. (J495.21.w3)
  • Slight mucoid nasal discharge.
  • Conjunctivitis (variable).
  • Reduced activity.
  • Reduced appetite.
  • Sometimes coughing.
  • Sometimes sneezing.
  • Signs usually last for only a few days, but secondary bacterial pneumonia sometimes develops.
  • (J495.21.w3)
Bonobos
  • At San Diego Zoo, it has been noted that mild episodes generally last about 6 - 9 days, with more severe illnesses lasting 11 days or more. Cough sometimes persists for week. (P131.w4)
  • Clinical signs vary from mild to severe and may include:
    • Coughing. (J23.20.w2, N40.16.w1, P131.w4)
    • Sneezing. (N40.16.w1, P131.w3, P131.w4)
    • Nasal discharge. (N40.16.w1, P131.w3, P131.w4)
    • Nasal congestion. (J23.20.w2, P131.w4)
    • Picking at the nose. (N40.16.w1)
    • Difficulty in breathing through the nose. (N40.16.w1)
    • Mouth breathing. (P131.w4)
    • Lethargy. (N40.16.w1, P131.w3, P131.w4)
    • Reduced travel in wild bonobos. (N40.16.w1)
    • Anorexia (variable). (P131.w3, P131.w4)
    • Fever. (P131.w3)
    • Ocular swelling. (P131.w3)
    • Rarely, distension of laryngeal air sacs. (P131.w4)
    • Tachypnoea, increased respiratory effort, increasing hypoxia (SPO2 < 85%), hypercapnia and shock indicate respiratory failure. (P131.w11)
  • Note: 
    • In suckling infants, upper respiratory tract signs with nasal congestion can be sufficiently severe that temporary hand-rearing is needed. (J23.20.w2)
    • Initial upper respiratory tract infection sometimes develops to pneumonia. (J23.20.w2, P131.w3)
    • Progression to air sacculitis [Laryngeal Air Sacculitis in Bonobos] has been reported. (P131.w3)

Incubation

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Bonobos
  •  

Mortality / Morbidity

  • Variable. Mild URT signs are common in the great apes, but fatal pneumonias sometimes develop. (J495.21.w3)
Bonobos Morbidity
  • Multiple (sometimes all) animals in a group usually affected. (P131.w4, P131.w5, P131.w6)
  • During an outbreak in wild bonobos in December 2008, at least 62% of the group were affected (some were not seen in the middle of the epidemic so may or may not have been ill). (N40.16.w1)

Mortality

  • Haemophilus influenzae can cause fatal pneumonia as a primary infection. (B22.31.w31c)
  • A female bonobo at San Diego Zoo was diagnosed at necropsy with "confluent aspiration bronchopneumonia due to Serratia sp." (J23.20.w2)
  • Viral pneumonia can be fatal. (J23.20.w2)
  • A two-month-old male died from bronchopneumonia at Frankfurt Zoo, Germany. (B437.w24, J23.20.w2)
  • Deaths due to respiratory tract disease has been recorded in 11 bonobos from the SSP and four bonobos at the Lola ya Bonobo sanctuary in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The SSP deaths represented 34 of all bonobo deaths due to infection/inflammation. Mortality has been associated with predisposing conditions in some cases. (P131.w2)
  • At San Diego Zoo, four of five deaths in juveniles or adults were associated with respiratory disease; no deaths from respiratory disease were seen in neonates. (P131.w6)
  • Fatal overwhelming haemorrhagic pneumonia occurred in an adult female bonobo at San Diego Zoo. (J339.48.w1)
  • At Frankfurt Zoo a two-month old infant being mother-reared died from acute bronchial pneumonia, despite being removed and treated. (B437.w24)

Pathology

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Bonobos Pneumonic lesions including and bronchopneumonia, pleuritis, lung oedema (aspiration pneumonia) and pleural adhesions have been recorded in various bonobos at necropsy. (J23.20.w2)

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Human Health Considerations

Usually, transmission appears to occur in the direction of human to bonobo. For example, an episode of respiratory disease in bonobos during an epidemic of respiratory syncytial virus infection in humans in the local community. (P131.w3)

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Susceptibility / Transmission

