Diseases / List of Miscellaneous / Metabolic / Multifactorial Diseases / Disease description:

Starveout in Waterfowl

INFORMATION AVAILABLE

GENERAL INFORMATION

CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS & PATHOLOGY

INVESTIGATION & DIAGNOSIS

TREATMENT & CONTROL

SUSCEPTIBILITY & TRANSMISSION

ENVIRONMENT & GEOGRAPHY

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General and References

Disease Summary

WATERFOWL Deaths in neonates which have never fed properly and have used up all fat stores.

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Alternative Names (Synonyms)

  • Starve out, starve-out
  • Starvation of downies

See also: Starvation, Caloric Exhaustion.

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Disease Type

 Miscellaneous / Metabolic / Multifactorial

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Infectious/Non-Infectious Agent associated with the Disease

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Infective "Taxa"

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Non-infective agents

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Physical agents

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References

Disease Author

Debra Bourne
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Major References / Reviews

Code and Title List

B10.26.w2, B11.40.w8, B13.46.w1, B37.x.w1, B40
J23.13.w3, J23.13.w4

Other References

Code and Title List

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Clinical Characteristics and Pathology

Detailed Clinical and Pathological Characteristics

General

WATERFOWL Death usually in second week of life, with empty gastrointestinal tract.

Clinical Characteristics

WATERFOWL Deaths at 7-14 days old (B10.26.w2, B11.40.w8, B13.46.w1, B37.x.w1).

Incubation

WATERFOWL --

Mortality / Morbidity

WATERFOWL Relatively common in artificially reared waterfowl (B37.x.w1).

Pathology

WATERFOWL Gastro-intestinal tract empty and contracted, liver small and yellow, gall bladder distended, fat stores absent. (B13.46.w1, B37.x.w1, B139).

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Human Health Considerations

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Susceptibility / Transmission

General information on Susceptibility / Transmission

WATERFOWL Problem of neonates. Cygnets may be particularly susceptible, as may ducklings of species which normally consume mainly live food, e.g. smew, bufflehead, scoters (Melanitta spp, mergansers, harlequin ducks Histrionicus histrionicus and downies being reared alone rather than in a group (J23.13.w3, J23.13.w4, B10.26.w2, B37.x.w1)

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Disease has been reported in either the wild or in captivity in:

[N.B. Miscellaneous / Traumatic Diseases tend to be under-reported and the majority are likely to affect all waterfowl species, given exposure to the related disease agents/factors.]

Host Species List

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Disease has been specifically reported in Free-ranging populations of:

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Host Species List

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Environment/Geography

General Information on Environmental Factors/Events and Seasonality

  • May be more common in waterfowl kept in intensive rather than extensive management systems (B18).
  • Lack of factors stimulating feeding, such as yellow or green colours, moving food, companions pecking at food or in tree-hole breeding species, the stimulus of falling from the nest may all be important (B10.26.w2, B11.40.w1, B13.46.w1).

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Regions / Countries where the Infectious Agent or Disease has been recorded

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Regions / Countries where the Infectious Agent or Disease has been recorded in Free-ranging populations

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General Investigation / Diagnosis

General Information on Investigation / Diagnosis

WATERFOWL Age at death, post mortem examination findings: lack of signs indicating other disease, gastro-intestinal tract empty and contracted, liver small and yellow, gall bladder distended, fat stores absent. (B13.46.w1).
Related Techniques
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Similar Diseases (Differential Diagnosis)

WATERFOWL See also: Starvation, Caloric Exhaustion.

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Treatment and Control

Specific Medical Treatment

WATERFOWL --
Related Techniques

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General Nursing and Surgical Techniques

WATERFOWL
  • Encourage feeding: provide food which will stimulating feeding behaviour, e.g. food floating on water, greens and hard-boiled egg on food, food in 'worm' shapes, live food such as mealworms (particularly for species which would normally take mainly live food, e.g. smew Mergellus albellus, scoters Melanitta spp., mergansers, bufflehead Bucephala albeola), water dripping into bowl, crumbs sprinkled on downies backs (will preen crumbs off each other). Ensure dry food is placed near water.
  • Provide an actively-feeding juvenile, such as a mallard duckling Anas platyrhynchos, as a companion, particularly for downies of species known to be at risk, such as scoters Melanitta spp., harlequins Histrionicus histrionicus, long-tailed ducks Clangula hyemalis.
  • For tree-hole breeding species (e.g. mandarin ducks Aix galericulata, wood ducks Aix sponsa), toss lightly into the air and allow to fall to the ground to simulate falling from the nest.

(J23.13.w3, J23.13.w4, B10.26.w2, B13.46.w1, B37.x.w1, B40).

  • Force feeding should be used only if no method of encouragement is effective. Small volumes must be given (J23.13.w4).
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Preventative Measures

Vaccination WATERFOWL --
Prophylactic Treatment

WATERFOWL

  • Encourage feeding: provide food which will stimulating feeding behaviour, e.g. food floating on water, greens and hard-boiled egg, food in 'worm' shapes, live food (particularly for species which would normally take mainly live food, e.g. smew Mergellus albellus, scoters Melanitta spp., mergansers, bufflehead Bucephala albeola), 'slurry' of food for filter-feeders, small seeds floating on water. Ensure dry food is placed near water for easy dabbling.
  • Provide an actively-feeding juvenile, such as a mallard duckling Anas platyrhynchos, as a companion for downies of species known to be at risk, such as scoters Melanitta spp., harlequins Histrionicus histrionicus, long-tailed ducks Clangula hyemalis.
  • For tree-hole breeding species (e.g. mandarin ducks Aix galericulata, wood ducks Aix sponsa), toss lightly into the air and allow to fall to the ground to simulate falling from the nest.

(J23.13.w3, J23.13.w4, B10.26.w2, B13.46.w1).

Related Techniques
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Environmental and Population Control Measures

General Environment Changes, Cleaning and Disinfection

WATERFOWL

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Population Control Measures WATERFOWL --
Isolation, Quarantine and Screening WATERFOWL --
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