Diseases / List of Miscellaneous / Metabolic / Multifactorial Diseases / Disease description:

Perosis in Waterfowl

INFORMATION AVAILABLE

GENERAL INFORMATION

CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS & PATHOLOGY

INVESTIGATION & DIAGNOSIS

TREATMENT & CONTROL

SUSCEPTIBILITY & TRANSMISSION

ENVIRONMENT & GEOGRAPHY

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General and References

Disease Summary

WATERFOWL Leg deformity, particularly luxation of the Achilles (gastrocnemius) tendon, associated with manganese deficiency, choline deficiency, possibly other vitamin deficiencies and excess protein.

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Alternative Names (Synonyms)

  • Slipped tendon, slipped hock

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Disease Type

 Miscellaneous / Metabolic / Multifactorial

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Infectious/Non-Infectious Agent associated with the Disease

Manganese deficiency (can be associated with excess calcium supplementation), possibly various vitamin deficiencies (choline, nicotinic acid, pyridoxine, biotin, folic acid) as in poultry chicks and turkey poults, excess protein, too rapid growth (B13.46.w1, B14, B32.2.w23, P4.1992.w1)

Infective "Taxa"

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Non-infective agents

Physical agents

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References

Disease Author

Debra Bourne
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Major References / Reviews

Code and Title List

B12.42.w5, B13.46.w1, B14, B16.19.w1, B32.2.w23, B35.13.w5, B37.x.w1, B109
P4.1992.w1

Other References

Code and Title List

J7.S1.w4

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Clinical Characteristics and Pathology

Detailed Clinical and Pathological Characteristics

General

WATERFOWL Leg deformity, particularly luxation of the Achilles (gastrocnemius) tendon, with severe lameness/non-weight bearing.

Clinical Characteristics

WATERFOWL
  • Hock (tibiometatarsal joint) enlargement, marked agular limb deformity, with bending deformities or lateral rotation of tibiotarsus distally and tarso-metatarsus proximally, and finally luxation (usually medially) of the gastrocnemius (Achilles) tendon, leading to severe lameness and inability to bear weight on affected leg.
  • May be seen as either a unilateral or bilateral problem.

(B12.42.w5, B13.46.w1, B14, B16.19.w1, B32.2.w23).

Incubation

WATERFOWL Variable. Produced in 2-10 weeks by feeding manganese-deficient diet (B13.46.w1, B16.19.w1)

Mortality / Morbidity

WATERFOWL Euthanasia may be necessary if the condition cannot be corrected.

Pathology

WATERFOWL Luxation of gastrocnemius tendon out of trochlear groove. Bending deformity or lateral rotation of tibiotarsus distally and tarso-metatarsus proximally (B14, B32.2.w23).

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Human Health Considerations

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Susceptibility / Transmission

General information on Susceptibility / Transmission

WATERFOWL Temperate and tropical species with naturally relatively slow growth rates may be more susceptible.

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Disease has been reported in either the wild or in captivity in:

[N.B. Miscellaneous / Traumatic Diseases tend to be under-reported and the majority are likely to affect all waterfowl species, given exposure to the related disease agents/factors.]
  • Trumpeter swan Cygnus buccinator cygnets in Minnesota, USA (J7.S1.w4).
  • Canada goose Branta canadensis (B35.13.w5).

Host Species List

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Disease has been specifically reported in Free-ranging populations of:

  • Canada goose Branta canadensis (B35.13.w5).

Host Species List

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Environment/Geography

General Information on Environmental Factors/Events and Seasonality

-

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Regions / Countries where the Infectious Agent or Disease has been recorded

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Regions / Countries where the Infectious Agent or Disease has been recorded in Free-ranging populations

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General Investigation / Diagnosis

General Information on Investigation / Diagnosis

WATERFOWL Diagnosed on clinical signs and physical examination.
Related Techniques
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Similar Diseases (Differential Diagnosis)

WATERFOWL Splay leg: whole leg deviating rather than at hock (Splay Leg). Bowed leg (rickets) / long bone deformity not tendon displacement (Calcium / Phosphorus / Vitamin D Imbalance).

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Treatment and Control

Specific Medical Treatment

WATERFOWL --
Related Techniques

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General Nursing and Surgical Techniques

WATERFOWL
  • Strapping and splinting may be useful in early cases. A figure-of-eight bandage may be used around the hock to provide support and stabilisation in very young birds and splints in older birds (P4.1992.w1, B12.42.w5).
  • Swimming exercise and restricted diet may be useful in the early stages (B37.x.w1).
  • Dietary correction, ensuring sufficient choline and manganese should be ensured (B109).

Surgical correction:

Related Techniques
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Preventative Measures

Vaccination WATERFOWL --
Prophylactic Treatment

WATERFOWL

Ensure correct diet with sufficient manganese and choline, not too high protein, and adequate exercise (B13.46.w1, B37.x.w1, B109, P4.1992.w1).
Related Techniques

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Environmental and Population Control Measures

General Environment Changes, Cleaning and Disinfection

WATERFOWL

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Population Control Measures WATERFOWL --
Isolation, Quarantine and Screening WATERFOWL --
Related Techniques

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