General information on Susceptibility / Transmission

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Bonobos
  • Upper respiratory tract infections are common in captive bonobos. (J23.20.w2)
  • Hand-reared infant bonobos are particularly susceptible to upper respiratory tract infections. (J23.20.w1)
  • Bacterial pneumonias in great apes are commonly secondary to human viral infections. (B22.31.w31c)
  • Mortality has been associated with predisposing conditions in some cases, including congestive heart failure in one bonobo and post-parturient sepsis in another bonobo. (P131.w2)
  • Young adults appear to be particularly affected in the San Diego collections. (P131.w6)
  • Ages of SSP bonobos dying from respiratory infections range from 18 months to 33 years; three were males and eight were females. (P131.w2)
  • Factors which may affect respiratory disease include group size, stocking density, animal movements between groups, the presence of infants or young bonobos in the group and weather (humidity changes, time spent indoors versus outdoors). (P131.w3)
    • Of six SSP institutions responing to a survey, the two which had not had any respiratory disease in their bonobos over the period 2000-2005 had the smallest group sizes and lacked bonobos under 10 years of age. (P131.w3)

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Disease has been reported in either the wild or in captivity in:

  • Common in bonobos at San Diego Zoo, USA. (J23.20.w2)
  • Bonobos at several collections in the SSP. (P131.w3)
  • Acute fatal bronchial pneumonia was seen in a two-month-old parent-reared bonobo at Frankfurt Zoo in 1962. (B437.w24)
  • Fatal overwhelming haemorrhagic pneumonia occurred in an adult female bonobo at San Diego Zoo. (J339.48.w1)
  • A flu-like upper respiratory tract disease was seen in free-living bonobos at Wamba, DRC, on two occasions. (N40.16.w1)
    • In 2003, bonobos were seen coughing and had difficulty breathing through the nose. Food consumption was reduced, as was travel distance. The affected bonobos spent a lot of their time lying on the ground. Signs lasted for several days before normal food consumption resumed. The first individual was seen coughing during the last week in October, a second individual was seen coughing on 5th November, most of the group were ill by 7th November and most had recovered by 11th November, with only two still showing signs of disease on 15th November. No deaths occurred. It was noted that there was no respiratory illness in people in the nearby village at this time. (N40.16.w1)
    • During 2007 and 2008, respiratory signs (coughing, sneezing, picking the nose) were seen periodically, with an outbreak in December 2008 during which at least 62% of the group were affected (some were not seen in the middle of the epidemic so may or may not have been ill). On 3rd December, a juvenile was noted to be coughing during six one-minute observation periods; more individuals were reported coughing by the next day. The group split into small parties by 8th December, stopped long distance travel and ate only a few food types each day. A female with a severe cough stayed in the trees all of one day with her one-year-old daughter, eating only one type of fruit and returning to her nest of the previous night at 14.30 hours; it is possible that her daughter died during the epidemic (not seen since then). Another female first showed signs on 13th December with her four-year-old son showing signs on 17th, the same day that she was observed with a dead newborn infant. She carried the infant's corpse for two days, showed signs of recovery on 22nd December and returned to the group the following day. No clinical signs were seen in the group after 24th December. (N40.16.w1)
    • During the 2003 epidemic there was no similar epidemic in humans in the nearby village. In 2008, several villagers had flu-like illness in November and December; some goats and one duck were also seen coughing in December. Disease in the village preceded disease in the bonobos by about a month, and this may represent human to bonobo transmission. (N40.16.w1)

Further information on Host species has only been incorporated for pecies groups for which a full Wildpro "Health and Management" module has been completed (i.e. for which a comprehensive literature review has been undertaken). Host species with further information available are listed below:

Host Species List

(List does not contain all other species groups affected by this disease)

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Disease has been specifically reported in Free-ranging populations of:

  • A flu-like upper respiratory tract disease was seen in free-living bonobos at Wamba, DRC, on two occasions. (N40.16.w1)
    • In 2003, bonobos were seen coughing and had difficulty breathing through the nose. Food consumption was reduced, as was travel distance. The affected bonobos spent a lot of their time lying on the ground. Signs lasted for several days before normal food consumption resumed. The first individual was seen coughing during the last week in October, a second individual was seen coughing on 5th November, most of the group were ill by 7th November and most had recovered by 11th November, with only two still showing signs of disease on 15th November. No deaths occurred. It was noted that there was no respiratory illness in people in the nearby village at this time. (N40.16.w1)
    • During 2007 and 2008, respiratory signs (coughing, sneezing, picking the nose) were seen periodically, with an outbreak in December 2008 during which at least 62% of the group were affected (some were not seen in the middle of the epidemic so may or may not have been ill). On 3rd December, a juvenile was noted to be coughing during six one-minute observation periods; more individuals were reported coughing by the next day. The group split into small parties by 8th December, stopped long distance travel and ate only a few food types each day. A female with a severe cough stayed in the trees all of one day with her one-year-old daughter, eating only one type of fruit and returning to her nest of the previous night at 14.30 hours; it is possible that her daughter died during the epidemic (not seen since then). Another female first showed signs on 13th December with her four-year-old son showing signs on 17th, the same day that she was observed with a dead newborn infant. She carried the infant's corpse for two days, showed signs of recovery on 22nd December and returned to the group the following day. No clinical signs were seen in the group after 24th December. (N40.16.w1)
    • During the 2003 epidemic there was no similar epidemic in humans in the nearby village. In 2008, several villagers had flu-like illness in November and December; some goats and one duck were also seen coughing in December. Disease in the village preceded disease in the bonobos by about a month, and this may represent human to bonobo transmission. (N40.16.w1)

Further information on Host species has only been incorporated for species groups for which a full Wildpro "Health and Management" module has been completed (i.e. for which a comprehensive literature review has been undertaken). Host species with further information available are listed below:

Host Species List

(List does not contain all other species groups affected by this disease)

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Environment/Geography

General Information on Environmental Factors/Events and Seasonality

  • URT infections are particularly common in bonobos in zoos in winter. (J23.20.w2)
  • More common in winter. (P131.w5)

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Regions / Countries where the Infectious Agent or Disease has been recorded

  • In anthropoid apes at Yerkes  Primate Centre, Georgia, USA. (J495.21.w3)
  • Common in bonobos at San Diego Zoo, USA. (J23.20.w2)
  • "Colds" have developed in bonobos at Twycross Zoo, UK, on several occasions. July 2000, June 2002, December 2005-Jan 2006, November 2007, March 2008, July 2009. (R1 - multiple dates)
  • A flu-like upper respiratory tract disease was seen in free-living bonobos at Wamba, DRC, on two occasions. (N40.16.w1)

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Regions / Countries where the Infectious Agent or Disease has been recorded in Free-ranging populations

  • A flu-like upper respiratory tract disease was seen in free-living bonobos at Wamba, DRC, on two occasions (2003 and 2007-2008. (N40.16.w1)
    • In 2003, bonobos were seen coughing and had difficulty breathing through the nose. Food consumption was reduced, as was travel distance. The affected bonobos spent a lot of their time lying on the ground. Signs lasted for several days before normal food consumption resumed. The first individual was seen coughing during the last week in October, a second individual was seen coughing on 5th November, most of the group were ill by 7th November and most had recovered by 11th November, with only two still showing signs of disease on 15th November. No deaths occurred. It was noted that there was no respiratory illness in people in the nearby village at this time. (N40.16.w1)
    • During 2007 and 2008, respiratory signs (coughing, sneezing, picking the nose) were seen periodically, with an outbreak in December 2008 during which at least 62% of the group were affected (some were not seen in the middle of the epidemic so may or may not have been ill). On 3rd December, a juvenile was noted to be coughing during six one-minute observation periods; more individuals were reported coughing by the next day. The group split into small parties by 8th December, stopped long distance travel and ate only a few food types each day. A female with a severe cough stayed in the trees all of one day with her one-year-old daughter, eating only one type of fruit and returning to her nest of the previous night at 14.30 hours; it is possible that her daughter died during the epidemic (not seen since then). Another female first showed signs on 13th December with her four-year-old son showing signs on 17th, the same day that she was observed with a dead newborn infant. She carried the infant's corpse for two days, showed signs of recovery on 22nd December and returned to the group the following day. No clinical signs were seen in the group after 24th December. (N40.16.w1)
    • During the 2003 epidemic there was no similar epidemic in humans in the nearby village. In 2008, several villagers had flu-like illness in November and December; some goats and one duck were also seen coughing in December. Disease in the village preceded disease in the bonobos by about a month, and this may represent human to bonobo transmission. (N40.16.w1)

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General Investigation / Diagnosis

General Information on Investigation / Diagnosis

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Bonobos
  • Usually diagnosed on the basis of clinical signs. Identification of the causative organism generally is not attempted. (P131.w3)
  • The Diagnostic Working Group at a meeting on severe respiratory disease in bonobos suggested that a variety of tests could be used to improve diagnosis including: (P131.w9)
    • Routine haematology and biochemistry for general health assessment.
    • Increased use of serological samples, including serial samples from sick animals (preferably three samples taken in early illness, while more severe signs are present, then after disease resolution.
    • Serum electrophoresis to assess the presence of inflammation. Possibly testing for specific substances such as C reactive protein and interleukins (? useful for assessing inflammation).
    • IFA on conjunctival swabs for detection of measles (if clinical cases develop while this is present in the local community).
    • IFA and direct swab for adenovirus in clinically ill bonobos.
    • Radiography
      • Standard procedures should be used for evaluation of anaesthetised individuals.
      • If possible, training should be used to enable radiography of conscious, unrestrained individuals.
    • Observation of respiratory rate, and (via spirometer) effort
    • Observation and recording of clinical signs with a detailed sheet (e.g. cough, and whether this is productive or dry; hanging lip;  nasal discharge (including colour, intensity, consistency and amount; general activity/lethargy; appetite; breathing character (e.g. slow or rapid, shallow, laboured).
    • Additional data could be collected by adding to routine surveillance:
      • Tracheal wash during routine examinations, looking at cytology and culturing to find what bacteria are present; examining the pharyngeal and lingual tonsils (consider photodocumentation).
      • At necropsy, collect swabs from the upper respiratory tract for bacterial culture (including for Haemophilus and mycoplasmas), freeze sections of lung, tonsil and nasal chambers, take a deep pharyngeal scrape for rhinoprobe, consider immunostaining for viruses, if available, describe the anatomy of the air sacs, and bank serum. 

    (P131.w9)

  • Respiratory failure  is indicated by tachypnoea, increased respiratory effort, increasing hypoxia (SPO2 < 85%), hypercapnia and shock. (P131.w11)

Related Techniques
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Similar Diseases (Differential Diagnosis)

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Bonobos For specific causes of respiratory infections see also:

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Treatment and Control

Specific Medical Treatment

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Bonobos
  • For Influenza A or B, Tamiflu (Oseltamir) may be given, 75 mg orally twice daily for five days, starting within 48 hours of the onset of clinical signs. (P131.w11)
  • Antibiotics may be given when bacterial infection is suspected or clinical disease is severe. (P131.w4)
  • Antibiotics should be given when illness progresses as indicated by lethargy, increased respiratory rate, increased respiratory effort, open-mouth breathing (seen as lip droop), reduced appetite, nose picking, raspy breathing, productive cough, fever (sweating) or measured increased temperature. (P131.w11)
    • Azithromycin is a first choice because it can be given orally, only needs to be given once daily, for five days, and is very effective. Usually a loading dose is given on the first day, then half this dose on each of the following four days; therefore in bonobos under four years of age, 12 mg/kg on the first day, then 6 mg/kg on the following four days; for adults, 400 mg per bonobo as a single dose on the first day, then 250 mg per bonobo. (P131.w11)
    • If the bonobo has to be immobilised, Ceftriaxone can be given parenterally, followed by daily azithromycin orally. (P131.w11)
    • If the bonobo does not take oral medication (poor compliance), parenteral antibiotics should be given (ceftriaxone). (P131.w11)
    • Ceftriaxone can also be given if the bonobo accepts daily injections or can be restrained daily in a squeeze cage. Note: 20 mg of 2% Lidocaine (Lignocaine) (1 mL) should be added to the injection to reduce the pain of the injection. (P131.w11)
    • Alternative (second line) antibiotics include fluoroquinolones, cephalosporins (e.g. Keflex (Cephalexin)), but this needs to be given three times daily, or third generation oral cephalosporins e.g. Omnicef (cefdinir), and penicillins or augmented penicillins. (P131.w11)
    • Change the antibiotic if there is no improvement or worsening of signs within 48 hours of the onset of antibiotic treatment. Parenteral ceftriaxone is suggested for such cases.
    • Monitor for secondary fungal infections such as thrush (Candidiasis) in bonobos receiving antibiotic treatment and treat as required. (P131.w11)
Related Techniques

 

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General Nursing and Surgical Techniques

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Bonobos
  • Symptomatic treatment may include:
    • Oral fluids, preferably with drinks including electrolytes (e.g. oral rehdration fluids or sports drinks); also offer oranges (which provide fluid and electrolytes). (P131.w4, P131.w11)
    • NSAIDs such as  ibuprofen, or paracetamol (acetaminophen), (P131.w4, P131.w11)
      • GIT upset and renal side effects may occur with NSAIDs, therefor paracetamol may be preferably, particularly in poorly hydrated individuals. (P131.w11)
    • Expectorants (e.g. guaifenesin), antitussives (e.g. dextromorphan), decongestants (e.g. pseudoephedrine). (P131.w4)
      • Decongestants are recommended. (P131.w11) Note: although over-the-counter decongestants generally are safe, there is the possible side  effect of hypertension. (P131.w11)
      • Expectorants such as guaifenesin appear to be safe for use in bonobos. (P131.w11)
      • Cough suppressants generally are not recommended due to the risk of reducing clearance of respiratory secretions if the cough reflex is suppressed. They may have a use in some individuals with no other clinical signs of respiratory disease (e.g. bright, alert and active, good appetite, no increased respiratory effort) if the individual has a protracted cough. (P131.w11)  
    • Bronchodilators (e.g. albutarol/salbutarol). (P131.w4)
      • These can be useful. Albuterol can be given as the paediatric elixir. Note the potential side-effects of hypokalaemia, cardiac arrhythmias and tachycardia. (P131.w11)
      • If the individual has been trained to accept it, a small volume nebulizer can be used. (P131.w11)
    • Waking the bonobos during the night to encourage movement and avoid build-up of fluid congestion has been used in periods of severe illness. (P131.w4)
      • This may be a useful alternative to chest percussion therapy for adult bonobos. In young bonobos it may be possible to actually use chest percussion therapy to encourage movement of respiratory secretions. (P131.w11)
    • Oxygen, in hospitalised patients with oxygen aturation below 85%. Bonobos up to two years of age may be placed into an appropriate intensive care cage which is designed to provide oxygen, (if necessary inside a smaller cage within this). In some individuals an oxygen mask may be held to the face. It might be possible to train some individuals to accept a supplemental oxygen nasal tube. (P131.w11)
    • Steroids are not useful during the acute infection but may be useful during convalescence in individuals showing signs of reactive airway disease, asthma, lower pulmonary obstructive disease or supraglottid/periglottid obstruction. (P131.w11)
  • Note: provision of oral medication is more difficult or impractical in juveniles which do not routinely accept food items from keepers, and in individuals with anorexia due to the illness. Hand-injection or darting may be required for medication in such individuals. (P131.w4)
  • Note: Severely ill infants may be need to be removed from the group temporarily for treatment such as sedation, intravenous antibiotics and nebulisation for several days before being returned to their mothers. (P131.w3)
  • Note: In the event of a neonate aspiring meconium during parturition, an oxygen-enriched environment is required. (B23.50.w50)
  • Consider the possibility of concomitant respiratory infections such as Strongyloides sp. Infection in Bonobos or nasal/lung mites (Lung Mites in Bonobos) and treat such infections. (P131.w11)
Management of respiratory failure
  • Respiratory failure  is indicated by tachypnoea, increased respiratory effort, increasing hypoxia (SPO2 < 85%), hypercapnia and shock. (P131.w11)
  • Intravenous fluids, oxygen and continuous positive pressure ventilation (often requires induced paralysis) are used for treatment. (P131.w11)
  • Advice and support from a human medical expert such as a consultant paediatric intensive care physician is beneficial. (P131.w11)
  • Twenty four hour supportive care is required for affected individuals, with point-of-care monitoring equipment (e.g. clinical pathology analysers, capnography, radiography) and appropriate equipment for precise treatment, such as a respiratory ventilator, intravenous catheters and infusion pumps. (P131.w11)
Related Techniques
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Preventative Measures

Vaccination --
Bonobos Bonobos can be vaccinated against some of the organisms known to be associated with severe respiratory disease in bonobos, including:

Note: it is useful if the bonobos have been trained to accept hand injections. (P131.w4)

Prophylactic Treatment

--

Bonobos
  • For bonobos exposed to influenza A or B, Tamiflu (Oseltamir) may be given, 75 mg orally once daily for ten days, starting within 48 hours of exposure to the virus. (P131.w11)
  • Monoclonal antibody against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) [Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Great Apes)] could be given prophylactically to very high risk neonates in appropriate circumstances. (P131.w11)
Related Techniques
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Environmental and Population Control Measures

General Environment Changes, Cleaning and Disinfection --

Bonobos

  • It has been suggested that air quality and sanitation may affect the occurrence of respiratory disease in bonobos; this should be addressed. (P131.w4)
  • Indoor areas should be climate controlled with 15 air changes per hour, HEPA filter and temperature and humidity control. (P131.w10)
Population Control Measures --
Bonobos
  • High population density may facilitate infection; maintenance of bonobos at lower population densities may be advantageous. (P131.w4)
  • At San Diego Wild Animal Park, there was no pattern of increased respiratory disease at higher population density. (P131.w5)
Isolation, Quarantine and Screening --
Bonobos
  • Human caretakers working with bononbos should be vaccinated against influenza. 
  • Human caretakers with upper respiratory tract infections ideally should not work with bonobos, or should wear a facemask and gloves while unwell. (P131.w3)
    • Wearing a face mask while working protects both the bonobos and the caretaker from respiratory disease agent transmission. (P131.w7)
    • Gloves in  various sizes should be easily accessible to caretakers. (P131.w10)
  • Preferably, facilities should allow individual sick bonobos to be separated and ideally have separate air flow. (P131.w10)
Related Techniques
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